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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680426/willis-ekbom-disease-restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-with-opioid-withdrawal
#1
Ravi Gupta, Ramjan Ali, Rajat Ray
INTRODUCTION: Many patients with opioid use disorder report symptoms similar to restless legs syndrome (RLS) during withdrawal. However, whether these symptoms are true RLS, their predictors and effect of treatment with pregabalin are still unknown. METHOD: A total of 19 consecutive patients with opioid use disorder who were admitted for detoxification were included in this study after obtaining informed consent. Information regarding addiction was noted, and they were screened for RLS every morning and evening...
May 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627297/neuropharmacological-effects-of-essential-oil-from-the-leaves-of-croton-conduplicatus-kunth-and-possible-mechanisms-of-action-involved
#2
Raimundo Gonçalves de Oliveira Júnior, Christiane Adrielly Alves Ferraz, Juliane Cabral Silva, Roxana Braga de Andrade Teles, Mariana Gama E Silva, Tâmara Coimbra Diniz, Uiliane Soares Dos Santos, Ana Valéria Vieira de Souza, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Nunes, Marcos José Salvador, Vitor Prates Lorenzo, Lucindo José Quintans Junior, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Croton conduplicatus Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) is a Brazilian aromatic medicinal plant, widely known as "quebra-faca". In folk medicine, its leaves and stem-barks are used as a natural analgesic for the treatment of headaches. AIM OF THE STUDY: In this study, we describe for the first time the neuropharmacological potential of the essential oil obtained from the leaves of Croton conduplicatus (EO) in experimental models of pain, anxiety and insomnia...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29572653/delta-mu-opioid-receptor-interactions-in-operant-conditioning-assays-of-pain-depressed-responding-and-drug-induced-rate-suppression-assessment-of-therapeutic-index-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#3
Katherine Cone, Janell Lanpher, Abigail Kinens, Philomena Richard, Sarah Couture, Rebecca Brackin, Emily Payne, Kylee Harrington, Kenner C Rice, Glenn W Stevenson
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Although delta/mu receptor interactions vary as a function of behavioral endpoint, there have been no assessments of these interactions using assays of pain-depressed responding. This is the first report of delta/mu interactions using an assay of pain-depressed behavior. METHODS: A mult-cycle FR10 operant schedule was utilized in the presence of (nociception) and in the absence of (rate suppression) a lactic acid inflammatory pain-like manipulation...
March 23, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568783/kratom-an-emerging-drug-of-abuse-raises-prolactin-and-causes-secondary-hypogonadism-case-report
#4
Lauren LaBryer, Rohan Sharma, Kaustubh Suresh Chaudhari, Mitali Talsania, Robert Hal Scofield
Background. Kratom is a drug derived from the leaves of the tree Mitragyna speciose , which is native to southern Thailand. The route of administration is oral. Kratom has become increasingly available in the United States. The active ingredients in the drug bind the opioid mu-receptor; therefore, kratom has similar physiological effects as mu-opioids. Elevated prolactin is a common medical condition frequently caused by a variety drugs, including opioids. Case Report. A 42-year-old man presented with poor energy and low libido...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556136/secondary-metabolites-isolated-from-pinus-roxburghii-and-interpretation-of-their-cannabinoid-and-opioid-binding-properties-by-virtual-screening-and-in-vitro-studies
#5
Rola M Labib, Radhakrishnan Srivedavyasasri, Fadia S Youssef, Samir A Ross
Pinus roxburghii is highly popular as a potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent; however its exact mechanism of action was not fully elucidated. We aimed to interpret the analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity of the total ethanol extract of Pinus roxburghii bark (PRE) and its isolated compounds by both in silico molecular modelling and in-vitro cannabinoid and opioid binding activities evaluation for the first time. Comprehensive phytochemical investigation of PRE resulted in the isolation of sixteen compounds that were fully elucidated using1 H NMR and13 C NMR...
March 2018: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196181/cyclopeptide-dmt-d-lys-p-cf-3-phe-phe-asp-nh-2-a-novel-g-protein-biased-agonist-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor
#6
Justyna Piekielna-Ciesielska, Federica Ferrari, Girolamo Calo', Anna Janecka
Opioid peptides and alkaloid drugs such as morphine, mediate their analgesic effects, but also undesired side effects, mostly through activation of the mu opioid receptor which belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family. A new important pharmacological concept in the field of GPCRs is biased agonism. Two mu receptor ligands, Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-Phe-Asp]NH2 (C-36) and Dmt-c[D-Lys-Phe-p-CF3 -Phe-Asp]NH2 (F-81), were evaluated in terms of their ability to promote or block mu receptor/G protein and mu receptor/β-arrestin interactions...
March 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150865/enhanced-mu-opioid-receptor-dependent-opioidergic-modulation-of-striatal-cholinergic-transmission-in-dyt1-dystonia
#7
Giulia Ponterio, Annalisa Tassone, Giuseppe Sciamanna, Valentina Vanni, Maria Meringolo, Massimo Santoro, Nicola Biagio Mercuri, Paola Bonsi, Antonio Pisani
BACKGROUND: Mu opioid receptor activation modulates acetylcholine release in the dorsal striatum, an area deeply involved in motor function, habit formation, and reinforcement learning as well as in the pathophysiology of different movement disorders, such as dystonia. Although the role of opioids in drug reward and addiction is well established, their involvement in motor dysfunction remains largely unexplored. METHODS: We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the responses to mu activation in 2 mouse models of DYT1 dystonia (Tor1a(+/Δgag) mice, Tor1a(+/-) torsinA null mice, and their respective wild-types)...
November 18, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091330/multicentre-observational-study-of-gastrointestinal-recovery-after-elective-colorectal-surgery
#8
(no author information available yet)
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative ileus (POI) is characterised by delayed gastrointestinal recovery and is common after colorectal surgery. Numerous strategies to optimise POI have been proposed but its management remains unclear. This study aimed to characterise the duration and management of gastrointestinal recovery in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery. METHODS: A snapshot, prospective, observational study was undertaken between November 2016 and January 2017 at 10 regional hospitals in the United Kingdom...
November 1, 2017: Colorectal Disease: the Official Journal of the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038479/probing-ligand-recognition-of-the-opioid-pan-antagonist-at-076-at-nociceptin-kappa-mu-and-delta-opioid-receptors-through-structure-activity-relationships
#9
V Blair Journigan, Willma E Polgar, Edward W Tuan, James Lu, Pankaj R Daga, Nurulain T Zaveri
Few opioid ligands binding to the three classic opioid receptor subtypes, mu, kappa and delta, have high affinity at the fourth opioid receptor, the nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor (NOP). We recently reported the discovery of AT-076 (1), (R)-7-hydroxy-N-((S)-1-(4-(3-hydroxyphenyl)piperidin-1-yl)-3-methylbutan-2-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxamide, a pan antagonist with nanomolar affinity for all four subtypes. Since AT-076 binds with high affinity at all four subtypes, we conducted a structure-activity relationship (SAR) study to probe ligand recognition features important for pan opioid receptor activity, using chemical modifications of key pharmacophoric groups...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930612/genetic-addiction-risk-score-gars-%C3%A2-a-predictor-of-vulnerability-to-opioid-dependence
#10
Kenneth Blum, Amanda L C Chen, Panayotis K Thanos, Marcelo Febo, Zsolt Demetrovics, Kristina Dushaj, Abraham Kovoor, David Baron, David E Smith, Alphonso Kenison Roy, Lyle Fried, Thomas J H Chen, Edwin Chapman, Edward J Modestino, Bruce Steinberg, Rajendra D Badgaiyan
The interaction of neurotransmitters and genes that control the release of dopamine is the Brain Reward Cascade (BRC). Variations within the BRC, whether genetic or epigenetic, may predispose individuals to addictive behaviors and altered pain tolerance. This discussion authored by a group of concerned scientists and clinicians examines the Genetic Addiction Risk Score (GARS), the first test to accurately predict vulnerability to pain, addiction, and other compulsive behaviors, defined as Reward Deficiency Syndrome (RDS)...
January 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Elite Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488261/use-of-tramadol-in-psychiatric-care-a-comprehensive-review-and-report-of-two-cases
#11
Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Franziska Gamma, Jaak Panksepp
Tramadol is widely prescribed for treating acute and chronic forms of pain. It is a weak mu-receptor opioid agonist and also increases concentrations of serotonin and noradrenaline within the limbic system of the brain. The therapeutic range of tramadol is relatively wide. Compared with other opioid agonists, there is little risk for developing tolerance and for abuse. Recent models of depression emphasise the subjective experience of a depressive mood as being, in part, a psychologically painful state. It is well established that psychological stress due to social separation/loss, disruption or be-trayal of pre-existent significant interpersonal bonds is mediated by the activation of the mammalian PANIC (separation-distress) system...
May 10, 2017: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455226/the-effect-of-selective-opioid-receptor-agonists-and-antagonists-on-epileptiform-activity-in-morphine-dependent-infant-mice-hippocampal-slices
#12
Yousef Panahi, Ehsan Saboory, Ali Rassouli, Goudarz Sadeghi-Hashjin, Shiva Roshan-Milani, Leila Derafshpour, Yousef Rasmi
Hippocampal slices of mouse brain were used to estimate how selective agonist and antagonist of opioid receptors alter Low-Mg(+2) artificial cerebrospinal fluid (LM-ACSF)-induced epileptiform activities in normal and morphine-dependent mice. Brain slices were obtained from control and morphine-dependent mice. The morphine-dependent group received morphine once a day for 5 consecutive days, and the control group received saline. All injections were administered subcutaneously (s.c) in a volume of 0.1mL on postnatal days 14-18...
August 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414967/pharmacodynamics-of-remifentanil-induced-intracranial-spike-activity-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#13
Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Hans Hogenhaven, Andrea P Lee, Flemming Find Madsen, Bo Jespersen, Jannick Brennum, Lennart Derm, Finn Borgbjerg Moltke
Patients with medically refractory epilepsy may benefit from resective epilepsy surgery. However even the best centers experience surgical failures. It is therefore important to find techniques that may aid in neurosurgical planning of epileptic focus resection. Recordings of electrical brain activity with EEG during seizures reveal abnormal cortical hypersynchronization. Between seizures the EEG often shows interictal depolarizing phenomena such as spikes reflecting an irritable focus of the brain. In the present study we investigated the effect of intravenous remifentanil on the spike activity in the temporal neocortex and hippocampus...
March 31, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343361/genetic-dissociation-of-morphine-analgesia-from-hyperalgesia-in-mice
#14
Gina F Marrone, Valerie Le Rouzic, Andras Varadi, Jin Xu, Anjali M Rajadhyaksha, Susruta Majumdar, Ying-Xian Pan, Gavril W Pasternak
RATIONALE: Morphine is the prototypic mu opioid, producing its analgesic actions through traditional 7 transmembrane domain (7TM) G-protein-coupled receptors generated by the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1). However, the Oprm1 gene undergoes extensive alternative splicing to yield three structurally distinct sets of splice variants. In addition to the full-length 7TM receptors, it produces a set of truncated variants comprised of only 6 transmembrane domains (6TM). OBJECTIVES: This study explored the relative contributions of 7TM and 6TM variants in a range of morphine actions...
June 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116100/pharmacological-characterization-of-cebranopadol-a-novel-analgesic-acting-as-mixed-nociceptin-orphanin-fq-and-opioid-receptor-agonist
#15
Anna Rizzi, Maria Camilla Cerlesi, Chiara Ruzza, Davide Malfacini, Federica Ferrari, Sara Bianco, Tommaso Costa, Remo Guerrini, Claudio Trapella, Girolamo Calo'
The aim of the study was to investigate the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological profile of cebranopadol, a novel agonist for opioid and nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptors (NOP). In vitro cebranopadol was assayed in calcium mobilization studies in cells coexpressing NOP or opioid receptors and chimeric G-proteins and in a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) assay for studying receptor interaction with G-protein and β-arrestin 2. The mouse tail withdrawal and formalin tests were used for investigating cebranopadol antinociceptive properties...
August 2016: Pharmacology Research & Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#16
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903758/oprm1-and-comt-gene-gene-interaction-is-associated-with-postoperative-pain-and-opioid-consumption-after-orthopedic-trauma
#17
Heba Khalil, Susan M Sereika, Feng Dai, Sheila Alexander, Yvette Conley, Gary Gruen, Li Meng, Peter Siska, Ivan Tarkin, Richard Henker
BACKGROUND: mu-opioid receptor ( OPRM1) and catechol-O-methyltransferase ( COMT) contribute to the neurotransmission pathway of pain. COMT affects mu receptor expression and density in the brain. The aim of this study was to explore the OPRM1 and COMT interaction effects on postoperative pain and opioid consumption. METHODS: This cross-sectional exploratory study used genotype and clinical data from 153 postoperative patients. Using multiple regression analyses, four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of COMT (rs6269, rs4633, rs4818, and rs4680), their haplotypes, and diplotypes were considered for their interactions with A118G of OPRM1 regarding postoperative pain and opioid consumption...
March 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736284/continuous-perioperative-sublingual-buprenorphine
#18
Marcelina Jasmine Silva, Andrea Rubinstein
Buprenorphine, a semisynthetic thebaine derivative, is a unique opioid, as it has activity at multiple receptors, including mu (partial agonist), kappa (antagonist), OLR-1 (agonist), and delta (antagonist). Because buprenorphine's pharmacology is relatively complex, misconceptions about its actions are common. Most other opioids act solely or predominately as full mu receptor agonists. Common practice at many institutions calls for the cessation of regular buprenorphine use 48-72 hours prior to surgery. This practice is based on three foundational theories that have come from scant data about the properties of buprenorphine: (1) that buprenorphine is only a partial mu agonist and therefore is not a potent analgesic; (2) because buprenorphine has a ceiling effect on respiratory depression, it also has a ceiling effect on analgesia; and (3) that buprenorphine acts as a "blockade" to the analgesic effects of other opiates when coadministered due to its strong binding affinity...
December 2016: Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27671662/deletion-of-the-mu-opioid-receptor-gene-in-mice-reshapes-the-reward-aversion-connectome
#19
Anna E Mechling, Tanzil Arefin, Hsu-Lei Lee, Thomas Bienert, Marco Reisert, Sami Ben Hamida, Emmanuel Darcq, Aliza Ehrlich, Claire Gaveriaux-Ruff, Maxime J Parent, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Jürgen Hennig, Dominik von Elverfeldt, Brigitte Lina Kieffer, Laura-Adela Harsan
Connectome genetics seeks to uncover how genetic factors shape brain functional connectivity; however, the causal impact of a single gene's activity on whole-brain networks remains unknown. We tested whether the sole targeted deletion of the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1) alters the brain connectome in living mice. Hypothesis-free analysis of combined resting-state fMRI diffusion tractography showed pronounced modifications of functional connectivity with only minor changes in structural pathways. Fine-grained resting-state fMRI mapping, graph theory, and intergroup comparison revealed Oprm1-specific hubs and captured a unique Oprm1 gene-to-network signature...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27223691/mediation-of-buprenorphine-analgesia-by-a-combination-of-traditional-and-truncated-mu-opioid-receptor-splice-variants
#20
Steven G Grinnell, Michael Ansonoff, Gina F Marrone, Zhigang Lu, Ankita Narayan, Jin Xu, Grace Rossi, Susruta Majumdar, Ying-Xian Pan, Daniel L Bassoni, John Pintar, Gavril W Pasternak
Buprenorphine has long been classified as a mu analgesic, although its high affinity for other opioid receptor classes and the orphanin FQ/nociceptin ORL1 receptor may contribute to its other actions. The current studies confirmed a mu mechanism for buprenorphine analgesia, implicating several subsets of mu receptor splice variants. Buprenorphine analgesia depended on the expression of both exon 1-associated traditional full length 7 transmembrane (7TM) and exon 11-associated truncated 6 transmembrane (6TM) MOR-1 variants...
October 2016: Synapse
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