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Native American pigment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799431/virtuous-colours-for-mary-identification-of-lapis-lazuli-smalt-and-cochineal-in-the-andean-colonial-image-of-our-lady-of-copacabana-bolivia
#1
Eugenia P Tomasini, Fernando Marte, Valeria P Careaga, Carlos Rúa Landa, Gabriela Siracusano, Marta S Maier
The image of Our Lady of Copacabana, a gilded polychrome sculpture carved in maguey wood in 1583, is one of the most important devotions in the Americas. In former research, we have identified the use of gypsum, Armenian bole, cerussite and atacamite in its polychromy. In this study, a red sample taken from the Virgin's tunic and a blue sample extracted from the cloak have been analysed with the aim to identify both pigments and offer insights into the painting technique. Analysis by micro-Raman spectroscopy complemented with scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography allowed the identification of carmine lake in the red sample...
December 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26538774/lipoprotein-a-with-an-intact-lysine-binding-site-protects-the-retina-from-an-age-related-macular-degeneration-phenotype-in-mice-an-american-ophthalmological-society-thesis
#2
James T Handa, Mizuki Tagami, Katayoon Ebrahimi, Gregor Leibundgut, Anna Janiak, Joseph L Witztum, Sotirios Tsimikas
PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that the accumulation of oxidized phospholipids (OxPL) in the macula is toxic to the retina unless neutralized by a variety of mechanisms, including binding by lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], which is composed of apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] and apolipoprotein B-100 (apoB). METHODS: Human maculas and eyes from two Lp(a) transgenic murine models were subjected to morphologic, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemical analysis. "Wild-type Lp(a)" mice, which express human apoB-100 and apo(a) that contains oxidized phospholipid, and "mutant LBS(-) Lp(a)" mice with a defective apo(a) lysine binding site (LBS) for oxidized phospholipid binding, were fed a chow or high-fat diet for 2 to 12 months...
2015: Transactions of the American Ophthalmological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26395555/a-minimum-set-of-ancestry-informative-markers-for-determining-admixture-proportions-in-a-mixed-american-population-the-brazilian-set
#3
Hadassa C Santos, Andréa V R Horimoto, Eduardo Tarazona-Santos, Fernanda Rodrigues-Soares, Mauricio L Barreto, Bernardo L Horta, Maria F Lima-Costa, Mateus H Gouveia, Moara Machado, Thiago M Silva, José M Sanches, Nubia Esteban, Wagner C S Magalhaes, Maíra R Rodrigues, Fernanda S G Kehdy, Alexandre C Pereira
The Brazilian population is considered to be highly admixed. The main contributing ancestral populations were European and African, with Amerindians contributing to a lesser extent. The aims of this study were to provide a resource for determining and quantifying individual continental ancestry using the smallest number of SNPs possible, thus allowing for a cost- and time-efficient strategy for genomic ancestry determination. We identified and validated a minimum set of 192 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for the genetic ancestry determination of Brazilian populations...
May 2016: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26240301/ceratocystis-tiliae-sp-nov-a-wound-pathogen-on-tilia-americana
#4
L S S Oliveira, T C Harrington, R G Freitas, D McNew, A C Alfenas
Species in the North American clade (NAC) of the Ceratocystis fimbriata complex are mostly weak pathogens that infect native tree hosts through fresh wounds. Isolations from discolored tissue of wounded Tilia americana (basswood) in Iowa and Nebraska yielded a Ceratocystis species that was similar to but distinct from isolates of C. variospora from other hosts. Sequences of 28S rDNA showed that isolates from basswood did not differ from C. variospora, but there were minor differences in ITS rDNA sequences. The DNA sequences of a portion of the Cerato-platanin gene and TEF1α showed the basswood fungus to be a unique lineage...
September 2015: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26197429/ancestry-admixture-and-fitness-in-colombian-genomes
#5
Lavanya Rishishwar, Andrew B Conley, Charles H Wigington, Lu Wang, Augusto Valderrama-Aguirre, I King Jordan
The human dimension of the Columbian Exchange entailed substantial genetic admixture between ancestral source populations from Africa, the Americas and Europe, which had evolved separately for many thousands of years. We sought to address the implications of the creation of admixed American genomes, containing novel allelic combinations, for human health and fitness via analysis of an admixed Colombian population from Medellin. Colombian genomes from Medellin show a wide range of three-way admixture contributions from ancestral source populations...
2015: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26111704/cord-blood-adipokines-neonatal-anthropometrics-and-postnatal-growth-in-offspring-of-hispanic-and-native-american-women-with-diabetes-mellitus
#6
April M Teague, David A Fields, Christopher E Aston, Kevin R Short, Timothy J Lyons, Steven D Chernausek
BACKGROUND: Offspring of women with diabetes mellitus (DM) during pregnancy have a risk of developing metabolic disease in adulthood greater than that conferred by genetics alone. The mechanisms responsible are unknown, but likely involve fetal exposure to the in utero milieu, including glucose and circulating adipokines. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of maternal DM on fetal adipokines and anthropometry in infants of Hispanic and Native American women. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study of offspring of mothers with normoglycemia (Con-O; n = 79) or type 2 or gestational DM (DM-O; n = 45) pregnancies...
2015: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25785778/a-5-year-retrospective-study-of-descriptors-associated-with-identification-of-stage-i-and-suspected-deep-tissue-pressure-ulcers-in-persons-with-darkly-pigmented-skin
#7
Rhonda Sullivan
BACKGROUND: As skin assessment is critical to pressure ulcer prevention, it is essential that practitioners performing skin assessments understand individuals with dark skin tones may represent at-risk persons. In addition, visual cues commonly associated with the identification of stage I and suspected deep tissue injury (sDTI) pressure ulcers may not be sufficient in persons with darkly pigmented skin. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to identify common descriptors associated with stage I and sDTI pressure ulcers in persons with darkly pigmented skin, to determine whether the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel (NPUAP) definitions are adequate, and to identify additional descriptors that might aid practitioners in identifying pressure ulcers in this at-risk population...
December 2014: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25058410/cuba-exploring-the-history-of-admixture-and-the-genetic-basis-of-pigmentation-using-autosomal-and-uniparental-markers
#8
Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel, Esteban J Parra, Evelyn Fuentes-Smith, Antonio Salas, Henriette N Buttenschøn, Ditte Demontis, María Torres-Español, Lilia C Marín-Padrón, Enrique J Gómez-Cabezas, Vanesa Alvarez-Iglesias, Ana Mosquera-Miguel, Antonio Martínez-Fuentes, Angel Carracedo, Anders D Børglum, Ole Mors
We carried out an admixture analysis of a sample comprising 1,019 individuals from all the provinces of Cuba. We used a panel of 128 autosomal Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) to estimate the admixture proportions. We also characterized a number of haplogroup diagnostic markers in the mtDNA and Y-chromosome in order to evaluate admixture using uniparental markers. Finally, we analyzed the association of 16 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with quantitative estimates of skin pigmentation. In the total sample, the average European, African and Native American contributions as estimated from autosomal AIMs were 72%, 20% and 8%, respectively...
July 2014: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24896658/peromyscus-deer-mice-as-developmental-models
#9
REVIEW
Paul B Vrana, Kimberly R Shorter, Gabor Szalai, Michael R Felder, Janet P Crossland, Monika Veres, Jasmine E Allen, Christopher D Wiley, Amanda R Duselis, Michael J Dewey, Wallace D Dawson
Deer mice (Peromyscus) are the most common native North American mammals, and exhibit great natural genetic variation. Wild-derived stocks from a number of populations are available from the Peromyscus Genetic Stock Center (PGSC). The PGSC also houses a number of natural variants and mutants (many of which appear to differ from Mus). These include metabolic, coat-color/pattern, neurological, and other morphological variants/mutants. Nearly all these mutants are on a common genetic background, the Peromyscus maniculatus BW stock...
May 2014: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24820821/follicular-and-scarring-disorders-in-skin-of-color-presentation-and-management
#10
REVIEW
Pamela Madu, Roopal V Kundu
Skin of color, also known as ethnic skin, is described as skin of individuals of African, Asian, Hispanic, Native-American, Middle Eastern, and Pacific Island backgrounds. Differences in hair morphology, hair grooming, cultural practices, and susceptibility to keloid scarring exist within these populations and have been implicated in hair, scalp, and skin disorders. Acne keloidalis (AK), central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia (CCCA), dissecting cellulitis of the scalp (DCS), pseudofolliculitis barbae (PFB), traction alopecia (TA), and keloids are the most prevalent follicular and scarring disorders in skin of color...
August 2014: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24631693/building-a-forensic-ancestry-panel-from-the-ground-up-the-euroforgen-global-aim-snp-set
#11
C Phillips, W Parson, B Lundsberg, C Santos, A Freire-Aradas, M Torres, M Eduardoff, C Børsting, P Johansen, M Fondevila, N Morling, P Schneider, A Carracedo, M V Lareu
Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies will enable DNA analyses to add pigmentation predictive and ancestry informative (AIM) SNPs to the range of markers detectable from a single PCR test. This prompted us to re-appraise current forensic and genomics AIM-SNPs and from the best sets, to identify the most divergent markers for a five population group differentiation of Africans, Europeans, East Asians, Native Americans and Oceanians by using our own online genome variation browsers. We prioritized careful balancing of population differentiation across the five group comparisons in order to minimize bias when estimating co-ancestry proportions in individuals with admixed ancestries...
July 2014: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24315596/a-50-snp-assay-for-biogeographic-ancestry-and-phenotype-prediction-in-the-u-s-population
#12
Katherine Butler Gettings, Ronald Lai, Joni L Johnson, Michelle A Peck, Jessica A Hart, Heather Gordish-Dressman, Moses S Schanfield, Daniele S Podini
When an STR DNA profile obtained from crime scene evidence does not match identified suspects or profiles from available databases, further DNA analyses targeted at inferring the possible ancestral origin and phenotypic characteristics of the perpetrator could yield valuable information. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs), the most common form of genetic polymorphisms, have alleles associated with specific populations and/or correlated to physical characteristics. We have used single base primer extension (SBE) technology to develop a 50 SNP assay (composed of three multiplexes) designed to predict ancestry among the primary U...
January 2014: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23990950/endogenous-retrovirus-eav-hp-linked-to-blue-egg-phenotype-in-mapuche-fowl
#13
David Wragg, Joram M Mwacharo, José A Alcalde, Chen Wang, Jian-Lin Han, Jaime Gongora, David Gourichon, Michèle Tixier-Boichard, Olivier Hanotte
Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0...
2013: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23939567/dermatologic-conditions-in-skin-of-color-part-i-special-considerations-for-common-skin-disorders
#14
Roopal V Kundu, Stavonnie Patterson
Skin of color traditionally refers to that of persons of African, Asian, Native American, Middle Eastern, and Hispanic backgrounds. Differences in cutaneous structure and function can result in skin conditions with distinct presentations and varying prevalence that require unique treatment. Skin cancers have different presentations in these populations. The ability to recognize and diagnose skin cancer in a timely manner is important for reducing morbidity and mortality. Basal cell carcinoma often is pigmented, squamous cell carcinoma occurs in areas of chronic scarring and inflammation, and melanoma presents in non-sun-exposed areas, such as the soles and nail beds...
June 15, 2013: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23567866/vogt-koyanagi-harada-syndrome
#15
REVIEW
A Greco, M Fusconi, A Gallo, R Turchetta, C Marinelli, G F Macri, A De Virgilio, M de Vincentiis
OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study are to review our current knowledge of the aetiopathogenesis of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome, including viral infection, genetic factors and immunomediated mechanisms, and to discuss pathogenesis and its relevance to pharmacotherapy. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW METHODOLOGY: Relevant publications from 1965 to 2012 on the aetiopathogenesis and pharmacotherapy of VKHS were analysed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome (VKHS) is a rare multisystemic autoimmune disease that affects tissues containing melanin, including the eye, inner ear, meninges, and skin...
September 2013: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22364203/elevated-gene-expression-in-chalcone-synthase-enzyme-suggests-an-increased-production-of-flavonoids-in-skin-and-synchronized-red-cell-cultures-of-north-american-native-grape-berries
#16
Gina Davis, Anthony Ananga, Stoyanka Krastanova, Safira Sutton, Joel W Ochieng, Stephen Leong, Violetka Tsolova
Anthocyanins are antioxidants and are among the natural products synthesized via the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway. Anthocyanins have been recommended for dietary intake in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and age-related conditions such as Alzheimer's disease or dementia. With an increasingly aging population in many parts of the world, strategies for the commercial production of in vitro synchronized red cell cultures as natural antioxidants will be a significant contribution to human medicine...
June 2012: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21637906/ten-tips-for-treating-acne-vulgaris-in-fitzpatrick-skin-types-iv-vi
#17
Candace Thornton Spann
During the 21st century, people with skin of color will account for a large portion of the US population. According to race projections from the US Census Bureau, persons of African American, Hispanic, Asian and Native American descent will make up nearly half of the total US population by the year 2050. Because of our changing demographics, it is important that all dermatologists become comfortable in treating skin of color. This article provides 10 practical pearls for management of acne vulgaris in patients with Fitzpatrick skin types IV-VI...
June 2011: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21592109/wide-disparity-in-genetic-admixture-among-mexican-americans-from-san-antonio-tx
#18
Joke Beuten, Indrani Halder, Sharon P Fowler, Harald H H Groing, Ravindranath Duggirala, Rector Arya, Ian M Thompson, Robin J Leach, Donna M Lehman
We studied 706 participants of the San Antonio Family Diabetes Study (SAFDS) and 586 male samples from the San Antonio Center for Biomarkers of Risk of Prostate Cancer (SABOR) and used 64 ancestry informative markers to compare admixture proportions between both groups. Existence of population substructure was demonstrated by the excess association of unlinked markers. In the SAFDS sample, ancestral proportions were estimated at 50.2 ± 0.6% European, 46.4 ± 0.6% Native American, and 3.1 ± 0.2% West African...
July 2011: Annals of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/20696668/genetic-architecture-of-novel-traits-in-the-hopi-sunflower
#19
David M Wills, Hussein Abdel-Haleem, Steven J Knapp, John M Burke
Following domestication, crop lineages typically undergo diversification either to adapt to disparate habitats or to fill novel agricultural roles. This process has produced the numerous varieties found in modern-day crop germplasm collections. Here, we mapped quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying unique traits in the Hopi sunflower, a primitive, Native American domesticate. These traits included a variety of achene (i.e., single-seeded fruit) characters as well as the extremely late flowering time of the Hopi sunflower...
November 2010: Journal of Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/18951390/genetic-admixture-self-reported-ethnicity-self-estimated-admixture-and-skin-pigmentation-among-hispanics-and-native-americans
#20
Yann C Klimentidis, Geoffrey F Miller, Mark D Shriver
The relationship between ethnicity and biology is of interest to anthropologists, biomedical scientists, and historians in understanding how human groups are constructed. Ethnic self-identification in recently admixed groups such as Hispanics, African Americans, and Native Americans (NA) is likely to be complex due to the heterogeneity in individual admixture proportions and social environments within these groups. This study examines the relationships between self-identified ethnicity, self-estimated admixture proportions, skin pigmentation, and genetic marker estimated admixture proportions...
April 2009: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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