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Inhalation device

Vanessa M McDonald, Sarah A Hiles, Krystelle Godbout, Erin S Harvey, Guy B Marks, Mark Hew, Matthew Peters, Philip G Bardin, Paul N Reynolds, John W Upham, Melissa Baraket, Zaheerodin Bhikoo, Jeffrey Bowden, Ben Brockway, Li Ping Chung, Belinda Cochrane, Gloria Foxley, Jeffrey Garrett, Lata Jayaram, Christine Jenkins, Constance Katelaris, Gregory Katsoulotos, Mariko S Koh, Vicky Kritikos, Marina Lambert, David Langton, Alexis Lara Rivero, Peter G Middleton, Aldoph Nanguzgambo, Naghmeh Radhakrishna, Helen Reddel, Janet Rimmer, Anne Marie Southcott, Michael Sutherland, Francis Thien, Peter A B Wark, Ian A Yang, Elaine Yap, Peter G Gibson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: A new taxonomic and management approach, termed treatable traits, has been proposed for airway diseases including severe asthma. This study examined whether treatable traits could be identified using registry data and whether particular treatable traits were associated with future exacerbation risk. METHODS: The Australasian Severe Asthma Web-Based Database (SAWD) enrolled 434 participants with severe asthma and a comparison group of 102 participants with non-severe asthma...
September 19, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Salah F Issa, Carl Wassgren, Charles V Schwab
Grain entrapments remain a major concern in the grain industry, with 1,100 incidents documented since the 1970s. One particular concern is the ability of a victim to breathe while entrapped in grain. Anecdotal reports suggest that victims struggle to breathe when entrapped in grain to a depth that covers their chests, yet some evidence indicates that victims should be able to breathe normally as long as their airways are not blocked regardless of depth. The hypothesis for this discrepancy is that previously published experiments measured an active stress state in the grain, while a person breathing also experiences a passive stress state during inhalation...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health
Po-Chou Chen, Kuan-Hsiung Shoa, Jo-Chi Jao, Chia-Chi Hsiao
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia may alter the cellular components contributing to the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal intensities. Developing awake animal models to evaluate cerebral function has grown in importance. OBJECTIVE: To investigate a noninvasive strategy for dynamic MRI (dMRI) of awake rabbits during carbogen challenge. METHODS: A nonmetallic assistive device with a self-adhering wrap secure procedure was developed for the head fixation of awake rabbits...
September 11, 2018: Journal of X-ray Science and Technology
Divya Ramamurthi, Cindy Chau, Robert K Jackler
BACKGROUND: Some consumers wish to use vapour devices discreetly so that family members, teachers and coworkers do not recognise their use of nicotine or t etrahydrocannabinol (THC) laden vapour. METHODS: Stealthy vapour devices, as well as low-odour and low-vapour e-juices, were identified via a comprehensive online search between March and June 2018. RESULTS: As evidence of their popularity, a search for 'stealth vaping' on YouTube found 18 200 videos...
September 15, 2018: Tobacco Control
Alexandra Noël, Christina M Verret, Farhana Hasan, Slawomir Lomnicki, John Morse, Annette Robichaud, Arthur L Penn
Electronic-cigarette (e-cig) devices use heat to produce an inhalable aerosol from a liquid (e-liquid) composed mainly of humectants, nicotine, and flavoring chemicals. The aerosol produced includes fine and ultrafine particles, and potentially nicotine and aldehydes, which can be harmful to human health. E-cig users inhale these aerosols and, with the third-generation of e-cig devices, control design features (resistance and voltage) in addition to the choice of e-liquids, and the puffing profile. These are key factors that can significantly impact the toxicity of the inhaled aerosols...
August 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Christina Haddad, Rola Salman, Ahmad El-Hellani, Soha Talih, Alan Shihadeh, Najat Aoun Saliba
Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) are battery-powered devices that heat and vaporize solutions containing propylene glycol (PG) and/or vegetable glycerin (VG), nicotine and possible trace flavorants to produce an inhalable aerosol. The heating process can lead to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are linked to various oxidative damage-initiated diseases. Several studies in the literature have addressed ROS emissions in ECIG aerosols, but the effects of power, ECIG device design and liquid composition on ROS are relatively unknown...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Chi-Wen Luo, I-Ling Hsiao, Jaw-Yuan Wang, Chun-Chieh Wu, Wen-Chun Hung, Yu-Han Lin, Tzu-Yi Chen, Yin-Chou Hsu, Tian-Lu Cheng, Mei-Ren Pan
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a common plasticizer that is widely used in many consumer products and medical devices. Humans can be exposed to DEHP through ingestion, inhalation, or dermal absorption. Previous studies on DEHP have focused on its role as an endocrine-disrupting chemical leading to endocrine-related diseases. However, the correlation between DEHP exposure and the progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mono(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), an active metabolite of DEHP, on the progression of CRC...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Barbara Boutopoulou, Despoina Koumpagioti, Vasiliki Matziou, Kostas N Priftis, Konstantinos Douros
Introduction: Poor adherence to inhaled medication is a commonly encountered problem among children with asthma. However, there is a relatively paucity of data regarding the adherence of children with severe asthma, as well as the merit of any interventions to improve this adherence. Objectives: The aim of this systematic review was to identify the available literature on the rate of adherence and the influence of interventions in improving adherence to controller inhaled medication, in children with severe asthma...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Martyn F Biddiscombe, Omar S Usmani
Inhaled medication is the cornerstone in the treatment of patients across a spectrum of respiratory diseases including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The benefits of inhaled therapy have long been recognised but the most important innovations have occurred over the past 60 years, beginning with the invention of the pressurised metered dose inhaler. However, despite over 230 different device and drug combinations currently being available, disease control is far from perfect. Here we look at how innovation in inhaler design may improve treatments for respiratory diseases and how new formulations may lead to treatments for diseases beyond the lungs...
September 2018: Breathe
Mohammad A M Momin, Ian G Tucker, Shyamal C Das
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major global health burden. The emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic and drug resistance has complicated global TB control. Pulmonary delivery of drugs using dry powder inhalers (DPI) is an emerging approach to treat TB. In comparison with the conventional pulmonary delivery for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), TB requires high dose delivery to the lung. However, high dose delivery depends on the successful design of the inhaler device and the formulation of highly aerosolizable powders...
September 1, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Roy A Pleasants
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of the first nebulized long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA), glycopyrrolate (GLY)/eFlow closed system (CS) nebulizer, approved for maintenance treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was conducted (January 2000 to July 2018) using the following terms/phrases: nebulized glycopyrrolate, inhalation devices in COPD, long-acting muscarinic antagonists COPD, and COPD survey...
September 1, 2018: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
Job van der Palen, Wendy Moeskops-van Beurden, Carolyn M Dawson, Wai-Yee James, Andrew Preece, Dawn Midwinter, Neil Barnes, Raj Sharma
Background: Administering maintenance COPD therapy with a combination of multiple inhalers may increase inhaler errors. This study evaluated the potential benefits of using a single Ellipta dry powder inhaler (DPI) compared with two combinations of DPIs commonly used to deliver triple maintenance therapy. Methods: Patients receiving inhaled COPD medication were enrolled in this multicenter, randomized, open-label, placebo-device, crossover study with a 2×2 complete block design (NCT0298218), which comprised two substudies: Ellipta vs Diskus + HandiHaler (substudy 1) or Turbuhaler + HandiHaler (substudy 2)...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Savina Singla, Divya Bansal, Archan Misra, Gaurav Raheja
For the health and safety of the public, it is essential to measure spatiotemporal distribution of air pollution in a region and thus monitor air quality in a fine-grain manner. While most of the sensing-based commercial applications available until today have been using fixed environmental sensors, the use of personal devices such as smartphones, smartwatches, and other wearable devices has not been explored in depth. These kinds of devices have an advantage of being with the user continuously, thus providing an ability to generate accurate and well-distributed spatiotemporal air pollution data...
August 31, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Pooja M Kanth, Caesar Alaienia, Gerald C Smaldone
BACKGROUND: Inhaled interferon, a potential treatment for idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, must be formulated with mannitol, which can cause bronchospasm and cough. Coughing during drug inhalation can be affected by many factors, but some factors are fixed by the needs of the formulation and inflammatory disease in the airways. A component of the cough response may be related to sites of deposition, particularly upper and central airways. If deposition sites are important, then manipulating the particle distribution of the aerosol may mitigate coughing...
August 28, 2018: Respiratory Care
Agnieszka Sliwka, Milosz Jankowski, Iwona Gross-Sondej, Monika Storman, Roman Nowobilski, Malgorzata M Bala
BACKGROUND: Three classes of inhaler medication are used to manage chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): long-acting beta₂-agonists (LABA); long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMA); and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS). To encourage patient adherence, two classes of medication are often combined in a single medication device; it seems that once-daily dosing offers greatest convenience to patients and may markedly influence adherence. OBJECTIVES: To compare a once-daily combination of inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta₂-agonist inhalers (ICS/LABA) versus inhaled long-acting muscarinic antagonists alone (LAMA) for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)...
August 24, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Carlos Leonardo Carvalho Pessôa, Maria Julia da Silva Mattos, Artur Renato Moura Alho, Marianna Martini Fischmann, Ana Carolina Castro Côrtes, Flávio de Oliveira Mendes, Bruno Mendes Haerdy, Sandra Mara Silva Brignol
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Treatment of asthma implies inhalation of specific drugs to reach high concentrations in the respiratory tree and ensure low drug bioavailability and few adverse effects. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the inhalation technique among outpatients with asthma. DESIGN AND SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital-based cross-sectional study in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: We evaluated inhalation practices in a convenience sample...
August 13, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
Toshiyuki Koya, Takashi Hasegawa, Junko Takasawa, Fumitoshi Yoshimine, Takuro Sakagami, Masachika Hayashi, Eiichi Suzuki, Toshiaki Kikuchi
Objective High adherence to medications and accurate handling of inhaler devices are important for asthma management. However, few reports to date have simultaneously evaluated adherence and handling errors. We therefore investigated the adherence to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) and inhaler handling errors in the same patients in cooperation with pharmacists. Methods Data were derived from a survey of physicians and pharmacists treating asthma patients who visited participating hospitals and pharmacies from July 2012 to January 2013...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Birendra Chaurasiya, Muye Zhou, Jiasheng Tu, Chunmeng Sun
Delivery of inhalational dry powders (DPs) to the lung of mice is pivotal for pre-clinical pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic investigations. Although several devices have been reported, their application is always limited by many factors, including complicated design, high price, commercially discontinued status, as well as requirement of special skills. Here, we have introduced a simple device for non-invasive and precise delivery of DPs in mice. We set up the self-made device using a 20 G cannula tube and a 1 mL syringe...
October 15, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kei Miwata, Hirokazu Okamoto, Taku Nakashima, Daisuke Ihara, Yasushi Horimasu, Takeshi Masuda, Shintaro Miyamoto, Hiroshi Iwamoto, Kazunori Fujitaka, Hironobu Hamada, Ayumi Shibata, Takaaki Ito, Tomoyuki Okuda, Noboru Hattori
Inhalation therapy using small-interfering RNA (siRNA) is a potentially effective therapeutic strategy for lung cancer because of its high gene-silencing effects and sequence specificity. Previous studies reported that intratracheal administration of siRNA using pressurized metered dose inhalers or nebulizers could suppress tumor growth in murine lung metastatic models. Although dry powder inhalers are promising devices due to their low cost, good portability, and preservability, the anti-tumor effects of siRNA dry powder have not been elucidated...
September 7, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
Joshua M Oakes, Robert M Fuchs, Jason D Gardner, Eric Lazartigues, Xinping Yue
Cigarette smoking is the single most important risk factor for the development of cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases (CVPD). Although cigarette smoking has been in constant decline since the 1950's, the introduction of e-cigarettes or electronic nicotine delivery systems 10 years ago has attracted former smokers as well as a new generation of consumers. Nicotine is a highly addictive substance, and it is currently unclear whether e-cigarettes are "safer" than regular cigarettes or whether they have the potential to reverse the health benefits, notably on the cardiopulmonary system, acquired with the decline of tobacco smoking...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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