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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522559/pulmonary-toxicity-of-e-cigarettes
#1
Lauren F Chun, Farzad Moazed, Carolyn S Calfee, Michael A Matthay, Jeffrey Earl Gotts
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes or e-cigs) are designed to heat and aerosolize mixtures of vegetable glycerin, propylene glycol, nicotine and flavoring additives, thus delivering nicotine by inhalation in the absence of combustion. These devices were originally developed to facilitate smoking cessation and have been available in the United States for over a decade. Since 2010, e-cig use has expanded rapidly, especially among adolescents, despite a paucity of short and long-term safety data. Patterns of use have shifted to include never-smokers and many dual users of e-cigs and combustible tobacco products...
May 18, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510491/short-term-growth-during-treatment-with-inhaled-fluticasone-propionate-formoterol-fluticasone-and-beclomethasone-treatment
#2
Ole D Wolthers, Ainslee Moore, Sabine Mersmann, Sanjeeva Dissanayake
BACKGROUND: Fluticasone propionate/formoterol (FP/FORM) is a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI; Flutiform(®)) approved for use in adolescents and adults and under development for pediatric use. OBJECTIVE: To compare short-term growth in asthmatic children treated with FP/FORM, FP pMDI with valved holding chamber, and beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) in a breath-actuated device. METHODS: Children with persistent asthma (n = 48; 5 to <12 years) participated in an assessor-blinded, randomized, three-way crossover trial with run in, wash out, and active treatment periods, each of 2 weeks duration...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510296/pharmacokinetics-and-safety-of-single-dose-inhaled-loxapine-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Sally Selim, Robert Riesenberg, James Cassella, Jeevan Kunta, Edward Hellriegel, Mark A Smith, Alexander A Vinks, Laura Rabinovich-Guilatt
This multisite open-label study sought to characterize the pharmacokinetics and safety of a single dose of inhaled loxapine in children and adolescents. Loxapine powder for oral inhalation was administered via a single-use handheld drug device to children and adolescents (aged 10-17 years) with any condition warranting chronic antipsychotic use. Patients were dosed according to body weight and cohort (<50 kg [n = 15], 2.5 or 5 mg; ≥50 kg [n = 15], 5 or 10 mg); the first 6 patients (cohort 1) enrolled in each weight group received the lower dose...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499855/electrolyte-type-and-nozzle-composition-affect-the-process-of-vibrating-membrane-nebulization
#4
Moritz Beck-Broichsitter, Nina Oesterheld
The size of airborne particles determines their deposition pattern within the lungs and therefore, the efficacy of inhalation therapy. The present study analyzed factors affecting liquid atomization performed by vibrating-membrane technology. First, the process of vibrating-membrane nebulization (eFlow(®)rapid and Aeroneb(®) Pro) was challenged with numerous inorganic salts and active pharmaceutical ingredients. All investigated samples caused a sigmoidal decrease in aerosol droplet size upon an increase in concentration...
May 9, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482017/evaluation-of-nicotine-pharmacokinetics-and-subjective-effects-following-use-of-a-novel-nicotine-delivery-system
#5
Axel Teichert, Patrick Brossard, Loyse Felber Medlin, Larissa Sandalic, Mikael Franzon, Chris Wynne, Murray Laugesen, Frank Lüdicke
Introduction: Novel nicotine delivery systems represent an evolving part of the tobacco harm reduction strategy. The pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of nicotine delivered by P3L, a pulmonary nicotine delivery system, and its effects on smoking urges and craving relief in relation to Nicorette® inhalator were evaluated. Methods: This open-label, ascending nicotine levels study was conducted in 16 healthy smokers. Three different nicotine delivery levels, 50, 80, and 150 µg/puff delivered by the P3L system were evaluated consecutively on different days, after the use of the Nicorette® inhalator...
May 6, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481631/peak-inspiratory-flow-rate-as-a-criterion-for-dry-powder-inhaler-use-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#6
Donald A Mahler
Dry powder bronchodilator devices have an internal resistance. Effective use depends on the patient generating an adequate inspiratory flow to break up the powder packets into particles less than five micron in diameter that can be inhaled into the loser respiratory tract. This de-aggregation takes place inside the device before the dose leaves the inhaler; this process is increased if the acceleration is fast at the start of inhalation. Peak inspiratory flow depends on an individual's effort along with strength of the respiratory muscles, which may be compromised in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease due to lung hyperinflation, hypoxemia, and muscle wasting...
May 8, 2017: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476298/breathe-easy-by-avoiding-common-errors-with-inhaled-devices
#7
Susan F Paparella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Journal of Emergency Nursing: JEN: Official Publication of the Emergency Department Nurses Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474717/a-self-assembled-fluorescent-organic-nanoprobe-and-its-application-for-sulfite-detection-in-food-samples-and-living-systems
#8
Tang Gao, Xiaozheng Cao, Peng Ge, Jie Dong, Shuqi Yang, Huan Xu, Yong Wu, Feng Gao, Wenbin Zeng
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) is a widely distributed air pollutant, and humans can easily be exposed to sulfite by inhaling SO2, thus inducing respiratory responses and diseases. Hence, to develop a rapid, sensitive and selective method for detection of sulfites is of great importance. Herein, we designed and synthesized a novel tetraphenyl imidazole compound TIBM with aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE). TIBM can self-assemble into well-organized nanoparticles and is reported as an excellent probe for detection of sulfite with high selectivity and sensitivity...
May 5, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470103/tobramycin-inhalation-powder-for-the-treatment-of-pulmonary-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-a-review-based-on-clinical-evidence
#9
Kamal Hamed, Laurie Debonnett
Chronic airway infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of increased morbidity and mortality in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The development and widespread use of nebulized antibacterial therapies, including tobramycin inhalation solution (TIS), has led to improvements in lung function and quality of life. However, the use of nebulizers is associated with various challenges, including extended administration times and the need for frequent device cleaning and disinfection. Multiple therapies are required for patients with CF, which poses a considerable burden to patients, and adherence to the recommended treatments remains a challenge...
May 2017: Therapeutic Advances in Respiratory Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463041/effect-of-pressurized-metered-dose-inhaler-spray-characteristics-and-particle-size-distribution-on-drug-delivery-efficiency
#10
Morteza Yousefi, Kiao Inthavong, Jiyuan Tu
BACKGROUND: A key issue in pulmonary drug delivery is improvement of the delivery device for effective and targeted treatment. Pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) are the most popular aerosol therapy device for treating lung diseases. This article studies the effect of spray characteristics: injection velocity, spray cone angle, particle size distribution (PSD), and its mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) on drug delivery. METHODS: An idealized oral airway geometry, extending from mouth to the main bronchus, was connected to a pMDI device...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463040/pharmacokinetic-comparison-of-a-unit-dose-dry-powder-inhaler-with-a-multidose-dry-powder-inhaler-for-delivery-of-fluticasone-furoate
#11
Rashmi Mehta, Alison Moore, Kylie Riddell, Shashidhar Joshi, Robert Chan
BACKGROUND: The unit dose dry powder inhaler (UD-DPI) is being considered as an alternative inhaler platform that, if developed, has the potential to improve access to inhaled respiratory medicines in developing countries. AIM: This study compared the systemic exposure of fluticasone furoate after delivery from the UD-DPI with that from the ELLIPTA(®) inhaler. METHODS: This open-label, five-way cross-over, randomized, single-dose study in healthy subjects evaluated fluticasone furoate systemic exposure of three dose strengths (using four inhalations), 4 × 80 μg [320 μg], 4 × 100 μg [400 μg], and 4 × 140 μg [560 μg]), and two percentages of drug in lactose blends (0...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461295/an-evidence-based-point-of-care-tool-to%C3%A2-guide-completion-of-asthma-action-plans%C3%A2-in-practice
#12
Andrew Kouri, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Alan Kaplan, Samir Gupta
Asthma action plans (AAPs) reduce healthcare utilisation, improve quality of life and are recommended across guidelines. However, fewer than 25% of patients receive an AAP, partly due to prescribers' inability to complete "yellow zone" instructions (how to intensify therapy for acute loss of control). We sought to review best evidence to develop a practical, evidence-based tool to facilitate yellow zone guidance in adults.We reviewed recent asthma guidelines and adult studies addressing acute loss of asthma control (January 2010 to March 2016)...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461290/ers-technical-standard-on-bronchial-challenge-testing-general-considerations-and-performance-of-methacholine-challenge-tests
#13
Allan L Coates, Jack Wanger, Donald W Cockcroft, Bruce H Culver, Zuzana Diamant, Gail Gauvreau, Graham L Hall, Teal S Hallstrand, Ildiko Horvath, Frans H C de Jongh, Guy Joos, David A Kaminsky, Beth L Laube, Joerg D Leuppi, Peter J Sterk
This international task force report updates general considerations for bronchial challenge testing and the performance of the methacholine challenge test. There are notable changes from prior recommendations in order to accommodate newer delivery devices. Rather than basing the test result upon a methacholine concentration (provocative concentration (PC20) causing a 20% fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)), the new recommendations base the result upon the delivered dose of methacholine causing a 20% fall in FEV1 (provocative dose (PD20))...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458590/does-co-payment-for-inhaler-devices-affect-therapy-adherence-and-disease-outcomes-a-historical-matched-cohort-study
#14
Jaco Voorham, Bernard Vrijens, Job Fm van Boven, Dermot Ryan, Marc Miravitlles, Lisa M Law, David B Price
BACKGROUND: Adherence to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) treatment has been shown to depend on patient-level factors, such as disease severity, and medication-level factors, such as complexity. However, little is known about the impact of prescription charges - a factor at the health care system level. This study used real-life data to investigate whether co-payment affects adherence (implementation and persistence) and disease outcomes in patients with asthma or COPD...
2017: Pragmatic and Observational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458433/evaluation-of-relationship-of-inhaler-technique-with-asthma-control-and-quality-of-life
#15
Bharti Chogtu, Sadhana Holla, Rahul Magazine, Asha Kamath
INTRODUCTION: There is a need to assess erroneous steps in the use of inhaler devices in people who have asthma. The objectives of this study were to assess the inhaler technique in patients who have asthma, the factors affecting improper technique, and the association of inhaler use with asthma control, hospital visits, and quality of life (QOL) of patients who have asthma. METHODS: It was an observational, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted on patients with bronchial asthma...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454823/randomized-trial-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide-to-treat-acute-pulmonary-embolism-the-inope-trial
#16
Jeffrey A Kline, Cassandra L Hall, Alan E Jones, Michael A Puskarich, Ronald A Mastouri, Tim Lahm
BACKGROUND: The study hypothesis is that administration of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) plus oxygen to subjects with submassive pulmonary embolism (PE) will improve right ventricular (RV) systolic function and reduce RV strain and necrosis, while improving patient dyspnea, more than treatment with oxygen alone. METHODS: This article describes the rationale and protocol for a registered (NCT01939301), nearly completed phase II, 3-center, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial...
April 2017: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443352/gff-mdi-for-the-improvement-of-lung-function-in-copd-a-look-at-the-pinnacle-1-and-pinnacle-2-data-and-beyond
#17
Klaus F Rabe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the third leading cause of death globally and incidence rates are continuing to rise. Long-acting bronchodilators are the foundation on which current pharmacological approaches to COPD management are built, with long-acting muscarinic antagonists (LAMAs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs) recommended across the spectrum of the disease continuum. Combining LAMAs and LABAs provides additional lung function improvements and relief of patient symptoms compared with either therapy alone...
May 2, 2017: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442973/an-indigenous-in-line-metered-dose-inhaler-actuation-device
#18
Neha Gupta, Ajay Kumar Goila, Rajesh Sood
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441181/inhaled-treprostinil-drug-delivery-during-mechanical-ventilation-and-spontaneous-breathing-using-two-different-nebulizers
#19
Donna K Parker, Shuijie Shen, Jiang Zheng, D Dunbar Ivy, Dave N Crotwell, Justin C Hotz, Robert M DiBlasi
OBJECTIVES: To determine the feasibility of delivering inhaled treprostinil during mechanical ventilation and spontaneous unassisted ventilation using the Tyvaso Inhalation System and the vibrating mesh nebulizer. We sought to compare differences in fine particle fraction, and absolute inhaled treprostinil mass delivered to neonatal, pediatric, and adult models affixed with a face mask, conventional, and high-frequency ventilation between Tyvaso Inhalation System and with different nebulizer locations between Tyvaso Inhalation System and vibrating mesh nebulizer...
April 22, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439076/practice-makes-perfect-self-reported-adherence-a-positive-marker-of-inhaler-technique-maintenance
#20
Elizabeth Azzi, Pamela Srour, Carol Armour, Cynthia Rand, Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich
Poor inhaler technique and non-adherence to treatment are major problems in the management of asthma. Patients can be taught how to achieve good inhaler technique, however maintenance remains problematic, with 50% of patients unable to demonstrate correct technique. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical, patient-related and/or device-related factors that predict inhaler technique maintenance. Data from a quality-controlled longitudinal community care dataset was utilized. 238 patients using preventer medications where included...
April 24, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
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