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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773055/crystal-engineering-upcoming-paradigm-for-efficacious-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#1
Preshita P Desai, Sanyat S Mapara, Vandana B Patravale
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary drug delivery has transformed over a past few decades from being a platform for local pulmonary disease treatment to systemic drug delivery opportunities. In case of pulmonary delivery systems, particle properties are critical as they affect inhalation efficacy, pulmonary deposition, drug delivery and overall performance. With this in view, particle engineering has emerged as an advanced science that helps in designing of efficacious pulmonary delivery systems...
May 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764007/anesthetic-considerations-during-surgical-intervention-in-woake-s-syndrome-a-case-report
#2
So Ron Choi, Jeong Ho Kim, Kyoung Lin Chae, Seung Cheol Lee, Sang Yoong Park
Woake's syndrome (WS) is a recurrent nasal polyposis, accompanied by broadening of the nose, frontal sinus aplasia, dyscrinia, and bronchiectasis. There has been no previous report on anesthetic management in patients with WS. We describe a case involving a 13-year-old male patient with WS who was scheduled for septorhinoplasty for necrotic ethmoiditis. Anesthesia was induced and maintained with propofol and remifentanil using a target-controlled infusion device. The anesthetic considerations of this rare syndrome and the advantages of an intravenous infusion method over local and volatile anesthesia for these patients are discussed...
May 15, 2018: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757890/pediatric-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-in-southern-israel-a-cross-sectional-study
#3
Yariv Fruchtman, Zvi H Perry, Tom Leibson, Liat Vered Cohen, Matitiahu Lifshitz, Eugene Leibovitz
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the epidemiology and clinical burden of unintended carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning among children in the Negev region of southern Israel. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional retrospective study of CO poisoning patients admitted to Soroka University Medical Center in 2011 through 2015. RESULTS: Overall, 43 cases of CO poisoning were recorded among children younger than 18 years. Five patients died, all upon admission...
May 2, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754757/-how-does-vaping-products-work
#4
REVIEW
C Bamberger, V Deiss, S Gros
To maximize the chances of replacing smoking with vaping, it is necessary to know the different types of existing devices, their characteristics and their most important settings as well as their influence on sensations. To support a user it is also important to understand the nature of the inhaled and exhaled vapor, as well as the possible mistakes that can lead to a less enjoyable experience. Highlighting e-liquids formulations and emissions can help understanding how a minimum of 95 % risk reduction compared to tobacco smoking is achieved and the influence of compounds on the user's experience...
May 10, 2018: Revue de Pneumologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750687/evaluation-of-clinical-outcomes-with-phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitor-therapy-for-right-ventricular-dysfunction-after-left-ventricular-assist-device-implantation
#5
Katherine L Roberts, Jerrica E Shuster, Nicholas S Britt, Keki R Balsara, Thomas J Graetz, Mohammad Helwani, Akinobu Itoh, Bethany R Tellor
Few studies have evaluated the use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors (PDE5-i) for right ventricular (RV) dysfunction after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. The study purpose was to examine the impact of postoperative inpatient PDE5-i therapy on clinical outcomes in patients with LVADs. This single-center, retrospective cohort study screened 428 LVAD recipients between January 2011 and May 2015 for eligibility. Subjects receiving post-LVAD PDE5-i were compared with those who did not. The primary outcome was the proportion of all-cause hospital readmission at 30 days...
May 7, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747109/characterization-of-airborne-particles-emitted-by-an-electrically-heated-tobacco-smoking-system
#6
A Pacitto, L Stabile, M Scungio, V Rizza, G Buonanno
Smoking activities were recognized as a main risk factor for population. Indeed, mainstream smoke aerosol is directly inhaled by smokers then delivering harmful compounds in the deepest regions of the lung. In order to reduce the potential risk of smoking, different nicotine delivery products have been recently developed. The latest device released is an electrically heated tobacco system (iQOS® , Philip Morris) which is able to warm the tobacco with no combustion. In the present paper a dimensional and volatility characterization of iQOS-generated particles was performed through particle number concentration and distribution measurements in the mainstream aerosol...
May 7, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746613/aging-effects-on-alveolar-sacs-under-mechanical-ventilation
#7
Parya Aghasafari, Rebeca L Heise, Angela Reynolds, Ramana Pidaparti
Alveolar sacs are primarily responsible for gas exchange in the human respiratory system and lose their functionality with aging. Three-dimensional (3D) models of young and old human alveolar sacs were constructed and fluid-solid interaction (FSI) was employed to investigate the contribution of age-related changes to decline in alveolar sacs function under mechanical ventilation (MV). Simulations results illustrated that compliance and pressure reduced in the alveolar sacs of the elderly, and they have to work harder to breathe...
May 9, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745620/non-ventilatory-therapies-for-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Jérémy Bourenne, Sami Hraiech, Romain Rambaud, Jean-Marie Forel, Nicolas Persico, Christophe Guervilly, Laurent Papazian
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) commonly affects intensive care unit patients and is associated with high mortality. In addition to etiologic treatment and protective ventilation, non-ventilatory therapies represent a significant part of ARDS care. Pharmacological treatments, extra corporeal devices and prone positioning are commonly grouped under this term. Studies have evaluated the individual effects of some of these non- ventilatory therapies in large randomized controlled trials. Recent advances concerning the beneficial use of neuromuscular blocking agents and prone positioning deserve attention...
May 9, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742220/humidification-and-heating-of-inhaled-gas-in-patients-with-artificial-airway-a-narrative-review
#9
Gustavo Adrián Plotnikow, Matias Accoce, Emiliano Navarro, Norberto Tiribelli
Instrumentation of the airways in critical patients (endotracheal tube or tracheostomy cannula) prevents them from performing their function of humidify and heating the inhaled gas. In addition, the administration of cold and dry medical gases and the high flows that patients experience during invasive and non-invasive mechanical ventilation generate an even worse condition. For this reason, a device for gas conditioning is needed, even in short-term treatments, to avoid potential damage to the structure and function of the respiratory epithelium...
March 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733972/application-of-an-inline-dry-powder-inhaler-to-deliver-high-dose-pharmaceutical-aerosols-during-low-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy
#10
Dale Farkas, Michael Hindle, P Worth Longest
Inline dry powder inhalers (DPIs) offer a potentially effective option to deliver high dose inhaled medications simultaneously with mechanical ventilation. The objective of this study was to develop an inline DPI that is actuated using a low volume of air (LV-DPI) to efficiently deliver pharmaceutical aerosols during low flow nasal cannula (LFNC) therapy. A characteristic feature of the new inline LV-DPIs was the use of hollow capillary tubes that both pierced the capsule and provided a pathway for inlet air and exiting aerosol...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731374/-inhaled-chemotherapy-part-2-clinical-practice-and-potential-applications
#11
REVIEW
R Rosière, J Hureaux, V Levet, K Amighi, N Wauthoz
Lung tumours have a high incidence and cause many deaths worldwide. Despite progresses in treatment with targeted therapies and immunotherapies, the global 5-year survival rate remains low. In this context, inhaled chemotherapy could provide a means to intensify current therapeutic modalities. This review is based on clinical studies of inhaled chemotherapy against lung tumours. The advantages of this approach in terms of pharmacokinetic ratio and therapeutic index are presented as well as the limitations including contraindications and pulmonary side effects...
May 3, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731372/-inhaled-chemotherapy-part-1-general-concept-and-current-technological-challenges
#12
REVIEW
R Rosière, J Hureaux, V Levet, K Amighi, N Wauthoz
Despite severe adverse effects, chemotherapy is still widely used in the treatment of lung tumors, including primary lung tumors and metastases. In order to reduce the risk of harm and to intensify treatment responses, several strategies have been described recently. These include the use of nanomedicine-based chemotherapies and pulmonary drug delivery. However, to treat lung tumors, inhalation cannot be effective and safe without an adaptation of current inhalation techniques, i.e. inhalation devices and drug formulations...
May 3, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724381/pulmonary-deposition-of-fluticasone-propionate-formoterol-in-healthy-volunteers-asthmatics-and-copd-patients-with-a-novel-breath-triggered-inhaler
#13
Dominik Kappeler, Knut Sommerer, Claudius Kietzig, Bärbel Huber, Jo Woodward, Mark Lomax, Prashant Dalvi
INTRODUCTION: A combination of fluticasone propionate/formoterol fumarate (FP/FORM) has been incorporated within a novel, breath-triggered device, named K-haler® . This low resistance device requires a gentle inspiratory effort to actuate it, triggering at an inspiratory flow rate of approximately 30 L/min; thus avoiding the need for coordination of inhalation with manual canister depression. The aim of the study was to evaluate total and regional pulmonary deposition of FP/FORM when administered via the K-haler device...
May 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719386/misuse-of-inhalers-among-copd-patients-in-a-community-hospital-in-taiwan
#14
Chi-Yen Liang, Yi-Jen Chen, Shew-Meei Sheu, Ching-Fang Tsai, Wei Chen
Purpose: Respiratory inhalers, which directly deliver medication to the airway, are important for controlling symptoms and preventing exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The inhaler misuse rate of patients with COPD in Taiwan is unclear. In this study, the inhaler techniques and patient characteristics associated with incorrect inhaler techniques among patients with COPD were evaluated. Patients and methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 298 patients with COPD (mean age 72...
2018: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717099/results-of-a-pulmonologist-survey-regarding-knowledge-and-practices-with-inhalation-devices-for-copd
#15
Sidney S Braman, Brian W Carlin, Nicola A Hanania, Donald A Mahler, Jill A Ohar, Victor Pinto-Plata, Tina Shah, David Eubanks, Rajiv Dhand
BACKGROUND: COPD guidelines advise on inhaled medication use, yet no advice is offered on when to use and which type of patient could benefit from a specific delivery device. We investigated pulmonologists' perception of their knowledge and practices with delivery devices for COPD management. METHODS: An online survey was designed by a steering committee of American Thoracic Society clinicians and scientists and conducted by a national market research firm between January 7 and 29, 2016...
May 1, 2018: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709849/sources-behaviour-and-environmental-and-human-health-risks-of-high-technology-rare-earth-elements-as-emerging-contaminants
#16
REVIEW
Willis Gwenzi, Lynda Mangori, Concilia Danha, Nhamo Chaukura, Nothando Dunjana, Edmond Sanganyado
Recent studies show that high-technology rare earth elements (REEs) of anthropogenic origin occur in the environment including in aquatic systems, suggesting REEs are contaminants of emerging concern. However, compared to organic contaminants, there is a lack of comprehensive reviews on the anthropogenic sources, environmental behaviour, and public and ecological health risks of REEs. The current review aims to: (1) identify anthropogenic sources, transfer mechanisms, and environmental behaviour of REEs; (2) highlight the human and ecological health risks of REEs and propose mitigation measures; and (3) identify knowledge gaps and future research directions...
April 26, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700664/halving-the-volume-of-anaconda-initial-clinical-experience-with-a-new-small-volume-anaesthetic-reflector-in-critically-ill-patients-a-quality-improvement-project
#17
Hagen Bomberg, Franziska Meiser, Sarah Zimmer, Martin Bellgardt, Thomas Volk, Daniel I Sessler, Heinrich V Groesdonk, Andreas Meiser
AnaConDa-100 ml (ACD-100, Sedana Medical, Uppsala, Sweden) is well established for inhalation sedation in the intensive care unit. But because of its large dead space, the system can retain carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and increase ventilatory demands. We therefore evaluated whether AnaConDa-50 ml (ACD-50), a device with half the internal volume, reduces CO2 retention and ventilatory demands during sedation of invasively ventilated, critically ill patients. Ten patients participated in this cross-over protocol. After sedation with isoflurane via ACD-100 for 24 h, the 5-h observation period started...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694428/differences-in-vaping-topography-in-relation-to-adherence-to-exclusive-electronic-cigarette-use-in-veterans
#18
Andrea Guerrero-Cignarella, Landy V Luna Diaz, Kira Balestrini, Gregory Holt, Mehdi Mirsaeidi, Rafael Calderon-Candelario, Philip Whitney, Matthias Salathe, Michael A Campos
BACKGROUND: Understanding vaping patterns of electronic cigarette (EC) use is important to understand the real-life exposure to EC vapor. Long term information on vaping topography in relation to tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking cessation success has not been explored. METHODS: Observational non-blinded study where active TC smokers were asked to replace TC with EC over 4 weeks (replacement phase, RP) followed by exclusive EC use for an additional 12 weeks (maintenance phase, MP)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682520/toxic-effects-of-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-an-overview
#19
REVIEW
Sai Sandeep Singh Rowdhwal, Jiaxiang Chen
Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is extensively used as a plasticizer in many products, especially medical devices, furniture materials, cosmetics, and personal care products. DEHP is noncovalently bound to plastics, and therefore, it will leach out of these products after repeated use, heating, and/or cleaning of the products. Due to the overuse of DEHP in many products, it enters and pollutes the environment through release from industrial settings and plastic waste disposal sites. DEHP can enter the body through inhalation, ingestion, and dermal contact on a daily basis, which has raised some concerns about its safety and its potential effects on human health...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681239/inhaled-formulation-and-device-selection-bridging-the-gap-between-preclinical-species-and-first-in-human-studies
#20
Jennifer L Wylie, Aileen House, Peter J Mauser, Shari Sellers, Jenna Terebetski, Zhenyu Wang, Jason D Ehrick
The factors that influence inhaled first-in-human (FIH) device and formulation selection often differ significantly from the factors that have influenced the preceding preclinical experiments and inhalation toxicology work. In order to minimize the risk of delivery issues negatively impacting a respiratory pipeline program, the preclinical and FIH delivery systems must be considered holistically. This topic will be covered in more detail in this paper. Several examples will be presented that highlight how appropriate scientific strategy can help bridge the gap between delivering to preclinical species and human...
May 2018: Therapeutic Delivery
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