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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148851/airway-geometry-airway-flow-and-particle-measurement-methods-implications-on-pulmonary-drug-delivery
#1
A Kourmatzis, S Cheng, H-K Chan
The effectiveness of drug delivery to the lungs is inextricably linked to the fundamental interactions that occur between particles and flow in the extrathoracic airway. Research in this field requires time resolved in-vivo and in-vitro measurements of three separate, yet intricately linked parameters: i) airway flow, ii) airway geometry, and iii) drug particle characteristics. A number of recent significant developments have been made in the experimental diagnostic tools used to characterise these parameters...
November 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135485/update-on-questionnaires-for-assessing-adherence-to-inhaler-devices-in-respiratory-patients
#2
Vicente Plaza
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It has been estimated that adherence to inhaled medications in patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is around 50%. This low adherence rate increases morbidity and mortality of these disorders. The objective of this review was to update information on main questionnaires used in daily for assessing adherence to inhalers of patients with chronic respiratory diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: The test of the adherence to inhalers (TAI) is a recently developed and validated 12-item questionnaire to assess adherence to inhalers of aerosolized drugs in patients with asthma or COPD...
November 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129177/copd-x-australian-and-new-zealand-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-2017-update
#3
Ian A Yang, Juliet L Brown, Johnson George, Sue Jenkins, Christine F McDonald, Vanessa M McDonald, Kirsten Phillips, Brian J Smith, Nicholas A Zwar, Eli Dabscheck
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by persistent respiratory symptoms and chronic airflow limitation, and is associated with exacerbations and comorbidities. Advances in the management of COPD are updated quarterly in the national COPD guidelines, the COPD-X plan, published by Lung Foundation Australia in conjunction with the Thoracic Society of Australia and New Zealand and available at http://copdx.org.au. Main recommendations: Spirometry detects persistent airflow limitation (post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC < 0...
November 20, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125912/an-in-vitro-examination-of-the-effects-of-altitude-on-dry-powder-inhaler-performance
#4
Conor A Ruzycki, Andrew R Martin, Reinhard Vehring, Warren H Finlay
BACKGROUND: The effects of altitude on dry powder inhaler (DPI) performance remain understudied. As existing standardized testing methodologies do not consider altitude, inhalation devices may be used in environments in which their performance has not been sufficiently characterized. METHODS: Six DPIs spanning a range of device resistances were examined in vitro in an environmental chamber mimicking a high-altitude environment equivalent to an altitude of 4200 m, with controls established at an altitude of 700 m...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122804/the-messages-presented-in-online-electronic-cigarette-promotions-and-discussions-a-scoping-review-protocol
#5
Kahlia McCausland, Bruce Maycock, Jonine Jancey
INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes have become increasingly popular over the last 10 years. These devices represent a new paradigm for tobacco control offering smokers an opportunity to inhale nicotine without inhaling tobacco smoke. To date there are no definite conclusions regarding the safety and long-term health effects of electronic cigarettes; however, there is evidence that they are being marketed online as a healthier alternative to traditional cigarettes. This scoping review aims to identify and describe the breadth of messages (eg, health, smoking-cessation and price related claims) presented in online electronic cigarette promotions and discussions...
November 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108533/a-review-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-once-daily-tiotropium-respimat-2-5-micrograms-in-adults-and-adolescents-with-asthma
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Despite current guidelines, many patients with asthma remain symptomatic, particularly those intolerant of,unresponsive to, or uncontrolled by long-acting beta 2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium bromide, delivered through the Respimatsoft-mist inhaler in 2 puffs of 1.25 micrograms each, is approved for the long-term, maintenance treatment of asthma in patients aged greater than or equal to 6 years. OBJECTIVE: An overview of the use of once-daily tiotropium Respimat 2...
November 6, 2017: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104067/the-application-of-quality-by-design-framework-in-the-pharmaceutical-development-of-dry-powder-inhalers
#7
Francesca Buttini, Stavroula Rozou, Alessandra Rossi, Vera Zoumpliou, Dimitrios M Rekkas
This review aims in discussing the application of the Quality by Design (QbD) approach on the development of the Dry Powders Inhalers (DPIs). It starts with a thorough presentation of the Quality's concept evolution within the pharmaceutical sector and how this slowly adopted set of quality guidelines is now a major scientific and regulatory requirement. DPIs represent a type of delivery system where the system's thinking approach integrating the device, the formulation and the patient represent a major challenge to be met...
November 2, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103669/inhaler-devices-better-management-or-new-devices-the-blind-leading-the-blind
#8
José Luis Viejo-Bañuelos, Joaquín Sanchis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2, 2017: Archivos de Bronconeumología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100914/powder-flow-analysis-a-simple-method-to-indicate-the-ideal-amount-of-lactose-fines-in-dry-powder-inhaler-formulations
#9
Mats Hertel, Eugen Schwarz, Mirjam Kobler, Sabine Hauptstein, Hartwig Steckel, Regina Scherließ
Many efforts have been made in the past to understand the function of lactose fines which are given as a ternary component to carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulations. It is undisputed that fines can significantly improve the performance of such formulations, but choosing the right amount of fines is a crucial point, because too high concentrations can have negative effects on the dispersion performance. The aim of this study was to indicate the optimal concentration of fines with a simple test method...
October 31, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082079/robust-tracking-of-respiratory-rate-in-high-dynamic-range-scenes-using-mobile-thermal-imaging
#10
Youngjun Cho, Simon J Julier, Nicolai Marquardt, Nadia Bianchi-Berthouze
The ability to monitor the respiratory rate, one of the vital signs, is extremely important for the medical treatment, healthcare and fitness sectors. In many situations, mobile methods, which allow users to undertake everyday activities, are required. However, current monitoring systems can be obtrusive, requiring users to wear respiration belts or nasal probes. Alternatively, contactless digital image sensor based remote-photoplethysmography (PPG) can be used. However, remote PPG requires an ambient source of light, and does not work properly in dark places or under varying lighting conditions...
October 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071077/assessing-the-use-of-breathesmart%C3%A2-mobile-technology-in-adult-patients-with-asthma-a-remote-observational-study
#11
Emilie Melvin, Anna Cushing, Anne Tam, Ruri Kitada, Melissa Manice
INTRODUCTION: Non-adherence to asthma daily controller medications is a common problem, reported to be responsible for 60% of asthma-related hospitalisations. The mean level of adherence for asthma medications is estimated to be as low as 22%. Therefore, objective measurements of adherence to medicine are necessary. This virtual observational study is designed to measure the usability of an electronic monitoring device platform that measures adherence. Understanding how patients use the BreatheSmart mobile technology at home is essential to assess its feasibility as a solution to improve medication adherence...
2017: BMJ Open Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064010/toxicity-of-copper-oxide-cuo-nanoparticles-on-human-blood-lymphocytes
#12
Evelyn Assadian, Mohammad Hadi Zarei, Ali Ghanadzadeh Gilani, Mehrzad Farshin, Hamid Degampanah, Jalal Pourahmad
CuO nanoparticles (CuO-NPs) serve several important functions in human life, particularly in the fields of medicine, engineering, and technology. These nanoparticles have been utilized as catalysts, semiconductors, sensors, gaseous and solid ceramic pigments, and magnet rotatable devices. Further use for CuO-NPs has been employed in the pharmaceutical industry especially in the production of anti-microbial fabric treatments or prevention of infections caused by Escherichia coli and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
October 24, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061968/comprehensive-assessment-of-the-safety-of-olodaterol-5%C3%A2-%C3%A2%C2%B5g-in-the-respimat-%C3%A2-device-for-maintenance-treatment-of-copd-comparison-with-the-long-acting-%C3%AE-2-agonist-formoterol
#13
Andrea Koch, Henrik Watz, M Reza Maleki-Yazdi, Ulrich Bothner, Kay Tetzlaff, Florian Voß, Lorcan McGarvey
This analysis provides a comprehensive clinical assessment of the long-term safety of the licensed dose of olodaterol (5 µg once daily [QD] via Respimat(®) inhaler) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by exploring the occurrence of acknowledged side effects of long-acting β2-agonists as well as those included in the olodaterol and formoterol labels. We analysed pooled data from two replicate, double-blind studies of olodaterol (5 µg QD via Respimat(®)) compared to formoterol (12 µg twice daily [BID]) or placebo over 48 weeks (1222...
October 23, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061556/impact-of-an-electronic-monitoring-intervention-to-improve-adherence-to-inhaled-medication-in-patients-with-asthma-and-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Claudia Gregoriano, Thomas Dieterle, Selina Dürr, Isabelle Arnet, Kurt E Hersberger, Jörg D Leuppi
BACKGROUND: Despite progress in pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatment in recent years, the burden of disease among patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high and patients are frequently hospitalized due to exacerbations. Reasons for uncontrolled diseases are manifold, but are often associated with poor inhalation technique and non-adherence to the prescribed treatment plan. This causes substantial mortality, morbidity, and costs to the healthcare system...
October 23, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059313/hypoxic-hypercapnic-and-hyperoxic-responses-of-the-optic-nerve-head-and-subfoveal-choroid-blood-flow-in-healthy-humans
#15
Mathilde Gallice, Thierry Zhou, Florent Aptel, Samuel Verges, Charles Riva, Martial Geiser, Christophe Chiquet
Purpose: To investigate the impact of different gas mixtures (hyperoxia, hypoxia, and hypercapnia) on the optic nerve head (ONH) and choroidal (Ch) hemodynamics. Methods: Twenty-three healthy subjects (28 ± 6 years) took part in the study. Variations in inspired oxygen and carbon dioxide fraction were produced by a gas mixing device. Arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) was measured continuously using a transcutaneous sensor and end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure by capnography...
October 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058607/aerosol-delivery-during-invasive-mechanical-ventilation-a-systematic-review
#16
Jonathan Dugernier, Stephan Ehrmann, Thierry Sottiaux, Jean Roeseler, Xavier Wittebole, Thierry Dugernier, François Jamar, Pierre-François Laterre, Gregory Reychler
BACKGROUND: This systematic review aimed to assess inhaled drug delivery in mechanically ventilated patients or in animal models. Whole lung and regional deposition and the impact of the ventilator circuit, the artificial airways and the administration technique for aerosol delivery were analyzed. METHODS: In vivo studies assessing lung deposition during invasive mechanical ventilation were selected based on a systematic search among four databases. Two investigators independently assessed the eligibility and the risk of bias...
October 21, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058259/a-device-specific-prioritization-strategy-based-on-the-potential-for-harm-to-human-health-in-informal-weee-recycling
#17
Alessandra Cesaro, Vincenzo Belgiorno, Mentore Vaccari, Aleksander Jandric, Tran Duc Chung, Maria Isabel Dias, Andrew Hursthouse, Stefan Salhofer
In developing countries, the recovery of valuable materials from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is carried out via uncontrolled practices, posing potentially severe risks both to human health and the environment. The assessment of the risk, which depends on both the kind and hazardous properties of the substances contained in WEEE, is currently limited as the exposure scenario for the single informal practice cannot be fully characterized for this purpose. In this context, this work proposes and evaluates a strategy to identify the relative potential harm of different kinds of WEEE by their content in metals, selected as the target substances of concern...
October 20, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054499/coupled-in-silico-platform-computational-fluid-dynamics-cfd-and-physiologically-based-pharmacokinetic-pbpk-modelling
#18
Aleksandra Vulović, Tijana Šušteršič, Sandra Cvijić, Svetlana Ibrić, Nenad Filipović
One of the critical components of the respiratory drug delivery is the manner in which the inhaled aerosol is deposited in respiratory tract compartments. Depending on formulation properties, device characteristics and breathing pattern, only a certain fraction of the dose will reach the target site in the lungs, while the rest of the drug will deposit in the inhalation device or in the mouth-throat region. The aim of this study was to link the Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modelling in order to predict aerolisolization of different dry powder formulations, and estimate concomitant in vivo deposition and absorption of amiloride hydrochloride...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053606/lung-toxicity-of-condensed-aerosol-from-e-cig-liquids-influence-of-the-flavor-and-the-in-vitro-model-used
#19
Rossella Bengalli, Emanuele Ferri, Massimo Labra, Paride Mantecca
The diffusion of e-cigarette (e-CIG) opens a great scientific and regulatory debate about its safety. The huge number of commercialized devices, e-liquids with almost infinite chemical formulations and the growing market demand for a rapid and efficient toxicity screen system that is able to test all of these references and related aerosols. A consensus on the best protocols for the e-CIG safety assessment is still far to be achieved, since the huge number of variables characterizing these products (e.g., flavoring type and concentration, nicotine concentration, type of the device, including the battery and the atomizer)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041861/in-vitro-evaluation-of-aerosol-delivery-of-aztreonam-lysine-azli-an-adult-mechanical-ventilation-model
#20
Alejandro Rodríguez, María Cabrera, Luis F Reyes, María Bodí, Sandra Trefler, Laura Canadell, Diego Barahona, Stepham Ehrmann, Ignacio Martin-Loeches, Marcos I Restrepo, Laurent Vecellio
BACKGROUND: The delivery profile of Aztreonam lysine (AZLI) during mechanical ventilation (MV) is unknown. We evaluated the amount of AZLI drug delivered using an in vitro model of adult MV. METHODS: An adult lung model designed to mimic current clinical practice was used. Both nebulizers were placed before a Y-piece and 4 settings were tested: A) Aeroneb solo® [AS] with a t-piece; B) AS with the spacer; C) M-Neb® [MN] with a t-piece and D) MN with the spacer...
October 23, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
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