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José A B Bezerra, Andréia M Silva, Patrícia C Sousa, Lívia B Campos, Érica C G Praxedes, Luana G P Bezerra, Thibério S Castelo, Ana L P Souza, Alexandre R Silva
SummaryThe aim of this study was to establish a functional freezing-thawing protocol for epididymal sperm of collared peccaries (Pecari tajacu L., 1758) by comparing different extenders. The epididymal sperm from 12 sexually mature males was recovered by retrograde flushing using Tris-based or coconut water-based (ACP®-116c) extenders. After initial evaluation, samples were diluted and frozen with the same extenders to which 20% egg yolk and 6% glycerol were added. After 2 weeks, thawing was performed at 37°C/60 s and sperm motility, vigour, morphology, functional membrane integrity, sperm viability, sperm plasma membrane integrity, and a computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) were assessed...
September 17, 2018: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
Merryn G Smith, Stefan K Arndt, Rebecca E Miller, Sabine Kasel, Lauren T Bennett
Non-structural carbohydrates (NSCs) are crucial to support tree resprouting after disturbances that damage the crown or stem. Epicormic resprouting (from stem) could demand more from NSC reserves than basal resprouting (following top-kill), since epicormically resprouting trees need to maintain a greater living biomass. Yet, little is known about NSC use during epicormic resprouting, particularly the relative importance of stem and below-ground NSC reserves. We compared the distribution and magnitude of NSC decreases during epicormic and basal resprouting by experimentally removing crowns or stems of 14-year-old Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér...
September 14, 2018: Tree Physiology
Mohar Singh, Savita Rani, Nikhil Malhotra, Gopal Katna, Ashutosh Sarker
The wild species of chickpea have tremendous potential for enhancing genetic gains of cultigen and have resistant accessions against major biotic and abiotic stresses. In the present study, two wild annual accessions, one each of C. reticulatum Ladiz. (ILWC 229) and C. echinospermum Davis (ILWC 246) were assessed for their agro-morphological features and hybridized with different cultivated varieties (BGD 72, PBG 5, ICKG 96029, Pusa 372 and JG 11) of chickpea. Fertile F1 plants were developed as revealed by their normal meiotic chromosomal configuration including high pollen stainability percentage and seed set...
2018: PloS One
M Bossley, A Steiner, P Brakes, J Shrimpton, C Foster, L Rendell
Social learning of adaptive behaviour is widespread in animal populations, but the spread of arbitrary behaviours is less common. In this paper, we describe the rise and fall of a behaviour called tail walking, where a dolphin forces the majority of its body vertically out of the water and maintains the position by vigourously pumping its tail, in a community of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins ( Tursiops aduncus ). The behaviour was introduced into the wild following the rehabilitation of a wild female individual, Billie, who was temporarily co-housed with trained dolphins in a dolphinarium...
September 2018: Biology Letters
Daniela Haluza, Verena-Maria Schmidt, Gerhard Blasche
AIM: To explore how nurses recover from night shift work during periods off duty. BACKGROUND: Given the large number of affected individuals globally, detrimental health outcomes of night shift work are an important public health issue. Sufficient recovery opportunities are essential to prevent prolonged fatigue associated with demanding tasks and high workload as experienced in nurses working long shifts during the night. METHOD: Nurses (n = 53, 96% females) who worked in two public nursing homes in Austria completed a 5-day diary to collect data on well-being conceptualized by fatigue, distress and vigour...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Greg Deakin, Emma L Tilston, Julie Bennett, Tom Passey, Nicola Harrison, Felicidad Fernández-Fernández, Xiangming Xu
Characterising spatial microbial community structure is important to understand and explain the consequences of continuous plantation of one crop species on the performance of subsequent crops, especially where this leads to reduced growth vigour and crop yield. We investigated the spatial structure, specifically distance-decay of similarity, of soil bacterial and fungal communities in two long-established orchards with contrasting agronomic characteristics. A spatially explicit sampling strategy was used to collect soil from under recently grubbed rows of apple trees and under the grassed aisles...
September 2018: Applied Soil Ecology: a Section of Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment
Patricia Palomo-López, Marta Elena Losa-Iglesias, Ricardo Becerro-de-Bengoa-Vallejo, Daniel López-López, David Rodríguez-Sanz, Carlos Romero-Morales, César Calvo-Lobo
The aims of this research were to evaluate and compare the effect in a matched sample of patients with type II and type I diabetes scores using a specific quality-of-life (QoL) tool related to overall and foot health (Foot Health Status Questionnaire [FHSQ]). A sample of 62 patients with an age median of 59.00 ± 19.00 y were divided into type I (n = 31) and type II (n = 31) diabetes groups. Socio-demographics data include: (1) age, (2) gender, (3) body mass index, (4) professional activity, (5) study level, and (6) civil status...
August 30, 2018: International Wound Journal
José Alberto Laredo-Aguilera, Juan Manuel Carmona-Torres, Felipe García-Pinillos, Pedro Ángel Latorre-Román
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a 10-week functional training (FT) programme on pain, mood state, sleep, and depression in healthy older adults. METHOD: A group of 38 older adults (32 women, 6 men) voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 20; age: 75.44 ± 5.31 years) or the control group (n = 18: age: 76.35 ± 6.45 years). Pain, depression, mood state, and sleep were tested before and after FT...
July 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
Agnieszka Płażek, Franciszek Dubert, Przemysław Kopeć, Michał Dziurka, Agnieszka Kalandyk, Jakub Pastuszak, Piotr Waligórski, Bogdan Wolko
In this article, the effects of cold on the development of Lupine angustifolius and the possibility of mitigating it, via seed hydropriming or pre-treatment with butenolide (10-6 M⁻10-4 M), are investigated in two cultivars, differing in their ability to germinate at low temperature. Physiological background of plant development after cold stress was investigated in imbibed seeds. For the first four weeks, the seedlings grew at 7 °C or 13 °C. Seeds well germinating at 7 °C demonstrated higher activity of α-amylase and higher levels of gibberellins, IAA and kinetin...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maira M Brito, Daniel S R Angrimani, Cristina F Lucio, Camila I Vannucchi
The aim of this study was to compare fresh and post-thaw sperm morphofunctionality of young and old dogs of a case trial study. Young dogs had higher libido and fresh semen motility, vigour and plasmatic membrane integrity. Conversely, senile dogs had higher percentage of major sperm defects (proximal droplets). Young dogs presented higher post-thaw sperm acrosomal membrane integrity and lower percentage of sperm defects compared to senile dogs. In conclusion, senility has deleterious effect on fresh semen, causing high incidence of defected spermatozoa and plasma membrane lesion, decreasing sperm motility and vigour...
August 13, 2018: Andrologia
Cary A Brown, Lisa M Pashniak
BACKGROUND: Burnout, work engagement and work addiction are all considered components of psychological health in the workplace. Past research indicates that healthcare providers face significant challenges to their psychological wellbeing in the workplace. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to determine the extent of these components in a sample of Canadian occupational therapists. METHODS: An anonymous electronic survey including standardized measures of burnout, work engagement and work addiction...
August 6, 2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Shihab Uddin, Shahnaj Parvin, Markus Löw, Glenn J Fitzgerald, Sabine Tausz-Posch, Roger Armstrong, Michael Tausz
The 'CO2 fertilisation effect' is often predicted to be greater under drier than wetter conditions, mainly due to hypothesised early season water savings under elevated [CO2 ] (e[CO2 ]). However, water savings largely depend on the balance between CO2 -induced improvement of leaf-level water use efficiency and CO2 -stimulation of transpiring leaf area. The dynamics of water use during the growing season can therefore vary depending on leaf area development. Two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars of contrasting growth and vigour (vigorous hybrid cv...
October 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Mubashir Hussain, Naveed Iqbal Raja, Muhammad Iqbal, Muhammad Ejaz, Sumaira Aslam, Abd-Ur Rehman, Uneeza Javaid
The biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is substantial for its applications in different fields. The Moringa oleifera leaves were used as reducing and stabilising agent for the biosynthesis of AgNPs. The synthesised AgNPs were characterised through UV-visible spectroscopy, zeta analyser, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive Xray (EDX). In this study, effects of the synthesised AgNPs were also evaluated on nucellus tissues germination frequency and biochemical parameters of plant tissues...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Walter Chitarra, Danila Cuozzo, Alessandra Ferrandino, Francesca Secchi, Sabrina Palmano, Irene Perrone, Paolo Boccacci, Chiara Pagliarani, Ivana Gribaudo, Franco Mannini, Giorgio Gambino
Plant virus infections are often difficult to characterize as they result from a complex molecular and physiological interplay between a pathogen and its host. In this study, the impact of the phloem-limited grapevine virus B (GVB) on the Vitis vinifera L. wine-red cultivar Albarossa was analyzed under field conditions. Trials were carried out over two growing seasons by combining agronomical, molecular, biochemical and ecophysiological approaches. The data showed that GVB did not induce macroscopic symptoms on 'Albarossa', but affected the ecophysiological performances of vines in terms of assimilation rates, particularly at the end of the season, without compromising yield and vigour...
July 28, 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
Xiaomin Wang, Huabin Zheng, Qiyuan Tang
Maturity stage in harvesting time greatly affects seed vigour. This work aimed to scientific harvesting time of hybrid rice for being high vigour with high & stable seed yield. Field experiments of different harvesting time were conducted in 2013-2014, and germination percentage (GP), vigour index (VI), seed moisture content and 1000-grain weight was determined. Both GP and VI progressively increased to peaks and then began to decline with harvesting time delayed, and the regression coefficients of varieties were ranged from 0...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Harekrushna Swain, Totan Adak, Arup K Mukherjee, Prasun K Mukherjee, Pratap Bhattacharyya, Shantiprava Behera, Torit Baran Bagchi, Rashmishree Patro, Shasmita, Ansuman Khandual, M K Bag, T K Dangar, S Lenka, M Jena
This study is the first time report of utilization of Trichoderma spp. isolated from different tree bark from Odisha state of India for rice crop health management and higher productivity. Six isolates of Trichoderma spp. were identified based on the morphological characteristics and species determination was performed by molecular assays. One of the isolated strains determined as Trichoderma erinaceum outperformed others. Trichoderma erinaceum controlled three soil borne plant pathogens i.e. Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotium rolfsii and Sclerotium oryzae effectively under controlled condition and R...
September 2018: Microbiological Research
Carla Benelli, Anna De Carlo
Olea europaea L. cv Canino shoots were micropropagated to test two different culture systems: (1) on conventional semi-solid medium in glass jars and (2) in liquid culture in a Plantform™ bioreactor. The temporary immersion system, Plantform™, is a new propagation approach that uses liquid culture, where shoots undergo periodic immersion in liquid medium alternated with dry periods, avoiding gas accumulation through forced ventilation. This study proposes a protocol to improve in vitro propagation of olive reducing production costs...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Bastien Berret, Carole Castanier, Simon Bastide, Thomas Deroche
People usually move at a self-selected pace in everyday life. Yet, the principles underlying the formation of human movement vigour remain unclear, particularly in view of intriguing inter-individual variability. It has been hypothesized that how the brain values time may be the cornerstone of such differences, beyond biomechanics. Here, we focused on the vigour of self-paced reaching movement and assessed the stability of vigour via repeated measurements within participants. We used an optimal control methodology to identify a cost of time (CoT) function underlying each participant's vigour, considering a model of the biomechanical cost of movement...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anssi Karvonen, Kai Lindström
Parasitism is considered a major selective force in natural host populations. Infections can decrease host condition and vigour, and potentially influence, for example, host population dynamics and behavior such as mate choice. We studied parasite infections of two common marine fish species, the sand goby ( Pomatoschistus minutus ) and the common goby ( Pomatoschistus microps ), in the brackish water Northern Baltic Sea. We were particularly interested in the occurrence of parasite taxa located in central sensory organs, such as eyes, potentially affecting fish behavior and mate choice...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Fanmiao Wang, Toshisangba Longkumer, Sheryl C Catausan, Carla Lenore F Calumpang, Jeshurun A Tarun, Jerome Cattin-Ortola, Takuma Ishizaki, Juan Pariasca Tanaka, Terry Rose, Matthias Wissuwa, Tobias Kretzschmar
Elucidation of the genetic control of rice seedling vigour is now paramount with global shifts towards direct seeding of rice and the consequent demand for early vigour traits in breeding programmes. In a genome-wide association study using an indica-predominant diversity panel, we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and root number in rice seedlings. Among the identified QTLs, one QTL for lateral root number on chromosome 11, qTIPS-11, was associated with a 32.4% increase in lateral root number...
July 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
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