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Ahsan Sethi, Aiman Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical learning environment in dental institutes of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. METHODS: The multi-centre cross-sectional survey was conducted from January to May 2017, and comprised students of three institutes affiliated with three different universities in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province of Pakistan. These included the public-sector Khyber Medical University and two in the private sector: Gandhara University and Riphah International University...
March 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Samantha Goldwater-Adler, Lori Wozney, Patrick J McGrath
BACKGROUND: Early sensitive caregiver-infant interactions form an important foundation for infant development. Although mutual enjoyment is thought to motivate proximity and continued interactions, there is no empirical evidence that mothers enjoy interacting and behaving sensitively. Research to date has focused on the influence of stable/pathological maternal negative emotions on parenting, with parenting often assessed on one occasion only. Therefore, little is known about what accounts for the variability in sensitivity across interactions...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology
Samuel P Hills, David J Rogerson
Self-reported wellness is often used to monitor fatigue responses to training and competition. Constraints within team sports mean short-form wellness questionnaires are typically preferred to literature-validated documents. This research aimed to assess the relationship between self-reported wellness and neuromuscular performance during a professional rugby union season, and to identify changes in these parameters over a 12-week period. On the first training day each week, prior to activity, 37 players rated 5 wellness subscales ('fatigue/vigour', 'upper-body soreness', 'lower-body soreness', 'mood', 'sleep quality/duration'), on a 1-5 Likert scale (1 representing the lowest wellness), and 5-repetition countermovement jumps (CMJ) were completed following a warm-up...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
M Marin, G Laverack, S Matthews, A A Powell
The facultative root hemi-parasite Rhinanthus minor is often used in grassland habitat restoration projects to regulate ecosystem structure and function. Its impact on community productivity and diversity as a function of resource supply, sward composition and management has been widely investigated. However, there is a lack of information about the possible influence of seed quality on the efficacy of the hemi-parasite. Ten seed lots from commercial sources were sown in the field and their germination characteristics were investigated in the laboratory...
February 10, 2018: Plant Biology
Eva-Maria Reuter, Welber Marinovic, Jesse Beikoff, Timothy J Carroll
Alternative motor responses can be prepared in parallel. Here, we used electroencephalography (EEG) to test whether the parallel preparation of alternative response options is modulated by their relative value. Participants performed a choice response task with three potential actions: isometric contraction of the left, the right, or both wrists. An imperative stimulus (IS) appeared after a warning cue, such that the initiation time of a required action was predictable, but the specific action was not. To encourage advanced preparation, the target was presented 200 ms prior to the IS, and only correct responses initiated within ±100 ms of the IS were rewarded...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience
Joaquim Alves da Silva, Fatuel Tecuapetla, Vitor Paixão, Rui M Costa
Deciding when and whether to move is critical for survival. Loss of dopamine neurons (DANs) of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) in patients with Parkinson's disease causes deficits in movement initiation and slowness of movement. The role of DANs in self-paced movement has mostly been attributed to their tonic activity, whereas phasic changes in DAN activity have been linked to reward prediction. This model has recently been challenged by studies showing transient changes in DAN activity before or during self-paced movement initiation...
February 8, 2018: Nature
Kaliamoorthy Sivasakthi, Mahendar Thudi, Murugesan Tharanya, Sandip M Kale, Jana Kholová, Mahamat Hissene Halime, Deepa Jaganathan, Rekha Baddam, Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari, Pooran M Gaur, Rajeev K Varshney, Vincent Vadez
BACKGROUND: Terminal drought stress leads to substantial annual yield losses in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Adaptation to water limitation is a matter of matching water supply to water demand by the crop. Therefore, harnessing the genetics of traits contributing to plant water use, i.e. transpiration rate and canopy development dynamics, is important to design crop ideotypes suited to a varying range of water limited environments. With an aim of identifying genomic regions for plant vigour (growth and canopy size) and canopy conductance traits, 232 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between ICC 4958 and ICC 1882, were phenotyped at vegetative stage under well-watered conditions using a high throughput phenotyping platform (LeasyScan)...
February 6, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Jessica A Conlan, Craig A Humphrey, Andrea Severati, David S Francis
Scleractinian corals are colonial organisms comprising multiple physiologically integrated polyps and branches. Colonialism in corals is highly beneficial, and allows a single colony to undergo several life processes at once through physiological integration and compartmentalised functioning. Elucidating differences in the biochemical composition of intra-colonial branch positions will provide valuable insight into the nutritional reserves underlying different regions in individual coral colonies. This will also ascertain prudent harvesting strategies of wild donor-colonies to generate coral stock with high survival and vigour prospects for reef-rehabilitation efforts and captive husbandry...
2018: PeerJ
Marta Arrizabalaga, Fermín Morales, Mónica Oyarzun, Serge Delrot, Eric Gomès, Juan José Irigoyen, Ghislaine Hilbert, Inmaculada Pascual
The intra-varietal genetic diversity of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) may be exploited to maintain grape quality under future warm conditions, which may alter grape berry development and composition. The present study assesses the effects of elevated temperature on the development of berry, grape composition and anthocyanins:sugars ratio of thirteen clones of V. vinifera. cv. Tempranillo that differed in length of the ripening period (time from veraison to berry total soluble solids, mainly sugars, of ca. 22 °Brix)...
February 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
Alexandre Chan, Claire Lew, Xiao Jun Wang, Terence Ng, Jung-Woo Chae, Hui Ling Yeo, Maung Shwe, Yan Xiang Gan
BACKGROUND: Currently, several fatigue measurement instruments are available to evaluate and measure cancer-related fatigue. Amongst them, Multidimensional Fatigue Syndrome Inventory-Short Form (MFSI-SF) is a self-reported instrument and a multidimensional scale that aims to capture the global, somatic, affective, cognitive and behavioural symptoms of fatigue. This study examines the psychometric properties and measurement equivalence of the English and Chinese versions of MFSI-SF in breast cancer and lymphoma patients in Singapore...
January 19, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
Sophie L Mowles, Michael D Jennions, Patricia R Y Backwell
Males often produce dynamic, repetitive courtship displays that can be demanding to perform and might advertise male quality to females. A key feature of demanding displays is that they can change in intensity: escalating as a male increases his signalling effort, but de-escalating as a signaller becomes fatigued. Here, we investigated whether female fiddler crabs, Uca mjoebergi, are sensitive to changes in male courtship wave rate. We performed playback experiments using robotic male crabs that had the same mean wave rate, but either escalated, de-escalated or remained constant...
January 2018: Biology Letters
Flavio A Cadegiani, Claudio E Kater
Overtraining syndrome (OTS) is caused by an imbalance between training, nutrition and resting, and leads to decreased performance and fatigue; however, the precise underlying triggers of OTS remain unclear. This study investigated the body composition, metabolism, eating, sleeping patterns and mood states among participants with OTS. Selected participants were divided into OTS-affected athletes (OTS, n = 14), healthy athletes (ATL, n = 25), and healthy non-physically active controls (NCS, n = 12). Compared to ATL, OTS showed decreased sleep quality (p = 0...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Sports Sciences
Lu Wang, John W Patrick, Yong-Ling Ruan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 20, 2017: Molecular Plant
C Bhanmeechao, S Srisuwatanasagul, N Prapaiwan, S Ponglowhapan
The present study aimed at investigating age-related changes in epididymal sperm motility, morphology, DNA integrity and androgen receptor (AR) expression in canine reproductive tissues. Fifty-five healthy medium-sized male dogs were divided into four groups: young (1 - 3 years old, n = 14), adult (>3 - 6 years old, n = 12), old (>6 - 9 years old, n = 14) and senile (>9 years old, n = 15). After routine castration, testes, epididymides (head, body and tail) and vas deferens were collected. Spermatozoa were flushed from epididymal tails and their motility, morphology and DNA integrity were examined...
March 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Elena Fernández-Martínez, Elena Andina-Díaz, Rosario Fernández-Peña, Rosa García-López, Iván Fulgueiras-Carril, Cristina Liébana-Presa
Analysis of social networks may be a useful tool for understanding the relationship between resilience and engagement, and this could be applied to educational methodologies, not only to improve academic performance, but also to create emotionally sustainable networks. This descriptive study was carried out on 134 university students. We collected the network structural variables, degree of resilience (CD-RISC 10), and engagement (UWES-S). The computer programs used were excel, UCINET for network analysis, and SPSS for statistical analysis...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Amrit K Nanda, Charles W Melnyk
For millennia, people have cut and joined different plant tissues together through a process known as grafting. By creating a chimeric organism, desirable properties from two plants combine to enhance disease resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, vigour or facilitate the asexual propagation of plants. In addition, grafting has been extremely informative in science for studying and identifying the long-distance movement of molecules. Despite its increasing use in horticulture and science, how plants undertake the process of grafting remains elusive...
January 2018: Journal of Plant Research
Gulbin R Nalçakan, Preeyaphorn Songsorn, Ben L Fitzpatrick, Yasin Yüzbasioglu, Noel E Brick, Richard S Metcalfe, Niels B J Vollaard
Recent studies have demonstrated that modifying the "classic" 6 × 30-s "all-out" sprint interval training protocol by incorporating either shorter sprints (6 × 10-s or 15-s sprints) or fewer sprints (e.g., 2 × 20-s sprints; reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT)) does not attenuate the training-induced improvements in maximal aerobic capacity. The aim of the present study was to determine if reducing the sprint duration in the REHIT protocol from 20 s to 10 s per sprint influences acute affective responses and the change in maximal aerobic capacity following training...
November 24, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
James D Kean, Luke A Downey, Con Stough
Background: The Ayurvedic medicinal system employs a holistic approach to health, utilising the synergistic properties of organic resources. Research into the Ayurvedic herb Bacopa monnieri (L.) Wettst. (B.monnieri) has reported improvements in cognitive outcomes in child and adult populations. The aim of current review is to systematically assess and critically summarize clinical trials investigating B.monnieri-dominant poly-herbal formulas and their effects on the cognition, memory, learning, and behaviour in children and adolescents...
November 22, 2017: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
C E R Ferreira, C S Haas, K L Goularte, M T Rovani, F F Cardoso, A Schneider, B G Gasperin, T Lucia
The paraoxonases types 1, 2 and 3 (PON1, PON2 and PON3, respectively) are enzymes that degrade lipid peroxides, preventing oxidative damages relevant for male reproductive function. This study determined the expression of those three paraoxonases in reproductive tissues of bulls and evaluated correlations among the activity of PON1 in the serum and seminal plasma with breeding soundness parameters in bulls. The expression of PON1, PON2 and PON3 was characterised by RT-PCR in samples of testicular parenchyma, vesicular glands and epididymis collected from three slaughtered bulls...
November 16, 2017: Andrologia
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
Following the obligatory implementation of Integrated Pest Management in the European Union, the plant protection means suitable for application in organic agriculture attracted the attention of quite a wide group of potential users. In spite of the common rules of organic production, as well as the uniform principles of placing plant protection products on the market, the availability of products that can be legally used in organic crop protection differs significantly among the Member States. There is a uniform list of 10 basic substances that can be used in the protection of organic crops throughout the entire EU...
November 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
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