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Carla Benelli, Anna De Carlo
Olea europaea L. cv Canino shoots were micropropagated to test two different culture systems: (1) on conventional semi-solid medium in glass jars and (2) in liquid culture in a Plantform™ bioreactor. The temporary immersion system, Plantform™, is a new propagation approach that uses liquid culture, where shoots undergo periodic immersion in liquid medium alternated with dry periods, avoiding gas accumulation through forced ventilation. This study proposes a protocol to improve in vitro propagation of olive reducing production costs...
July 2018: 3 Biotech
Bastien Berret, Carole Castanier, Simon Bastide, Thomas Deroche
People usually move at a self-selected pace in everyday life. Yet, the principles underlying the formation of human movement vigour remain unclear, particularly in view of intriguing inter-individual variability. It has been hypothesized that how the brain values time may be the cornerstone of such differences, beyond biomechanics. Here, we focused on the vigour of self-paced reaching movement and assessed the stability of vigour via repeated measurements within participants. We used an optimal control methodology to identify a cost of time (CoT) function underlying each participant's vigour, considering a model of the biomechanical cost of movement...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Anssi Karvonen, Kai Lindström
Parasitism is considered a major selective force in natural host populations. Infections can decrease host condition and vigour, and potentially influence, for example, host population dynamics and behavior such as mate choice. We studied parasite infections of two common marine fish species, the sand goby ( Pomatoschistus minutus ) and the common goby ( Pomatoschistus microps ), in the brackish water Northern Baltic Sea. We were particularly interested in the occurrence of parasite taxa located in central sensory organs, such as eyes, potentially affecting fish behavior and mate choice...
June 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Fanmiao Wang, Toshisangba Longkumer, Sheryl C Catausan, Carla Lenore F Calumpang, Jeshurun A Tarun, Jerome Cattin-Ortola, Takuma Ishizaki, Juan Pariasca Tanaka, Terry Rose, Matthias Wissuwa, Tobias Kretzschmar
Elucidation of the genetic control of rice seedling vigour is now paramount with global shifts towards direct seeding of rice and the consequent demand for early vigor traits in breeding programs. In a genome wide association study using an indica-predominant diversity panel we identified quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for root length and root number in rice seedlings. Among the identified QTLs, one QTL for lateral root number on chromosome 11, qTIPS-11, explained was associated with a 32.4% increase in lateral root number...
July 6, 2018: Plant, Cell & Environment
Rob van Treuren, Noor Bas, Jan Kodde, Steven P C Groot, Chris Kik
Genebanks aim to optimize their storage conditions in order to postpone seed ageing as long as possible. As most genebanks have a relatively short life history, empirical data about seed longevity during ex situ storage are almost absent. Based on seed characteristics, theoretical predictions indicate that cereal seeds can be stored without substantial loss of viability for time periods exceeding 100 years, even under temperatures of a few degrees above zero. Here we present the results of a germination study in wheat and barley, comparing genebank seed samples maintained at different temperatures for 23-33 years...
2018: Conservation Physiology
Prashant Kaushik, Mariola Plazas, Jaime Prohens, Santiago Vilanova, Pietro Gramazio
Evaluation and prediction of the performance of hybrids is important in eggplant (Solanum melongena) breeding. A set of 10 morphologically highly diverse eggplant parents, including nine inbred S. melongena and one weedy S. insanum accessions, were intercrossed according to a half-diallel mating design without reciprocals to obtain 45 hybrids. Parents and hybrids were evaluated for 14 morphological and agronomic conventional descriptors and 14 fruit morphometric traits using Tomato Analyzer. Genetic distances among parents were estimated with 7,335 polymorphic SNP markers...
2018: PloS One
Dominic A Evans, A Vanessa Stempel, Ruben Vale, Sabine Ruehle, Yaara Lefler, Tiago Branco
Escaping from imminent danger is an instinctive behaviour that is fundamental for survival, and requires the classification of sensory stimuli as harmless or threatening. The absence of threat enables animals to forage for essential resources, but as the level of threat and potential for harm increases, they have to decide whether or not to seek safety 1 . Despite previous work on instinctive defensive behaviours in rodents2-11 , little is known about how the brain computes the threat level for initiating  escape...
June 2018: Nature
Antonio Parra, José M Moreno
In fire-prone ecosystems, changes in rainfall after fire could differentially affect seeders and resprouters, thus leading to long-lasting impacts on the vegetation. Climate change in the Mediterranean region is projected to reduce precipitation, expand the summer drought and increase fire danger. Understanding the sensitivity to changes in rainfall during the post-fire regeneration stage is critical to anticipate the impacts of climate change on Mediterranean-type areas of the world. Here, we investigated how species differing in post-fire regeneration strategy (seeders vs resprouters) responded to rainfall changes in a Cistus-Erica shrubland of central Spain...
June 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Rita Armoniené, Firuz Odilbekov, Vivekanand Vivekanand, Aakash Chawade
Plant phenotyping by imaging allows automated analysis of plants for various morphological and physiological traits. In this work, we developed a low-cost RGB imaging phenotyping lab (LCP lab) for low-throughput imaging and analysis using affordable imaging equipment and freely available software. LCP lab comprising RGB imaging and analysis pipeline is set up and demonstrated with early vigour analysis in wheat. Using this lab, a few hundred pots can be photographed in a day and the pots are tracked with QR codes...
2018: BioMed Research International
John E Hallsworth
Stress is an inextricable aspect of life, and stress biology has been a field of intensive study over the last 200-300 years. In human psychology, we consider a stress-free condition to be one of relaxation or happiness, yet with respect to microbial cells we do not have a concept that describes being non-stressed. Stresses within, and stress tolerance of, microbial systems lie at the crux of critical global challenges, such as optimising soil- and plant-health and crop yields; reducing food spoilage; bioremediation of polluted environments; effective biological control and biofuel production; gaining insight into aging processes in humans; and understanding astrobiology...
June 2018: Fungal Biology
Athena D McKown, Robert D Guy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 1, 2018: Tree Physiology
Ali Zohaib, Tahira Tabassum, Abdul Jabbar, Shakeel Ahmad Anjum, Tasawer Abbas, Azhar Mehmood, Sohail Irshad, Muhammad Kashif, Mohsin Nawaz, Naila Farooq, Irfan Rasool Nasir, Tassadduq Rasool, Mubashar Nadeem, Riaz Ahmad
Seed nutrients reserves have direct relationship with seed functional traits and influence offspring performance. Effects of plant density, foliage boron (B) nutrition and mepiquat chloride (MC) growth regulation on seed nutrients reserves, seed mass and production, and emergence and offspring growth traits of cotton were studied in two years field experiment. Seed nutrients reserves and seed mass were decreased at higher maternal plant density relative to lower plant density with concomitant decrease in emergence and offspring seedling growth...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charlotte Jensen, Michael Ørsted, Torsten Nygaard Kristensen
Habitat fragmentation and small population sizes can lead to inbreeding and loss of genetic variation, which can potentially cause inbreeding depression and decrease the ability of populations to adapt to altered environmental conditions. One solution to these genetic problems is the implementation of genetic rescue, which re-establishes gene flow between separated populations. Similar techniques are being used in animal and plant breeding to produce superior production animals and plants. To optimize fitness benefits in genetic rescue programs and to secure high yielding domestic varieties in animal and plant breeding, knowledge on the genetic relatedness of populations being crossed is imperative...
May 14, 2018: Genetica
Pedro Lanzas, Francisco Perfectti, Manuel A Garrido-Ramos, Carmelo Ruíz-Rejón, Mónica González-Sánchez, María Puertas, Juan Pedro M Camacho
B chromosomes have been reported in about 15% of eukaryotes, but long-term dynamics of B chromosomes in a single natural population has rarely been analyzed. Prospero autumnale plants collected in 1981 and 1983 at Cuesta de La Palma population had shown the presence of B chromosomes. We analyze here seven additional samples collected between 1987 and 2015, and show that B frequency increased significantly during the 1980s and showed minor fluctuations between 2005 and 2015. A mother-offspring analysis of B chromosome transmission, at population level, showed significant drive on the male side (kB  = 0...
May 9, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Dan G Bock, Michael B Kantar, Celine Caseys, Remi Matthey-Doret, Loren H Rieseberg
Invasion success of species introduced to novel environments may be facilitated by adaptive evolution and by phenotypic plasticity. Here we investigate the independent and joint contribution of both mechanisms as drivers of invasiveness in the perennial sunflower Helianthus tuberosus. We show that invasive genotypes have multiple origins, and that invasive spread was facilitated by the repeated evolution of extreme values in a single trait, clonality. In line with genetic accommodation theory, we establish that this evolutionary transition occurred by refining a preexisting plastic response of clonality to water availability...
June 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Feng Cheng, Jian Wu, Xu Cai, Jianli Liang, Michael Freeling, Xiaowu Wang
All natural plant species are evolved from ancient polyploids. Polyloidization plays an important role in plant genome evolution, species divergence and crop domestication. We review how the pattern of polyploidy within the plant phylogenetic tree has engendered hypotheses involving mass extinctions, lag-times following polyploidy, and epochs of asexuality. Polyploidization has happened repeatedly in plant evolution and, we conclude, is important for crop domestication. Once duplicated, the effect of purifying selection on any one duplicated gene is relaxed, permitting duplicate gene and regulatory element loss (fractionation)...
May 2018: Nature Plants
AnnMarie Groarke, Ruth Curtis, Deirdre M J Walsh, Francis J Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Incidence of prostate cancer is increasing as opportunistic screening becomes widespread and life expectancy rises. Despite screening availability, research reveals conflicting results on medical outcomes, for example, disease specific mortality. However the gold standard in early diagnosis of potentially curable organ confined prostate cancer is transrectal ultrasound-guided systematic prostate biopsy (TRUS-BX). While focus has been given to medical sequalae there is a paucity of research on the psychological impact of biopsy...
April 24, 2018: BMC Urology
Le Yuan Ma, Nian Lai Chen, Guo Jun Han, Liang Li
This research investigated the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 mmol·L-1 ) of salicylic acid on the seed germination and physiological characteristics of legume forage Coronilla varia (cultivar 'Lvbaoshi') under PEG-6000 (concentration 8% and 12%) simulated drought stress. The results showed that under drought stress, 0.5-1.0 mmol·L-1 salicylic acid significantly increased germination percentage, germination vigour, germination index, vitality index and bud length of C. varia. Under the stress of 12% PEG, the dry mass of C...
October 2017: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Titir Guha, K V G Ravikumar, Amitava Mukherjee, Anita Mukherjee, Rita Kundu
Engineered nanoparticles are utilized in agriculture for various purposes. They can be used as fertilizer, carrier for macro/micro nutrients or priming agents. Various nanoparticles are reported to have toxicity at very high doses, but at optimum concentration, they can be beneficial for plant growth and development. In the present study, low concentrations of nZVI nanoparticles were evaluated for their growth enhancement potential as seed priming agent in an aromatic rice cultivar, Oryza sativa cv. Gobindabhog...
June 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Murugesan Tharanya, Jana Kholova, Kaliamoorthy Sivasakthi, Deepmala Seghal, Charles Tom Hash, Basker Raj, Rakesh Kumar Srivastava, Rekha Baddam, Thiyagarajan Thirunalasundari, Rattan Yadav, Vincent Vadez
Four genetic regions associated with water use traits, measured at different levels of plant organization, and with agronomic traits were identified within a previously reported region for terminal water deficit adaptation on linkage group 2. Close linkages between these traits showed the value of phenotyping both for agronomic and secondary traits to better understand plant productive processes. Water saving traits are critical for water stress adaptation of pearl millet, whereas maximizing water use is key to the absence of stress...
April 21, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
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