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S C Reynolds, C G Marston, H Hassani, G C P King, M R Bennett
Climate shifts at decadal scales can have environmental consequences, and therefore, identifying areas that act as environmental refugia is valuable in understanding future climate variability. Here we illustrate how, given appropriate geohydrology, a rift basin and its catchment can buffer vegetation response to climate signals on decadal time-scales, therefore exerting strong local environmental control. We use time-series data derived from Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) residuals that record vegetation vigour, extracted from a decadal span of MODIS images, to demonstrate hydrogeological buffering...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lin Huang, Lluis Capdevila
OBJECTIVE: This study analyzed the efficacy of aromatherapy in improving work performance and reducing workplace stress. SUBJECTS: The initial sample comprised 42 administrative university workers (Mage = 42.21 years, standard deviation = 7.12; 10 male). INTERVENTION: All sessions were performed in a university computer classroom. The participants were randomly assigned into an aromatherapy group (AG) and a control group (CG), and they were invited to participate in a specific session only once...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Núria Vallverdú-Coll, Francois Mougeot, Manuel E Ortiz-Santaliestra, Cristina Castaño, Julián Santiago-Moreno, Rafael Mateo
Lead (Pb) poisoning via ingestion of shot pellets is a frequent cause of death in wild birds and also has a wide range of subclinical effects. Here we report on the sublethal effects Pb exposure has on the breeding performance of red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). We studied the effects of Pb exposure on sperm quality, reproductive success, egg properties, laying performance, antioxidants levels and carotenoid-based colouration. Birds were exposed by oral gavage to one or three No. 6 Pb shot pellets (2...
October 18, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Tino Colombi, Serge Braun, Thomas Keller, Achim Walter
The structure of compacted soils is characterised by decreased (macro-)porosity, which leads to increased mechanical impedance and decreased fluid transport rates, resulting in reduced root growth and crop productivity. Particularly in soils with high mechanical impedance, macropores can be used by roots as pathways of least resistance. This study investigated how different soil physical states relate to whole plant growth and whether roots grow towards spots with favourable soil physical conditions. Experiments were conducted under controlled and field conditions...
October 3, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Damien McKay, Carolyn Broderick, Katharine Steinbeck
With the advent of long term athlete development programs and early sport specialisation, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development...
October 5, 2016: Pediatric Exercise Science
Clara Mockdece Neves, Juliana Fernandes Filgueiras Meireles, Pedro Henrique Berbert de Carvalho, Astrid Schubring, Natalie Barker-Ruchti, Maria Elisa Caputo Ferreira
Body dissatisfaction is prevalent in women's artistic gymnastics (WAG). Cross-sectional research points to social and individual risk factors, however it does not account for potential changes in body dissatisfaction during an athletic season. This study aimed to determine how gymnasts' body dissatisfaction, risk factors for eating disorders, media internalisation, perfectionism and mood state change during pre-competition, competition and post-competition seasons and to identify how these psychosocial indicators impact on body dissatisfaction during the athletic year...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Dan G O'Neill
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Veterinary Journal
Olga M Grant, Conor O'Reilly
Future limited water availability may reduce the potential of tree improvement to increase timber yields. We investigated ecophysiological variation between full-sibling families of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) growing under contrasting water availability conditions: control (optimal) water availability and limited water availability. One-year-old seedlings of nine improved families plus an unimproved seed lot were grown in pots in a greenhouse and the two water availability treatments imposed via drip irrigation...
September 27, 2016: Tree Physiology
Adam Michael Szlezak, Lotti Tajouri, Siri Lauluten Szlezak, James Keane, Clare Minahan
BACKGROUND: The present study examined the effect of a micro-dose of resistance-exercise on serum DHEA-S, IL-6 and mood-state determinants. Potential relationships between mood and the biomarkers were also studied with the aim of directing research on non-invasive exercise-monitoring methods. METHODS: 30 male participants (20 weightlifting-trained; 10 untrained) were separated into 3 groups of 10: weightlifting experimental (WLEXP); untrained experimental (UTEXP); weightlifting placebo (WLPLA)...
2016: SpringerPlus
James A Birchler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 7, 2016: Nature
Chantal Le Marié, Norbert Kirchgessner, Patrick Flütsch, Johannes Pfeifer, Achim Walter, Andreas Hund
BACKGROUND: Phenotyping of genotype-by-environment interactions in the root-zone is of major importance for crop improvement as the spatial distribution of a plant's root system is crucial for a plant to access water and nutrient resources of the soil. However, so far it is unclear to what extent genetic variations in root system responses to spatially varying soil resources can be utilized for breeding applications. Among others, one limiting factor is the absence of phenotyping platforms allowing the analysis of such interactions...
2016: Plant Methods
Emer Van Ryswyk, Richard Weeks, Laura Bandick, Michaela O'Keefe, Andrew Vakulin, Peter Catcheside, Laura Barger, Andrew Potter, Nick Poulos, Jarryd Wallace, Nick A Antic
OBJECTIVES: To improve well-being and performance indicators in a group of Australian Football League (AFL) players via a six-week sleep optimisation programme. DESIGN: Prospective intervention study following observations suggestive of reduced sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness in an AFL group. METHODS: Athletes from the Adelaide Football Club were invited to participate if they had played AFL senior-level football for 1-5 years, or if they had excessive daytime sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] >10), measured via ESS...
August 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
Anyu Zhu, Ian K Greaves, Pei-Chuan Liu, Limin Wu, Elizabeth S Dennis, W James Peacock
Hybrid vigour (heterosis) has been used for decades in crop industries, especially in the production of maize and rice. Hybrid varieties usually exceed their parents in plant biomass and seed yield. But the molecular basis of hybrid vigour is not fully understood. In this project, we studied heterosis at early stages of seedling development in Arabidopsis hybrids derived from crossing Ler and C24 accessions. We found that early heterosis is associated with non-additive gene expression that resulted from earlier changes in gene expression in the hybrids relative to the parents...
July 27, 2016: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Ana I Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas
Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Billy McBenedict, Percy Chimwamurombe, Ezekeil Kwembeya, Gillian Maggs-Kölling
Current Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. BR. cultivars in Namibia have overall poor performance posing a threat to the nation's food security because this crop is staple for over 70% of the Namibian population. The crop suffers from undesirable production traits such as susceptibility to diseases, low yield, and prolonged reproductive cycle. This study aimed to understand the genetic diversity of the crop in Namibia by simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and morphology analysis. A total of 1441 genotypes were collected from the National Gene Bank representing all the Namibian landraces...
2016: TheScientificWorldJournal
Karl Morris, Guy C Barker, Peter G Walley, James R Lynn, William E Finch-Savage
Predictable seedling establishment is essential for resource-efficient and cost-effective crop production; it is widely accepted as a critically important trait determining yield and profitability. Seed vigour is essential to this, but its genetic basis is not understood. We used natural variation and fine mapping in the crop Brassica oleracea to show that allelic variation at three loci influence the key vigour trait of rapid germination. Functional analysis in both B. oleracea and the model Arabidopsis identified and demonstrated activity of genes at these loci...
July 19, 2016: New Phytologist
Raphael Koster, Tricia X Seow, Raymond J Dolan, Emrah Düzel
Novelty seeking has been tied to impulsive choice and biased value based choice. It has been postulated that novel stimuli should trigger more vigorous approach and exploration. However, it is unclear whether stimulus novelty can enhance simple motor actions in the absence of explicit reward, a necessary condition for energizing approach and exploration in an entirely unfamiliar situation. In this study human subjects were cued to omit or perform actions in form of button presses by novel or familiar images...
2016: PloS One
Frank W Nicholas, Elizabeth R Arnott, Paul D McGreevy
Evidence from other species justifies the hypotheses that useful hybrid vigour occurs in dogs and that it can be exploited for improved health, welfare and fitness for purpose. Unfortunately, most of the relevant published canine studies do not provide estimates of actual hybrid vigour because of inadequate specification of the parentage of mixed-bred dogs. To our knowledge, only three published studies have shed any light on actual hybrid vigour in dogs. There are two reports of actual hybrid vigour between Labrador and Golden retrievers, the first ranging from +2...
August 2016: Veterinary Journal
William B McKinnon, Francis Nimmo, Teresa Wong, Paul M Schenk, Oliver L White, J H Roberts, J M Moore, J R Spencer, A D Howard, O M Umurhan, S A Stern, H A Weaver, C B Olkin, L A Young, K E Smith
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 6, 2016: Nature
Tomás Ahern, Agnieszka Swiecicka, Robert J A H Eendebak, Emma L Carter, Joseph D Finn, Stephen R Pye, Terence W O'Neill, Leen Antonio, Brian Keevil, György Bartfai, Felipe F Casanueva, Gianni Forti, Aleksander Giwercman, Thang S Han, Krzysztof Kula, Michael E J Lean, Neil Pendleton, Margus Punab, Giulia Rastrelli, Martin K Rutter, Dirk Vanderschueren, Ilpo T Huhtaniemi, Frederick C W Wu
OBJECTIVE: In ageing men, the incidence and clinical significance of testosterone (T) decline accompanied by elevated luteinizing hormone (LH) are unclear. We describe the natural history, risk factors and clinical features associated with the development of biochemical primary hypogonadism (PHG, T < 10·5 nmol/l and LH>9·4U/l) in ageing men. DESIGN, PATIENTS AND MEASUREMENTS: A prospective observational cohort survey of 3,369 community-dwelling men aged 40-79 years, followed up for 4·3 years...
July 4, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
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