Read by QxMD icon Read


Anders Breinbjerg, Charlotte Siggaard Rittig, Niels Gregersen, Søren Rittig, Jane Hvarregaard Christensen
AIM: Bartter syndrome is an autosomal recessive inherited disease in which patients present with hypokalaemia and metabolic alkalosis. We present two apparently non-related cases with antenatal Bartter syndrome type I, due to a novel variant in the SLC12A1 gene encoding the bumetanide-sensitive sodium-(potassium)-chloride cotransporter 2 in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle. METHODS: Blood samples were received from the two cases and 19 of their relatives and deoxyribonucleic acid was extracted...
October 17, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
Mei Hong Zhu, Tae Sik Sung, Masaaki Kurahashi, Lauren E O'Kane, Kate O'Driscoll, Sang Don Koh, Kenton M Sanders
ICC generate electrical slow waves by coordinated openings of ANO1 channels, a Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) (CaCC) conductance. Efflux of Cl(-) during slow waves must be significant as there is high current density during slow wave currents and slow waves are of sufficient magnitude to depolarize the syncytium of smooth muscle cells and PDGFRα(+) cells to which they are electrically coupled. We investigated how the driving force for Cl(-) current is maintained in ICC. We found robust expression of Slc12a2 (which encodes a Na(+)K(+)Cl(-) cotransporter, NKCC1) and immunohistochemical confirmation that NKCC1 is expressed in ICC...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Anita T Layton, Kamel Laghmani, Volker Vallon, Aurélie Edwards
Sodium and its associated anions are the major determinant of extracellular fluid volume, and renal Na+ reabsorption plays a crucial role in long-term blood pressure control. The goal of this study was to investigate the extent to which inhibitors of transepithelial Na$^+$ transport (T$_{\rm Na}$) along the nephron alter urinary solute excretion and T$_{\rm Na}$ efficiency, and how those effects may vary along different nephron segments. We used the multi-nephron model developed in the companion study [28], which represents detailed transcellular and paracellular transport processes along the nephrons of a rat kidney...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Karel Allegaert, Amir Lahav, John N van den Anker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 24, 2016: Paediatric Drugs
Vernon Min Sen Oh
According to the Singapore National Health Survey (NHS) of 2010, the population of the Republic of Singapore was 5.076,700, comprising four ethnic groups: Chinese (74.1%), Malays (13.4%), Indians (9.2%), and others (3.3%). The National Health Survey for 2016 is under way and due to be published in 2017. From the six-yearly national health surveys, the crude prevalence of clinical hypertension (HTn), defined as a sustained blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg, in Singaporean residents aged 30 to 69 years rose from 22...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yung-Jen Huang, Kuan H Lee, Lauren Murphy, Sandra M Garraway, James W Grau
Noxious input can sensitize pain (nociceptive) circuits within the spinal cord, inducing a lasting increase in spinal cord neural excitability (central sensitization) that is thought to contribute to chronic pain. The development of spinally-mediated central sensitization is regulated by descending fibers and GABAergic interneurons. The current study provides evidence that spinal cord injury (SCI) transforms how GABA affects nociceptive transmission within the spinal cord, recapitulating an earlier developmental state wherein GABA has an excitatory effect...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
Fushun Wang, Xiaowei Wang, Lee A Shapiro, Maria L Cotrina, Weimin Liu, Ernest W Wang, Simeng Gu, Wei Wang, Xiaosheng He, Maiken Nedergaard, Jason H Huang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is not only a leading cause for morbidity and mortality in young adults (Bruns and Hauser, Epilepsia 44(Suppl 10):210, 2003), but also a leading cause of seizures. Understanding the seizure-inducing mechanisms of TBI is of the utmost importance, because these seizures are often resistant to traditional first- and second-line anti-seizure treatments. The early post-traumatic seizures, in turn, are a contributing factor to ongoing neuropathology, and it is critically important to control these seizures...
September 1, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Mingkun Zhang, Zhenwen Cui, Hua Cui, Yang Cao, Chunlong Zhong, Yong Wang
BACKGROUND: Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment that possesses potent antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, and immunomodulatory activities. Previous studies have demonstrated that astaxanthin displays potential neuroprotective properties for the treatment of central nervous system diseases, such as ischemic brain injury and subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study explored whether astaxanthin is neuroprotective and ameliorates neurological deficits following traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Hiromitsu Miyazaki, Philine Wangemann, Daniel C Marcus
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of acid-base balance in the inner ear is known to be associated with hearing loss in a number of conditions including genetic mutations and pharmacologic interventions. Several previous physiologic and immunohistochemical observations lead to proposals of the involvement of acid-base transporters in stria vascularis. RESULTS: We directly measured acid flux in vitro from the apical side of isolated stria vascularis from adult C57Bl/6 mice with a novel constant-perfusion pH-selective self-referencing probe...
2016: BMC Physiology
Georgina MacKenzie, Kate K O'Toole, Stephen J Moss, Jamie Maguire
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) is the most common form of primary brain tumor with 30-50% of patients presenting with epilepsy. These tumor-associated seizures are often resistant to traditional antiepileptic drug treatment and persist after tumor resection. This suggests that changes in the peritumoral tissue underpin epileptogenesis. It is known that glioma cells extrude pathological concentrations of glutamate which is thought to play a role in tumor progression and the development of epilepsy. Given that pathological concentrations of glutamate have been shown to dephosphorylate and downregulate the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2, we hypothesized that glioma-induced alterations in KCC2 in the peritumoral region may play a role in tumor-associated epilepsy...
October 2016: Epilepsy Research
Fei Teng, Meng Guo, Fang Liu, Ce Wang, Jiayong Dong, Lei Zhang, You Zou, Rui Chen, Keyan Sun, Hong Fu, Zhiren Fu, Wenyuan Guo, Guoshan Ding
A central aim in cancer research is to identify genes with altered expression patterns in tumor specimens and their potential role in tumorigenesis. Most types of tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), are heterogeneous in terms of genotype and phenotype. Thus, traditional analytical methods like the t-test fail to identify all oncogenes from expression profiles. In this study, we performed a meta-Cancer Outlier Profile Analysis (meta-COPA) across six microarray datasets for HCC from the GEO database...
July 18, 2016: Oncotarget
Eszter Vizvári, Máté Katona, Péter Orvos, Orsolya Berczeli, Andrea Facskó, Ferenc Rárosi, Viktória Venglovecz, Zoltán Rakonczay, Péter Hegyi, Chuanqing Ding, Edit Tóth-Molnár
PURPOSE: We recently reported that isolated duct segments from rabbit lacrimal gland (LG) were able to secrete fluid in response to secretagogues, which were blocked completely by bumetanide. This suggests the functional involvement of Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter (NKCC1) in ductal fluid secretion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the activity profile of NKCC1 in isolated rabbit LG duct segments. METHODS: Interlobular ducts were isolated from fresh rabbit LG tissue...
July 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Guanghai Liu, Tiangui Zhu, Aihua Zhang, Feng Li, Weidong Qian, Bin Qian
OBJECTIVE: Children with repeated exposures to anesthesia at an early age are at an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Data in the literature link increased developmental depolarizing γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABAAR) at younger age to neurodevelopmental disorders. Here we investigated the involvement of GABAergic signaling during development in mediating the adverse effects of repeated sevoflurane exposures. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats received repeated exposures to 3 % sevoflurane for 2 h daily for 3 consecutive days on postnatal days (P) 4, 5, and 6; maternally separated and unseparated rats served as controls...
October 2016: Journal of Anesthesia
Christine E Shulenberger, Anthony Jiang, Sandeep Devabhakthuni, Vijay Ivaturi, Tao Liu, Brent N Reed
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) chlorothiazide versus oral metolazone when added to loop diuretics in patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) and loop diuretic resistance. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Large urban academic medical center. PATIENTS: Adults admitted with ADHF between 2005 and 2015 who had loop diuretic resistance, defined as administration of IV furosemide at a dose of 160 mg/day or higher (or an equivalent dose of IV bumetanide), during hospitalization, and who then received at least one dose of IV chlorothiazide (88 patients) or oral metolazone (89 patients) to augment diuresis...
August 2016: Pharmacotherapy
W-L Xu, Y Wang, J Wu, G-Y Li
OBJECTIVE: To develop an in vitro model under conditions that highly resemble the in vivo situation for searching new therapeutics targeting invasive glioma cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We generated organotypic brain slice "co-cultures" (OBSC) from mice and cultured the models on Millicell-CM membrane inserts. U251MG glioma cells expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) were established. After cultured the glioma cells to form spheroids, we implanted the spheroids onto brain slice surface...
June 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Wang-Shu Xu, Xuan Sun, Cheng-Guang Song, Xiao-Peng Mu, Wen-Ping Ma, Xing-Hu Zhang, Chuan-Sheng Zhao
Bumetanide has been shown to lessen cerebral edema and reduce the infarct area in the acute stage of cerebral ischemia. Few studies focus on the effects of bumetanide on neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia. We established a rat model of cerebral ischemia by injecting endothelin-1 in the left cortical motor area and left corpus striatum. Seven days later, bumetanide 200 µg/kg/day was injected into the lateral ventricle for 21 consecutive days with a mini-osmotic pump. Results demonstrated that the number of neuroblasts cells and the total length of dendrites increased, escape latency reduced, and the number of platform crossings increased in the rat hippocampal dentate gyrus in the chronic stage of cerebral ischemia...
May 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
Robert J Heuermann, Dane Chetkovich
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2016: Epilepsy Currents
A E Hernan, G L Holmes
The highest risk of seizures across the lifespan is in the neonatal period. The enhanced excitability of the immature brain compared to the mature brain is related to the sequential development and expression of essential neurotransmitter signaling pathways. During the neonatal period there is an overabundance of excitatory receptors, and γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) is potentially depolarizing, as opposed to hyperpolarizing in the older brain. While this enhanced excitability is required for regulation of activity-dependent synapse formation and refining of synaptic connections that are necessary for normal brain development, enhanced excitability predisposes the immature brain to seizures...
2016: Progress in Brain Research
Kevin V Brix, Martin Grosell
This study provided an initial characterization of Na(+) uptake in saline freshwater by the endangered pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius. This species occurs only in several saline water systems in the southwestern USA and northern Mexico, where salinity is largely controlled by water-management practices. Consequently, understanding the osmoregulatory capacity of this species is important for their conservation. The lower acclimation limit of C. macularius in freshwater was found to be 2 mM Na(+). Fish acclimated to 2 or 7 mM Na(+) displayed similar Na(+) uptake kinetics, with K m values of 4321 and 3672 μM and V max values of 4771 and 3602 nmol g(-1) h(-1), respectively...
2013: Conservation Physiology
Nicole Glaser, Christopher Little, Weei Lo, Michael Cohen, Daniel Tancredi, Heike Wulff, Martha O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) causes brain injuries in children ranging from subtle to life-threatening. Previous studies suggest that DKA-related brain injury may involve both stimulation of Na-K-Cl cotransport and microglial activation. Other studies implicate the Na-K-Cl cotransporter and the Ca-activated K channel KCa3.1 in activation of microglia and ischemia-induced brain edema. In this study, we determined whether inhibiting cerebral Na-K-Cl cotransport or KCa3.1 could reduce microglial activation and decrease DKA-related inflammatory changes in the brain...
May 13, 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"