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Disability accommodation

Alix Gould-Werth, Katherine Morrison, Yonatan Ben-Shalom
Introduction Timely and appropriate accommodations can help employees who experience disabilities stay at work instead of exiting the labor force. Employers can play a critical role in connecting such workers with the accommodations they need. This qualitative study seeks to inform policy makers who want to improve workforce retention outcomes by uncovering factors that affect whether employers provide accommodations to, and ultimately retain, employees with disabilities. Methods We conducted semistructured interviews with a convenience sample of human resources professionals in 14 Arkansas-based employers, yielding detailed information on 50 cases in which an employee developed or disclosed a disability...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation
Emily M Agree, Douglas A Wolf
The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) has provided extensive and detailed national data on disability since it began in 1992, and has been used extensively in studies of disability trends and trajectories. We summarize conceptual frameworks used to characterize disability and review the HRS measures of functioning, work disability, and employer accommodations. HRS survey questions have experienced changes in wording, skip logic, or other design features over the life of the study, and we comment on the analytic challenges posed by those changes...
October 31, 2017: Forum for Health Economics & Policy
Marloes Heutmekers, Geraline L Leusink
OBJECTIVE: To compare use of the GP cooperative and the level of urgency among people with intellectual disabilities (ID) who live in sheltered accommodation with that of the general population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We investigated all healthcare-contact moments in 2014 among 432,582 people living in the servicearea covered by two GP cooperatives in one region of the Netherlands (Boxmeer, Nijmegen). In this region a total of 1,448 people with ID living in sheltered accommodation were identified on the basis of address details...
July 27, 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
Heejung Kim, Ah Ram Chang, Sungwoo Cho, Sung-Joon Ye
BACKGROUND: A wide application of ultrasound for radiation therapy has been hindered by a few issues such as skin and target deformations due to probe pressure, optical tracking disabilities caused by irregular surfaces and inter-user variations. The purpose of this study was to overcome these barriers by using a patient-specific three-dimensional (3D) couplant pad (CP). METHODS: A patient skin mold was designed using a skin contour of simulation CT images and fabricated by a 3D printer...
September 3, 2018: Radiation Oncology
Ebenezer Dassah, Heather M Aldersey, Mary Ann McColl, Colleen Davison
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities recognizes the rights of persons with disabilities' access to health care, including primary health care (PHC). However, growing evidence indicates that individuals in rural areas generally experience health access issues, and these issues are even worse for those with physical disabilities. Knowledge about such experiences is critical for policy design and clinical practice to promote PHC access for persons with physical disabilities in rural areas...
August 23, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Jingsheng Tang, Yadong Liu, Dewen Hu, ZongTan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalogram-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) represent novel human machine interactive technology that allows people to communicate and interact with the external world without relying on their peripheral muscles and nervous system. Among BCI systems, brain-actuated wheelchairs are promising systems for the rehabilitation of severely motor disabled individuals who are unable to control a wheelchair by conventional interfaces. Previous related studies realized the easy use of brain-actuated wheelchairs that enable people to navigate the wheelchair through simple commands; however, these systems rely on offline calibration of the environment...
August 20, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Jenny Hall, Vanora Hundley, Bethan Collins, Jillian Ireland
BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing number of women with disability globally becoming pregnant, there is currently limited research about their experiences. A national survey of women's experience of dignity and respect during pregnancy and childbirth raised concerns about the possibility of women with disability having unequal care with overall less choice and control. To address this further we conducted a study to explore the experiences of dignity and respect in childbirth of women with disability...
August 13, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Abdullah Bin Zahid, Molly E Hubbard, Julia Lockyer, Olivia Podolak, Vikalpa M Dammavalam, Matthew Grady, Michael Nance, Mitchell Scheiman, Uzma Samadani, Christina L Master
OBJECTIVE: Concussion is the most common type of brain injury in both pediatric and adult populations and can potentially result in persistent postconcussion symptoms. Objective assessment of physiologic "mild" traumatic brain injury in concussion patients remains challenging. This study evaluates an automated eye-tracking algorithm as a biomarker for concussion as defined by its symptoms and the clinical signs of convergence insufficiency and accommodation dysfunction in a pediatric population...
August 8, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Bruno Guimarães, Béda Barkokébas Junior, Laura Martins
BACKGROUND: The employment rates of people with disabilities (PWDs) are lower than the general population in many countries because of several factors, including prejudices about labour production and absenteeism of these workers. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the research was to evaluate the absenteeism of PWDs in the construction industry in the metropolitan area of Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: Study participants were workers with disabilities that performed jobs at the work sites in the construction industry...
2018: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
Michelle Giusto, Linnea C Ehri
This experiment examined whether a partial read-aloud accommodation with pacing (PRAP) would improve the reading comprehension of poor decoders but not average decoders compared to standard testing procedures. Participants were 82 third graders with at least average listening comprehension skills: 28 were poor decoders, and 54 were average decoders; mean age 8 years, 9 months (8:9). In the PRAP condition, students' were paced through the Gates MacGinitie reading comprehension test. The examiner read aloud only directions, proper nouns, and questions with multiple choice answers while students read the passages independently...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Learning Disabilities
Aparna Raghuram, Sowjanya Gowrisankaran, Emily Swanson, David Zurakowski, David G Hunter, Deborah P Waber
Importance: Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a specific learning disability of neurobiological origin whose core cognitive deficit is widely believed to involve language (phonological) processing. Although reading is also a visual task, the potential role of vision in DD has been controversial, and little is known about the integrity of visual function in individuals with DD. Objective: To assess the frequency of visual deficits (specifically vergence, accommodation, and ocular motor tracking) in children with DD compared with a control group of typically developing readers...
July 19, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Hridaya Raj Devkota, Emily Murray, Maria Kett, Nora Groce
BACKGROUND: Studies report that vulnerable groups like people with disabilities have less access to healthcare. This study compares health service access between women with and without disabilities in general and explores the challenges encountered by women with disabilities in accessing maternal healthcare services during pregnancy. METHODS: A mixed method study was conducted in Rupandehi district of Nepal implementing a cross-sectional survey among 354 women including 79 women with disabilities, supplemented by 43 in-depth interviews...
2018: PloS One
Ignacio Ghersi, Mario Mariño, Mónica Teresita Miralles
BACKGROUND: Recent scientific achievements and technological advances have brought forward a massive display of new or updated medical devices, enabled with highly-developed embedded-control functions and interactivity. From the final decade of the twentieth century, medical beds have particularly been affected by this surge, taking on new forms and functions, while accommodating to established properties that have become well-known for these devices. The past fifteen years have also brought forward changes to conceptual frameworks, concerning the product design and manufacturing processes (standards), as well as the patient (perspectives on patient-care environments and accessibility)...
July 9, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Adam Clifford, P J Standen, Jo Jones
BACKGROUND: Transforming Care is making mixed progress in supporting people with intellectual and developmental disabilities, and complex needs, move to more appropriate specialist accommodations closer to home. Community support staff often spend greatest amounts of time with service-users, yet are some of the least heard voices about why placements succeed and fail to varying extents. METHOD: Managers and support staff (n = 13), working in ostensibly "specialist" community placements, were interviewed about perceived barriers and facilitators to implementing Transforming Care...
June 27, 2018: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
Paul R Torgerson, Simon Rüegg, Brecht Devleesschauwer, Bernadette Abela-Ridder, Arie H Havelaar, Alexandra P M Shaw, Jonathan Rushton, Niko Speybroeck
The burden of human diseases in populations, or for an individual, is frequently estimated in terms of one of a number of Health Adjusted Life Years (HALYs). The Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) is a widely accepted HALY metric and is used by the World Health Organization and the Global Burden of Disease studies. Many human diseases are of animal origin and often cause ill health and production losses in domestic animals. The economic losses due to disease in animals are usually estimated in monetary terms...
June 2018: One Health
Yasar Tatar, Nejla Gercek, Nusret Ramazanoglu, Irfan Gulmez, Selda Uzun, Goktug Sanli, Cengiz Karagozoglu, Hasan Birol Cotuk
BACKGROUND: Amputee football is a worldwide popular sport with positive physical and psychological effects on the disabled. Amputee players use their hands dominantly for locomotion. However, the effect of using upper extremity which is not accommodated to loading is not very well known. RESEARCH QUESTION: The objective of this study was to determine the load distribution of amputee football players during walking, running and kicking the ball. METHODS: This study was conducted with 15 certified amputee football players (age 24...
July 2018: Gait & Posture
Sam Meske, Joseph B Hazzard, Meng Ni, Tyler Hanson, Lucas Van Horn, Josh Smith
OBJECTIVE: (1) To examine the prevalence of college-aged students on campus who had a history of concussion(s) or traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated symptoms and (2) to evaluate the rate of campus service utilization among students who had a TBI. SETTING: A representative sampling, randomly selected campus-wide e-mail was sent out with a Qualtrics online survey. PARTICIPANTS: College-aged students (N = 466, n = 429) at a northeastern US university responded and consented to participate in the online survey...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Andrew Schrepf, David A Williams, Robert Gallop, Bruce Naliboff, Neil Basu, Chelsea Kaplan, Daniel E Harper, Richard Landis, J Quentin Clemens, Eric Strachan, James W Griffith, Niloofar Afari, Afton Hassett, Michel A Pontari, Daniel J Clauw, Steven E Harte
Chronic Overlapping Pain Conditions (COPCs) are characterized by aberrant central nervous system processing of pain. This 'centralized pain' phenotype has been described using a large and diverse set of symptom domains, including the spatial distribution of pain, pain intensity, fatigue, mood imbalances, cognitive dysfunction, altered somatic sensations, and hypersensitivity to external stimuli. Here we used three cohorts, including patients with Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (UCPPS), a mixed pain cohort with other COPCs, and healthy individuals (total n = 1039) from the Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (MAPP) Research Network to explore the factor structure of symptoms of centralized pain...
May 28, 2018: Pain
Charlotte Capri, Lameze Abrahams, Judith McKenzie, Ockert Coetzee, Siyabulela Mkabile, Manuel Saptouw, Andrew Hooper, Peter Smith, Colleen Adnams, Leslie Swartz
Background: Intellectual disability (ID) is the most prevalent disability in the world. People with intellectual disability (PWID) frequently experience extreme violations of numerous human rights. Despite greater prevalence in South Africa than in high-income countries, most ID research currently comes from the Global North. This leaves us with few contextually sensitive studies to draw from to advance inclusive citizenship. Objectives: Our scoping review aims to investigate pertinent ID rights issues in South Africa, synthesise quantitative and qualitative studies, and provide a synopsis of available evidence on which to base future work...
2018: African Journal of Disability
Barbara Poletti, Federica Solca, Laura Carelli, Andrea Faini, Fabiana Madotto, Annalisa Lafronza, Alessia Monti, Stefano Zago, Andrea Ciammola, Antonia Ratti, Nicola Ticozzi, Sharon Abrahams, Vincenzo Silani
OBJECTIVE: The study presents data on the longitudinal administration of the Italian Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioral ALS Screen (ECAS). We investigated cognitive-behavioral performance in a group of ALS patients over time and the feasibility of repeating the ECAS longitudinally compared with standard neuropsychological tests. Finally, correlations between clinical/genetic and cognitive/behavioral data were considered. METHODS: One hundred and sixty-eight ALS patients were tested at baseline (T0 )...
August 2018: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Degeneration
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