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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108590/human-immunity-against-ebv-lessons-from-the-clinic
#2
REVIEW
Stuart G Tangye, Umaimainthan Palendira, Emily S J Edwards
The mammalian immune system has evolved over many millennia to be best equipped to protect the host from pathogen infection. In many cases, host and pathogen have coevolved, each acquiring sophisticated ways of inducing or protecting from disease. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a human herpes virus that infects >90% of individuals. Despite its ubiquity, infection by EBV is often subclinical; this invariably reflects the necessity of the virus to preserve its host, balanced with sophisticated host immune mechanisms that maintain viral latency...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108560/cxcr3-cxcl10-axis-regulates-neutrophil-nk-cell-cross-talk-determining-the-severity-of-experimental-osteoarthritis
#3
Giorgia Benigni, Petya Dimitrova, Fabrizio Antonangeli, Emilio Sanseviero, Viktoriya Milanova, Arjen Blom, Peter van Lent, Stefania Morrone, Angela Santoni, Giovanni Bernardini
Several immune cell populations are involved in cartilage damage, bone erosion, and resorption processes during osteoarthritis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of NK cells in the pathogenesis of experimental osteoarthritis and whether and how neutrophils can regulate their synovial localization in the disease. Experimental osteoarthritis was elicited by intra-articular injection of collagenase in wild type and Cxcr3(-/-) 8-wk old mice. To follow osteoarthritis progression, cartilage damage, synovial thickening, and osteophyte formation were measured histologically...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108531/plasmodium-sporozoite-biology
#4
Friedrich Frischknecht, Kai Matuschewski
Plasmodium sporozoite transmission is a critical population bottleneck in parasite life-cycle progression and, hence, a target for prophylactic drugs and vaccines. The recent progress of a candidate antisporozoite subunit vaccine formulation to licensure highlights the importance of sporozoite transmission intervention in the malaria control portfolio. Sporozoites colonize mosquito salivary glands, migrate through the skin, penetrate blood vessels, breach the liver sinusoid, and invade hepatocytes. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the remarkable sporozoite journey in the invertebrate vector and the vertebrate host can inform evidence-based next-generation drug development programs and immune intervention strategies...
January 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108369/jaburetox-affects-gene-expression-and-enzyme-activities-in-rhodnius-prolixus-a-chagas-disease-vector
#5
Leonardo L Fruttero, Natalia R Moyetta, Monique Siebra Krug, Valquiria Broll, Matheus V Coste Grahl, Rafael Real-Guerra, Fernanda Stanisçuaski, Celia R Carlini
Jaburetox, a recombinant peptide of ∼11kDa derived from one of the Canavalia ensiformis (Jack Bean) urease isoforms, is toxic and lethal to insects belonging to different orders when administered orally or via injection. Previous findings indicated that Jaburetox acts on insects in a complex fashion, inhibiting diuresis and the transmembrane potential of Malpighian tubules, interfering with muscle contractility and affecting the immune system. In vitro, Jaburetox forms ionic channels and alters permeability of artificial lipid membranes...
January 17, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108246/engineered-cell-lines-for-fish-health-research
#6
Bertrand Collet, Catherine Collins, Katherine Lester
As fish farming continues to increase worldwide, the related research areas of fish disease and immunology are also expanding, aided by the revolution in access to genomic information and molecular technology. The genomes of most fish species of economic importance are now available and annotation based on sequence homology with characterised genomes is underway. However, while useful, functional homology is more difficult to determine, there being a lack of widely distributed and well characterised reagents such as monoclonal antibodies, traditionally used in mammalian studies, to help with confirming functions and cellular interactions of fish molecules...
January 17, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108233/murine-cd103-dendritic-cells-protect-against-steatosis-progression-towards-steatohepatitis
#7
Eva-Carina Heier, Anna Meier, Henrike Julich-Haertel, Sonja Djudjaj, Monica Rau, Thomas Tschernig, Andreas Geier, Peter Boor, Frank Lammert, Veronika Lukacs-Kornek
BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) is the hepatic consequence of metabolic syndrome and can progress to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The identification of molecular and cellular factors that determine the progression of NASH and lead to irreversible hepatocellular damage are crucial. Dendritic cells (DCs) represent a heterogeneous cell population among which CD103(+) DCs play a significant role in immunity and tolerance. METHODS: Steatosis progression towards steatohepatitis was analyzed using multicolor FACS analyses, cytokine and qPCR array in high sucrose diet (HSD) and methionine and choline deficient diet (MCD) fed wild-type and Batf3 (Basic Leucine Zipper Transcription Factor, ATF-Like-3) deficient animals, which lack CD103(+) DCs (classical type-1 DC, cDC1s)...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108006/3-4-dihydroxycinnamic-acid-stimulates-immune-system-function-by-modifying-the-humoral-antibody-response-an-in-vivo-study
#8
M Ishwarya, R T Narendhirakannan
The immunomodulatory property of 3,4-Dihydroxy-cinnamic acid (DCA) was studied under the normal and cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressive conditions in animal models. The immunomodulatory activity was evaluated by studying the haematological parameters, humoral antibody, based on the plaque forming cell count, the bone marrow cellularity, the α-esterase's producing active cells, delayed type hypersensitive assay, phagocytic index assays. The chemopreventive effect of DCA was determined by cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppression in animals...
January 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107662/a-simple-and-powerful-co-delivery-system-based-on-ph-responsive-metal-organic-frameworks-for-enhanced-cancer-immunotherapy
#9
Fei Duan, Xiaochen Feng, Xinjian Yang, Wentong Sun, Yi Jin, Huifang Liu, Kun Ge, Zhenhua Li, Jinchao Zhang
Tumor-associated antigens (TAAs)-loaded nanoparticles are able to be actively internalized by antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and have shown promising potential in cancer immunotherapy. However, current TAAs delivery strategy exhibits limitations of complicated synthesis process, low loading efficiency and inefficient CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte activation leading to unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. Thus, the construction of novel TAAs-delivery systems for enhanced cancer therapy is highly desirable. In this work, we fabricated a very simple yet powerful antigens-delivery system for cancer immunotherapy based-on pH-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with size about 30 nm...
January 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107619/peptide-based-stealth-nanoparticles-for-targeted-and-ph-triggered-delivery
#10
Alessandro Ranalli, Melissa Santi, Luigi Capriotti, Valerio Voliani, David Porciani, Fabio Beltram, Giovanni Signore
Stealth agents are extensively investigated as means to prolong nanostructures residence time in the bloodstream by avoiding uptake by the reticuloendothelial system. Unfortunately, commonly used agents such as poly(ethylene glycol) can adversely impact on targeting efficiency and promote immune reaction by the host organism. Therefore, there is an increasing interest in developing biocompatible, non-PEGylated organic nanostructures able to perform targeted delivery, to increase the efficacy of liposomal technology...
January 20, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106821/a-protective-vaccine-against-chlamydia-genital-infection-using-vault-nanoparticles-without-an-added-adjuvant
#11
Janina Jiang, Guangchao Liu, Valerie A Kickhoefer, Leonard H Rome, Lin-Xi Li, Stephen J McSorley, Kathleen A Kelly
Chlamydia trachomatis genital infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial disease, causing a significant burden to females due to reproductive dysfunction. Intensive screening and antibiotic treatment are unable to completely prevent female reproductive dysfunction, thus, efforts have become focused on developing a vaccine. A major impediment is identifying a safe and effective adjuvant which induces cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cells with attributes capable of halting genital infection and inflammation...
January 19, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106799/rna-editing-adar1-and-the-innate-immune-response
#12
REVIEW
Qingde Wang, Xiaoni Li, Ruofan Qi, Timothy Billiar
RNA editing, particularly A-to-I RNA editing, has been shown to play an essential role in mammalian embryonic development and tissue homeostasis, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases including skin pigmentation disorder, autoimmune and inflammatory tissue injury, neuron degeneration, and various malignancies. A-to-I RNA editing is carried out by a small group of enzymes, the adenosine deaminase acting on RNAs (ADARs). Only three members of this protein family, ADAR1-3, exist in mammalian cells...
January 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106541/cell-membrane-and-intracellular-expression-of-toll-like-receptor-9-tlr9-in-colorectal-cancer-and-breast-cancer-cell-lines
#13
Shadab Shahriari, Somayeh Rezaeifard, Hamid Reza Moghimi, Mohammad Reza Khorramizadeh, Zahra Faghih
BACKGROUND: Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) is a DNA receptor of innate immune system which plays a pivotal role in inflammatory response. Recent evidence reveals over-expression and functionality of TLR9 in a wide variety of cancer cells and its contribution to tumor cell proliferation and survival. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we assessed the aberrant cell surface expression of TLR9 in cancer using cell-lines model. METHODS: Three breast cancer cell-lines (MDA-MB-231, MCF7 and SKBR3) and five colorectal adenocarcinoma cell-lines (HT29, HT29/219, SW480, SW48 and SW1116) in addition to one primary foreskin isolated fibroblast cell were analyzed for cell surface and intracellular expression of TLR9 by flow cytometry method...
January 13, 2017: Cancer Biomarkers: Section A of Disease Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106258/t-cell-clones-in-human-trichinellosis-evidence-for-a-mixed-th1-th2-response
#14
C Della Bella, M Benagiano, M De Gennaro, M A Gomez-Morales, A Ludovisi, S D'Elios, S Luchi, E Pozio, M M D'Elios, F Bruschi
: In humans, studies on the cellular immune response against Trichinella are scarce. Aim of this study was to characterize the cytokine profile of T cells specific for Trichinella britovi in trichinellosis patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from five patients involved in a trichinellosis outbreak caused by Trichinella britovi, which occurred in 2013 in Tuscany (Italy). All the patients resulted positive for Trichinella-specific IgG, IgE and presented eosinophilia...
January 20, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106074/simultaneous-enhancement-of-cellular-and-humoral-immunity-by-the-high-salt-formulation-of-al-oh-3-adjuvant
#16
Min Luo, Bin Shao, Jia-Yun Yu, Ting Liu, Xiao Liang, Lian Lu, Ting-Hong Ye, Zhi-Yao He, Heng-Yi Xiao, Xia-Wei Wei
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105679/robust-immunoglobulin-class-switch-recombination-and-end-joining-in-parp9-deficient-mice
#17
Isabelle Robert, Léa Gaudot, Jose Yelamos, Aurélia Noll, Heng-Kuan Wong, Françoise Dantzer, Valérie Schreiber, Bernardo Reina-San-Martin
To mount highly specific and adapted immune responses, B lymphocytes assemble and diversify their antibody repertoire through mechanisms involving the formation of programmed DNA damage. Immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) is triggered by DNA lesions induced by activation-induced cytidine deaminase, which are processed to double-stranded DNA break (DSB) intermediates. These DSBs activate the cellular DNA damage response and enroll numerous DNA repair factors, involving Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases Parp1, Parp2 and Parp3 to promote appropriate DNA repair and efficient long-range recombination...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105088/clinical-significance-of-lymphocyte-subset-changes-in-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-of-children
#18
Qi An, Yi Wang, Shaoyan Hu, Daihua Fang, Chengmin Xuan, Shumei Xu, Mingwei Jin, Qiang Ji
In order to examine the role of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets on the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH), 30 affected children during the acute period of the disease and 30 healthy children within the same age range were selected to test their peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets using flow cytometry and compare these subsets. At the same time, the peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets of 20 children with complete remission from HLH were compared to those of 10 cases who succumbed to the disease...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104833/idiosyncratic-drug-induced-liver-injury-is-drug-cytokine-interaction-the-linchpin
#19
Robert A Roth, Ashley R Maiuri, Patricia E Ganey
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury continues to be a human health problem in part because drugs that cause these reactions are not identified in current preclinical testing and because progress in prevention is hampered by incomplete knowledge of mechanisms that underlie these adverse responses. Several hypotheses involving adaptive immune responses, inflammatory stress, inability to adapt to stress, and multiple, concurrent factors have been proposed. Yet much remains unknown about how drugs interact with the liver to effect death of hepatocytes...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104704/perspective-the-promise-of-proteomics-in-the-study-of-oncogenic-viruses
#20
Alison Anne McBride
Oncogenic viruses are responsible for about 15% human cancers. This article explores the promise and challenges of viral proteomics in the study of the oncogenic human DNA viruses, HPV, McPyV, EBV and KSHV. These viruses have coevolved with their hosts and cause persistent infections. Each virus encodes oncoproteins that manipulate key cellular pathways to promote viral replication and evade the host immune response. Viral proteomics can identify cellular pathways perturbed by viral infection, identify cellular proteins that are crucial for viral persistence and oncogenesis, and identify important diagnostic and therapeutic targets...
January 19, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
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