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cellular immunity

Ayako Casanova-Nakayama, Elena Wernicke von Siebenthal, Christian Kropf, Elisabeth Oldenberg, Helmut Segner
Genomic actions of estrogens in vertebrates are exerted via two intracellular estrogen receptor (ER) subtypes, ERα and ERβ, which show cell- and tissue-specific expression profiles. Mammalian immune cells express ERs and are responsive to estrogens. More recently, evidence became available that ERs are also present in the immune organs and cells of teleost fish, suggesting that the immunomodulatory function of estrogens has been conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. For a better understanding of the sensitivity and the responsiveness of the fish immune system to estrogens, more insight is needed on the abundance of ERs in the fish immune system, the cellular ratios of the ER subtypes, and their autoregulation by estrogens...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Na Chen, Pei Zhu, Ting Du, Kai Han, Dang Wang, Jianfeng Ye, Shaobo Xiao, Xiaozhou Ye, Yun Wang
PURPOSE: Herein, we reported a facile strategy for synthesis of two types of modified konjac glucomannan nanoparticles (NPs). The goal of this project was to explore the potential of the NPs as vaccine adjuvants. METHODS: Firstly, anionic carboxymethylated konjac glucomannan (CKGM) and cationic quaternized konjac glucomannan (QKGM) were synthesized by chemical modification of konjac glucomannan (KGM). Subsequently, two types of NPs, CKGM/QKGM and sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP)/QKGM, were prepared through polyelectrolyte complex method and ionic cross-linking method, respectively...
March 20, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Ponarulselvam Sekar, Duen-Yi Huang, Shwu-Fen Chang, Wan-Wan Lin
Extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) is a damage-associated molecular pattern and contributes to inflammation associated diseases including cancer. Extracellular acidosis is a novel danger signal in the inflammatory sites, where it can modulate inflammation, immunity and tumor growth. Extracellular acidification was shown to inhibit P2X7-mediated channel currents, while it remains unknown how acidification and P2X7 together affect cellular responses. Here, we treated BV-2 microglial cells with ATP in a short period (<15 min) or a sustained acidified condition...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Richard Bwanika, Charles D Kato, Johnson Welishe, Daniel C Mwandah
Background: Malaria and helminths share the same geographical distribution in tropical Africa. Studies of the interaction of helminth and malaria co-infection in humans have been few and are mainly epidemiological, with little information on cellular immune responses. This study aimed to determine Cytokine profiles among patients co-infected with Plasmodium falciparum malaria and soil borne helminth attending Kampala International University Teaching Hospital (KIU). Methods: A case control study of 240 patients were recruited at KIU teaching hospital...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Afsar R Naqvi, Jennifer Shango, Alexandra Seal, Deepak Shukla, Salvador Nares
Prevalence of the members of herpesvirus family in oral inflammatory diseases is increasingly acknowledged suggesting their likely role as an etiological factor. However, the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. In our recent miRNA profiling of healthy and diseased human tooth pulps, elevated expression of human herpesvirus encoded viral microRNAs (v-miRs) were identified. Based on the fold induction and significance values, we selected three v-miRs namely miR-K12-3-3p [Kaposi sarcoma-associated virus (KSHV)], miR-H1 [herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV1)], and miR-UL-70-3p [human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)] to further examine their impact on host cellular functions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Umberto Crisafulli, André M Xavier, Fabiana B Dos Santos, Tavane D Cambiaghi, Seo Y Chang, Marimélia Porcionatto, Beatriz A Castilho, Bettina Malnic, Isaias Glezer
Chronic inflammatory process in the nasal mucosa is correlated with poor smell perception. Over-activation of immune cells in the olfactory epithelium (OE) is generally associated with loss of olfactory function, and topical steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been largely used for treating such condition. Whether this therapeutic strategy could directly affect the regenerative process in the OE remains unclear. In this study, we show that nasal topical application of dexamethasone (DEX; 200 or 800 ng/nostril), a potent synthetic anti-inflammatory steroid, attenuates OE lesion caused by Gram-negative bacteria lipopolysaccharide (LPS) intranasal infusion...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Hiroaki Senju, Asuka Kumagai, Yoichi Nakamura, Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, Katsumi Nakatomi, Shota Fukami, Kengo Shiraishi, Yuka Harada, Mitsuhiro Nakamura, Haruki Okamura, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Hiroshi Mukae
When pathogenic stresses are recognized by innate immune cells, inflammasomes are assembled and caspase-1 is activated, resulting in the conversion of pro-IL-18 into mature IL-18. Because natural killer (NK) cells express IL-18 receptors, IL-18 may play roles in immune functions of NK cells. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-18 on NK cells derived from lung cancer patients and healthy adult volunteers. When peripheral blood NK cells were stimulated with IL-2, the cells formed clusters beginning on day 5-6 and proliferated thereafter, in which the number of NK cells increased by 10-fold in 10 days...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
Maarten G K Ghequire, Toon Swings, Jan Michiels, Susan K Buchanan, René De Mot
Lectin-like bacteriocins (LlpAs) are secreted by proteobacteria and selectively kill strains of their own or related species, and they are composed of two B-lectin domains with divergent sequences. In Pseudomonas spp., initial binding of these antibacterial proteins to cells is mediated by the carboxy-terminal domain through d-rhamnose residues present in the common polysaccharide antigen of their lipopolysaccharide, whereas the amino-terminal domain accounts for strain selectivity of killing. Here, we show that spontaneous LlpA-resistant mutants carry mutations in one of three surface-exposed moieties of the essential β-barrel outer membrane protein insertase BamA, the core component of the BAM complex...
March 20, 2018: MBio
Xiujuan Zhou, Jing Xing, Xiaoqian Tang, Wenbin Zhan
Outer membrane protein (Omp) K, OmpR and VAA have been identified with good immunogenicity from Vibrio anguillarum, and their recombinant proteins showed variable relative percent survival (RPS) in previous study. In order to develop effective bivalent vaccine candidates, recombinant (r) VAA + rOmpK (AK), rVAA + rOmpR (AR), rOmpK + rOmpR (KR) among VAA, OmpK and OmpR, or formalin-killed cells (FKC) of V. anguillarum were immunized in flounder, respectively. Results revealed that AK, AR, KR and FKC could induce the proliferation of surface membrane immunoglobulin-positive B lymphocytes or CD3+ T lymphocytes in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and significantly enhance the total antibodies, specific antibodies and immune-related gene than those of control group...
March 17, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Himanshu Pandey, Farheen Fatma, Shivraj M Yabaji, Meera Kumari, Sarita Tripathi, Kanchan Srivastava, Dinesh K Tripathi, Surya Kant, Kishore K Srivastava, Ashish Arora
The ESAT-6 family proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are regarded as the key mediators in mycobacterial virulence and are largely considered as antigens that can improve TB vaccines and diagnostics. We have characterized Rv3444c and Rv3445c proteins of the ESX-4 system of ESAT-6 family of M. tuberculosis H37Rv, and have experimentally established that these two proteins interact to form a heterodimeric complex. Complex formation resulted in induction of α-helical conformation and stability against chemical denaturation...
March 2018: Tuberculosis
Scott Dyck, Hardeep Kataria, Arsalan Alizadeh, Kallivalappil T Santhosh, Bradley Lang, Jerry Silver, Soheila Karimi-Abdolrezaee
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) results in upregulation of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) by reactive glia that impedes repair and regeneration in the spinal cord. Degradation of CSPGs is known to be beneficial in promoting endogenous repair mechanisms including axonal sprouting/regeneration, oligodendrocyte replacement, and remyelination, and is associated with improvements in functional outcomes after SCI. Recent evidence suggests that CSPGs may regulate secondary injury mechanisms by modulating neuroinflammation after SCI...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Dimitrios Chanouzas, Alexander Small, Richard Borrows, Simon Ball
BACKGROUND: The measurement of CMV specific cellular immunity in organ transplant recipients could contribute additional acuity to serology based, CMV infection risk stratification, facilitating optimisation of immunosuppression and anti-viral prophylaxis. METHODS: A pilot study of renal transplant recipient (RTR's) responses in the T-SPOT.CMV ELISPOT based assay. 108 RTR's were recruited 3 months post-transplantation, immediately prior to the cessation of stratified anti-viral prophylaxis, used in recipients from seropositive donors...
2018: PloS One
Timsy Uppal, Roni Sarkar, Ranjit Dhelaria, Subhash C Verma
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus or Human herpesvirus-8 (KSHV/HHV-8), an oncogenic human herpesvirus and the leading cause of cancer in HIV-infected individuals, is a major public health concern with recurring reports of epidemics on a global level. The early detection of KSHV virus and subsequent activation of the antiviral immune response by the host's immune system are crucial to prevent KSHV infection. The host's immune system is an evolutionary conserved system that provides the most important line of defense against invading microbial pathogens, including viruses...
March 20, 2018: Cancers
Sinem Civriz Bozdağ, Meltem Kurt Yüksel, Taner Demirer
Stem cells can be either totipotent, pluripotent, multipotent or unipotent. Totipotent cells have the capability to produce all cell types of the developing organism, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSC) are the first defined adult stem cells (ASC) that give rise to all blood cells and immune system. Use of HSCs for treatment of hematologic malignancies, which is also called bone marrow (BM) transplantation or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) transplantation is the pioneer of cellular therapy and translational research...
March 20, 2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jebi Sudan, Meenakshi Raina, Ravinder Singh
Plants have evolved various defense mechanisms including morphological adaptations, cellular pathways, specific signalling molecules and inherent immunity to endure various abiotic stresses during different growth stages. Most of the defense mechanisms are controlled by stress-responsive genes by transcribing and translating specific genes. However, certain modifications of DNA and chromatin along with small RNA-based mechanisms have also been reported to regulate the expression of stress-responsive genes and constitute another line of defense for plants in their struggle against stresses...
March 2018: 3 Biotech
Lu Gan, Yanan Yang, Qian Li, Yi Feng, Tianshu Liu, Weijian Guo
Enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase and a catalytic component of PRC2, catalyzes tri-methylation of histone H3 at Lys 27 (H3K27me3) to regulate gene expression through epigenetic machinery. EZH2 also functions both as a transcriptional suppressor and a transcriptional co-activator, depending on H3K27me3 or not and on the different cellular contexts. Unsurprisingly, numerous studies have highlighted the role of EZH2 in cancer development and progression. Through modulating critical gene expression, EZH2 promotes cell survival, proliferation, epithelial to mesenchymal, invasion, and drug resistance of cancer cells...
2018: Biomarker Research
Mathias Montenarh, Claudia Götz
Ecto-protein kinases, including protein kinase CK2 (former name, casein kinase 2), have been the focus of research for more than 30 years. At the beginning of the ecto-kinase research their identification was performed with substrates and inhibitors whose specificity under the current knowledge was rather limited. Since all currently known ecto-kinases, including ecto-CK2, have intracellular counterparts, one has to exclude that an ecto-localization originates from intracellular counterparts after cell damage...
April 2018: Biomedical Reports
Hongyoon Choi, Kwon Joong Na
Although metabolic modulation in the tumor microenvironment (TME) is one of the key mechanisms of cancer immune escape, there is a lack of understanding of the comprehensive immune landscape of the TME and its association with tumor metabolism based on clinical evidence. We aimed to investigate the relationship between the immune landscape in the TME and tumor glucose metabolism in lung adenocarcinoma. Methods: Using RNA sequencing and image data, we developed a transcriptome-based tumor metabolism estimation model...
2018: Theranostics
Wei Zhang, Xinyan Xie, Huijing Mi, Jinwan Sun, Shaoxue Ding, Lijuan Li, Hui Liu, Huaquan Wang, Rong Fu, Zonghong Shao
Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis that lead to leukemia. Disorders of the immune system serve important functions in the pathophysiology and progression of this disease. Different levels or mechanisms of natural killer (NK) cells in patients with MDS have been measured in previous studies, making it challenging to understand the pathogenesis of NK cytotoxicity. The present study investigated the frequency of NK cell-mediated antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and explored the function of NK cells by their activating receptors, inhibition signals, degranulation and cytotoxicity factors...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Judith A Smith
Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential cell function. To safeguard this process in the face of environmental threats and internal stressors, cells mount an evolutionarily conserved response known as the unfolded protein response (UPR). Invading pathogens induce cellular stress that impacts protein folding, thus the UPR is well situated to sense danger and contribute to immune responses. Cytokines (inflammatory cytokines and interferons) critically mediate host defense against pathogens, but when aberrantly produced, may also drive pathologic inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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