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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231567/innate-lung-defense-during-invasive-aspergillosis-new-mechanisms
#1
Jaleesa M Garth, Chad Steele
Invasive aspergillosis (IA) is one of the most difficult to treat and, consequently, one of the most lethal fungal infections known to man. Continued use of immunosuppressive agents during chemotherapy and organ transplantation often leads to the development of neutropenia, the primary risk factor for IA. However, IA is also becoming more appreciated in chronic diseases associated with corticosteroid therapy. The innate immune response to Aspergillus fumigatus, the primary agent in IA, plays a pivotal role in the recognition and elimination of organisms from the pulmonary system...
February 24, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231239/surveillance-for-health-care-access-and-health-services-use-adults-aged-18-64-years-behavioral-risk-factor-surveillance-system-united-states-2014
#2
Catherine A Okoro, Guixiang Zhao, Jared B Fox, Paul I Eke, Kurt J Greenlund, Machell Town
PROBLEM/CONDITION: As a result of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, millions of U.S. adults attained health insurance coverage. However, millions of adults remain uninsured or underinsured. Compared with adults without barriers to health care, adults who lack health insurance coverage, have coverage gaps, or skip or delay care because of limited personal finances might face increased risk for poor physical and mental health and premature mortality. PERIOD COVERED: 2014...
February 24, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#3
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#4
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230708/cell-derived-nanoparticles-are-endogenous-modulators-of-sepsis-with-therapeutic-potential
#5
Natalia Kunz, Brent T Xia, Kai-Uwe Kalies, Matthias Klinger, Timo Gemoll, Jens K Habermann, Brynne E Whitacre, Aaron P Seitz, Kathrin Kalies, Charles C Caldwell
Cell-derived nanoparticles (CDNPs) containing cytosolic proteins and RNAs/DNAs can be isolated from stressed eukaryotic cells. Previously, CDNPs isolated from cultured cells exerted immunomodulatory activities in different infections. Here, we sought to elucidate the role of CDNPs using a murine model of cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). We hypothesized that CDNPs influence the immune response at the site of infection, where severe cellular stress occurs. We observed early CDNP accumulation in the peritoneum after 4 h and continued CDNP presence 24 h after CLP...
February 22, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230336/the-endothelial-border-to-health-mechanistic-evidence-of-the-hyperglycemic-culprit-of-inflammatory-disease-acceleration
#6
REVIEW
Nina Waerling Hansen, Anker Jon Hansen, Anette Sams
The endothelial cell (EC) layer constitutes a barrier that controls movements of fluid, solutes and cells between blood and tissue. Further, the endothelial layer regulates vascular tone and directs local humoral and cellular inflammatory processes. The strategic position makes it an important player for maintenance of health and for development of a number of diseases. Endothelial dysfunction is known to be an important component of type 2 diabetes, but is also assumed to be involved in many other diseases, for example, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, and cardiovascular diseases...
March 2017: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230186/glycan-independent-binding-and-internalization-of-human-igm-to-fcmr-its-cognate-cellular-receptor
#7
Katy A Lloyd, Jiabin Wang, Britta C Urban, Daniel M Czajkowsky, Richard J Pleass
IgM is the first antibody to be produced in immune responses and plays an important role in the neutralization of bacteria and viruses. Human IgM is heavily glycosylated, featuring five N-linked glycan sites on the μ chain and one on the J-chain. Glycosylation of IgG is known to modulate the effector functions of Fcγ receptors. In contrast, little is known about the effect of glycosylation on IgM binding to the human Fcμ receptor (hFCMR). In this study, we identify the Cμ4 domain of IgM as the target of hFCMR, and show that binding and internalization of IgM by hFCMR is glycan-independent...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230183/drosophila-imaginal-disc-growth-factor-2-is-a-trophic-factor-involved-in-energy-balance-detoxification-and-innate-immunity
#8
Vaclav Broz, Lucie Kucerova, Lenka Rouhova, Jana Fleischmannova, Hynek Strnad, Peter J Bryant, Michal Zurovec
Drosophila imaginal disc growth factor 2 (IDGF2) is a member of chitinase-like protein family (CLPs) able to induce the proliferation of imaginal disc cells in vitro. In this study we characterized physiological concentrations and expression of IDGF2 in vivo as well as its impact on the viability and transcriptional profile of Drosophila cells in vitro. We show that IDGF2 is independent of insulin and protects cells from death caused by serum deprivation, toxicity of xenobiotics or high concentrations of extracellular adenosine (Ado) and deoxyadenosine (dAdo)...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229533/expansion-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-with-aging-in-the-bone-marrow-of-mice-through-a-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-mechanism
#9
Rafael R Flores, Cheryl L Clauson, Joonseok Cho, Byeong-Chel Lee, Sara J McGowan, Darren J Baker, Laura J Niedernhofer, Paul D Robbins
With aging, there is progressive loss of tissue homeostasis and functional reserve, leading to an impaired response to stress and an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. A key mediator of the cellular response to damage and stress is the transcription factor NF-κB. We demonstrated previously that NF-κB transcriptional activity is upregulated in tissues from both natural aged mice and in a mouse model of a human progeroid syndrome caused by defective repair of DNA damage (ERCC1-deficient mice). We also demonstrated that genetic reduction in the level of the NF-κB subunit p65(RelA) in the Ercc1(-/∆) progeroid mouse model of accelerated aging delayed the onset of age-related pathology including muscle wasting, osteoporosis, and intervertebral disk degeneration...
February 23, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229106/neonatal-corticosterone-administration-in-rodents-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-maternal-programming-of-emotional-and-immune-domains
#10
Simone Macrì
Neonatal experiences exert persistent influences on individual development. These influences encompass numerous domains including emotion, cognition, reactivity to external stressors and immunity. The comprehensive nature of the neonatal programming of individual phenotype is reverberated in the large amount of experimental data collected by many authors in several scientific fields: biomedicine, evolutionary and molecular biology. These data support the view that variations in precocious environmental conditions may calibrate the individual phenotype at many different levels...
February 2017: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228754/proofreading-of-peptide-mhc-complexes-through-dynamic-multivalent-interactions
#11
REVIEW
Christoph Thomas, Robert Tampé
The adaptive immune system is able to detect and destroy cells that are malignantly transformed or infected by intracellular pathogens. Specific immune responses against these cells are elicited by antigenic peptides that are presented on major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) molecules and recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes at the cell surface. Since these MHC I-presented peptides are generated in the cytosol by proteasomal protein degradation, they can be metaphorically described as a window providing immune cells with insights into the state of the cellular proteome...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228690/human-cytomegalovirus-interleukin-10-enhances-matrigel-invasion-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cells
#12
Cendy A Valle Oseguera, Juliet V Spencer
BACKGROUND: While some risk factors for breast cancer are well-known, the influence of other factors, particularly virus infection, remains unclear. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the general population, and both molecular and epidemiological evidence has indicated links between HCMV and breast cancer. The HCMV protein cmvIL-10 is a potent suppressor of immune function that has also been shown to promote proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells. In this study, the impact of cmvIL-10 on tumor cell invasion through a simulated basement membrane was investigated...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227167/unsupervised-selection-of-rv144-hiv-vaccine-induced-antibody-features-correlated-to-natural-killer-cell-mediated-cytotoxic-reactions
#13
Ferdi Sarac, Volkan Uslan, Huseyin Seker, Ahmed Bouridane, Ferdi Sarac, Volkan Uslan, Huseyin Seker, Ahmed Bouridane, Ferdi Sarac, Huseyin Seker, Ahmed Bouridane, Volkan Uslan
HIV-1 vaccine injection has been shown less effective due to the diversity of antigens. Increasing the knowledge of the associations between immune system and virus would ultimately result in producing effective vaccines against HIV-1 virus. To increase the understanding of immunological information, computational models can be utilised to construct predictive models. The aim of this study is, therefore, to predict the effect of antibody features (IgGs) and primary Natural Killing (NK) cells' cytotoxic activities on RV144 vaccine recipients and to disclose the functional relationship between immune system and HIV virus...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226229/a-perspective-on-the-role-of-computational-models-in-immunology
#14
Arup K Chakraborty
This is an exciting time for immunology because the future promises to be replete with exciting new discoveries that can be translated to improve health and treat disease in novel ways. Immunologists are attempting to answer increasingly complex questions concerning phenomena that range from the genetic, molecular, and cellular scales to that of organs, whole animals or humans, and populations of humans and pathogens. An important goal is to understand how the many different components involved interact with each other within and across these scales for immune responses to emerge, and how aberrant regulation of these processes causes disease...
February 6, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226225/thymic-epithelial-cells
#15
Jakub Abramson, Graham Anderson
IntrathymicTcell development is a complex process that depends upon continuous guidance from thymus stromal cell microenvironments. The thymic epithelium within the thymic stroma comprises highly specialized cells with a high degree of anatomic, phenotypic, and functional heterogeneity. These properties are collectively required to bias thymocyte development toward production of self-tolerant and functionally competent T cells. The importance of thymic epithelial cells (TECs) is evidenced by clear links between their dysfunction and multiple diseases where autoimmunity and immunodeficiency are major components...
February 10, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225753/complement-drives-glucosylceramide-accumulation-and-tissue-inflammation-in-gaucher-disease
#16
Manoj K Pandey, Thomas A Burrow, Reena Rani, Lisa J Martin, David Witte, Kenneth D Setchell, Mary A Mckay, Albert F Magnusen, Wujuan Zhang, Benjamin Liou, Jörg Köhl, Gregory A Grabowski
Gaucher disease is caused by mutations in GBA1, which encodes the lysosomal enzyme glucocerebrosidase (GCase). GBA1 mutations drive extensive accumulation of glucosylceramide (GC) in multiple innate and adaptive immune cells in the spleen, liver, lung and bone marrow, often leading to chronic inflammation. The mechanisms that connect excess GC to tissue inflammation remain unknown. Here we show that activation of complement C5a and C5a receptor 1 (C5aR1) controls GC accumulation and the inflammatory response in experimental and clinical Gaucher disease...
February 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225193/human-neural-progenitor-transplantation-rescues-behavior-and-reduces-%C3%AE-synuclein-in-a-transgenic-model-of-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#17
Natalie R S Goldberg, Samuel E Marsh, Joseph Ochaba, Brandon C Shelley, Hayk Davtyan, Leslie M Thompson, Joan S Steffan, Clive N Svendsen, Mathew Blurton-Jones
Synucleinopathies are a group of neurodegenerative disorders sharing the common feature of misfolding and accumulation of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein (α-syn) into insoluble aggregates. Within this diverse group, Dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) is characterized by the aberrant accumulation of α-syn in cortical, hippocampal, and brainstem neurons, resulting in multiple cellular stressors that particularly impair dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission and related motor and cognitive function. Recent studies show that murine neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation can improve cognitive or motor function in transgenic models of Alzheimer's and Huntington's disease, and DLB...
February 22, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225071/resolution-of-tlr2-induced-inflammation-through-manipulation-of-metabolic-pathways-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#18
Trudy McGarry, Monika Biniecka, Wei Gao, Deborah Cluxton, Mary Canavan, Siobhan Wade, Sarah Wade, Lorna Gallagher, Carl Orr, Douglas J Veale, Ursula Fearon
During inflammation, immune cells activated by toll-like receptors (TLRs) have the ability to undergo a bioenergetic switch towards glycolysis in a manner similar to that observed in tumour cells. While TLRs have been implicated in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), their role in regulating cellular metabolism in synovial cells, however, is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of TLR2-activation on mitochondrial function and bioenergetics in primary RA-synovial fibroblast cells (RASFC), and further determined the role of glycolytic blockade on TLR2-induced inflammation in RASFC using glycolytic inhibitor 3-(3-pyridinyl)-1-(4-pyridinyl)-2-propen-1-one (3PO)...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224222/immunopathological-characterization-of-human-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-lesions-caused-by-leishmania-viannia-spp-in-amazonian-brazil
#19
Cláudia Maria Castro Gomes, Maria Gloria Teixeira Sousa, Joyce Prieto Bezerra Menezes, Marliane Campos Batista, Ana Carolina Stocco Lima, Walter Belda, Daniel Bradshaw, Monica Elinor Alves Gama, Márcia Dalastra Laurenti, Fernando Tobias Silveira, Carlos Eduardo Pereira Corbett
American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) is a chronic infectious disease caused by different protozoan species of Leishmania, and it is endemic in both tropical and subtropical countries. Using immunohistochemistry, we investigate the density of CD68(+), lysozyme(+), CD1a(+), factor XIIIa(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), CD56(+), interferon (IFN)-γ(+), and inducible NO synthase (iNOS(+)) cells. These cells were analyzed from 22 biopsy samples obtained from the lesions of ACL patients, whose infection was caused by Leishmania (Viannia) spp...
February 21, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224119/vesicular-stomatitis-virus-vectored-multi-antigen-tuberculosis-vaccine-limits-bacterial-proliferation-in-mice-following-a-single-intranasal-dose
#20
Ming Zhang, Chunsheng Dong, Sidong Xiong
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a serious health problem worldwide, and an urgent need exists to improve or replace the available vaccine, Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG). Most vaccination protocols adapt two or three doses to induce long-term lasting immunity. Our previous study showed that the naked DNA encoding the triple-antigen fusion TFP846 (Rv3615c-Mtb10.4-Rv2660c) induced robust T cellular immune responses accompanying four inoculations against mycobacteria infection. However, a number of compliance issues exist in some areas lacking the appropriate medical infrastructure with multiple administrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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