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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635557/cellular-immune-responses-of-older-adults-to-four-influenza-vaccines-results-of-a-randomized-controlled-comparison
#1
Arun Kumar, Janet E McElhaney, Lisa Walrond, Terry D Cyr, Shahzma Merani, Tobias R Kollmann, Scott A Halperin, David W Scheifele
Cellular immunity is important for protection against the serious complications of influenza in older adults. As it is unclear if newer influenza vaccines elicit greater cellular responses than standard vaccines, we compared responses to two standard and two newer licensed trivalent inactivated vaccines (TIVs) in a randomized trial in older adults. Non-frail adults ≥65 years old were randomly assigned to receive standard subunit, MF59-adjuvanted subunit, standard split-virus or intradermal split-virus TIV...
June 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634691/modulation-of-rotavirus-severe-gastroenteritis-by-the-combination-of-probiotics-and-prebiotics
#2
REVIEW
Guadalupe Gonzalez-Ochoa, Lilian K Flores-Mendoza, Ramona Icedo-Garcia, Ricardo Gomez-Flores, Patricia Tamez-Guerra
Annual mortality rates due to infectious diarrhea are about 2.2 million; children are the most vulnerable age group to severe gastroenteritis, representing group A rotaviruses as the main cause of disease. One of the main factors of rotavirus pathogenesis is the NSP4 protein, which has been characterized as a viral toxin involved in triggering several cellular responses leading to diarrhea. Furthermore, the rotavirus protein NSP1 has been associated with interferon production inhibition by inducing the degradation of interferon regulatory factors IRF3, IRF5, and IRF7...
June 20, 2017: Archives of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634115/delineating-the-roles-of-cellular-and-innate-antiviral-immune-parameters-mediating-ranavirus-susceptibility-using-rainbow-trout-cell-lines
#3
Graeme J Lisser, Nguyen T K Vo, Stephanie J DeWitte-Orr
Frog virus 3 is the type species of the Ranavirus genus and the causative agent of massive mortalities of aquatic species worldwide. A critical step in limiting virus replication, particularly early in infection, is the innate immune response. Presently, little is known regarding what innate immune strategies limit FV3 at the cellular level. To this end, the present study uses two rainbow trout cell lines, RTG-2 and RTgutGC, which demonstrate susceptible and relatively resistant phenotypes to FV3 infection, to elucidate susceptibility factors to FV3...
June 17, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633640/biological-mechanisms-discriminating-growth-rate-and-adult-body-weight-phenotypes-in-two-chinese-indigenous-chicken-breeds
#4
Tengfei Dou, Sumei Zhao, Hua Rong, Dahai Gu, Qihua Li, Ying Huang, Zhiqiang Xu, Xiaohui Chu, Linli Tao, Lixian Liu, Changrong Ge, Marinus F W Te Pas, Junjing Jia
BACKGROUND: Intensive selection has resulted in increased growth rates and muscularity in broiler chickens, in addition to adverse effects, including delayed organ development, sudden death syndrome, and altered metabolic rates. The biological mechanisms underlying selection responses remain largely unknown. Non-artificially-selected indigenous Chinese chicken breeds display a wide variety of phenotypes, including differential growth rate, body weight, and muscularity. The Wuding chicken breed is a fast growing large chicken breed, and the Daweishan mini chicken breed is a slow growing small chicken breed...
June 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633471/development-of-a-chicken-ileal-explant-culture-model-for-measurement-of-gut-inflammation-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide
#5
Qian Zhang, Susan D Eicher, Kolapo M Ajuwon, Todd J Applegate
Gut mucosa holds a single layer of epithelial cells and the largest mass of lymphoid tissue in the body. Although the epithelial cell culture model is widely used to assess intestinal barrier function, it has limitations for studying cellular interactions, in particular those of the immune system. In this study, a chicken ileal explant culture model was developed for investigating short-term gut inflammatory and secretory responses in an ex vivo environment. Initially, ileal explants from broilers at 21 d of age were cultured ex vivo up to 6 h...
June 16, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633036/recent-advances-in-understanding-multiple-myeloma
#6
REVIEW
Parameswaran Hari
There have been major recent advancements in the understanding and management of multiple myeloma which in turn has led to unprecedented survival outcomes for patients. Diagnostic and response criteria have been recently revised. Our understanding of clonal progression, evolution, and clonal tides will inform therapeutic choices and appropriate treatment for patients. Response rates to initial induction with modern triplet therapies containing proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulators have made this approach the global standard for initial treatment...
June 13, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633000/nutrition-support-for-critically-ill-patients-with-cancer
#7
Kristen Lach, Sarah J Peterson
Oncology patients often experience the classic signs of malnutrition-weight loss as well as fat and muscle wasting, which have been associated with poor tolerance to treatment and increased morbidity and mortality. Nutrition status may be an important factor in determining tolerance to treatment and outcomes associated with it. Thus, identification of those with preexisting malnutrition or who are at risk for developing malnutrition is crucial not only at time of cancer diagnosis but also throughout the treatment course so that nutrition interventions may be implemented to prevent development or worsening of malnutrition in this high-risk population...
June 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632809/acquired-epidermodysplasia-verruciformis-occurring-in-a-renal-transplant-recipient
#8
Jill K Henley, Eric W Hossler
Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare condition occurring in patients with depressed cellular immunity, particularly individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Acquired EDV is less commonly reported in recipients of stem cell or solid organ transplantation. This condition typically manifests within 5 years of initial immunosuppression and can present as multiple hypopigmented to red, tinea versicolor-like macules or as multiple verrucous, flat-topped papules distributed over the trunk, arms, and legs...
May 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632131/reciprocal-analyses-in-zebrafish-and-medaka-reveal-that-harnessing-the-immune-response-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#9
Didier Yr Stainier, Shih-Lei Ben Lai, Rubén Marín-Juez, Pedro Luís Moura, Carsten Kuenne, Jason Kuan Han Lai, Ayele Taddese Tsedeke, Stefan Guenther, Mario Looso
Zebrafish display a distinct ability to regenerate their heart following injury. However, this ability is not shared by another teleost, the medaka. In order to identify cellular and molecular bases for this difference, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses following cardiac cryoinjury. This comparison points to major differences in immune cell dynamics between these models. Upon closer examination, we observed delayed and reduced macrophage recruitment in medaka, along with delayed neutrophil clearance...
June 20, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631605/loss-of-sendai-virus-c-protein-leads-to-accumulation-of-rig-i-immunostimulatory-defective-interfering-rna
#10
Maria Teresa Sánchez-Aparicio, Dominique Garcin, Charles M Rice, Daniel Kolakofsky, Adolfo García-Sastre, Alina Baum
Retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG-I)-mediated innate immunity plays a pivotal role in defence against virus infections. Previously we have shown that Sendai virus (SeV) defective interfering (DI) RNA functions as an exclusive and potent RIG-I ligand in DI-RNA-rich SeV-Cantell infected cells. To further understand how RIG-I is activated during SeV infection, we used a different interferon (IFN)-inducing SeV strain, recombinant SeVΔC, which, in contrast to SeV-Cantell is believed to stimulate IFN production due to the lack of the SeV IFN antagonist protein C...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631601/viral-genes-and-cellular-markers-associated-with-neurological-complications-during-herpesvirus-infections
#11
Carine L Holz, Rahul K Nelli, M Eilidh Wilson, Lila M Zarski, Walid Azab, Rachel Baumgardner, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Anthony Pease, Liangliang Zhang, Sarah Hession, Lutz S Goehring, Stephen B Hussey, Gisela Soboll Hussey
Despite the importance of neurological disorders associated with herpesviruses, the mechanism by which these viruses influence the central nervous system (CNS) has not been definitively established. Owing to the limitations of studying neuropathogenicity of human herpesviruses in their natural host, many aspects of their pathogenicity and immune response are studied in animal models. Here, we present an important model system that enables studying neuropathogenicity of herpesviruses in the natural host. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an alphaherpesvirus that causes a devastating neurological disease (EHV-1 myeloencephalopathy; EHM) in horses...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631441/genetic-landscape-and-deregulated-pathways-in-b-cell-lymphoid-malignancies
#12
R Rosenquist, S Beà, M-Q Du, B Nadel, Q Pan-Hammarström
With the introduction of next-generation sequencing, the genetic landscape of the complex group of B-cell lymphoid malignancies has rapidly been unravelled in recent years. This has provided important information about recurrent genetic events and identified key pathways deregulated in each lymphoma subtype. In parallel, there has been intense search and development of novel types of targeted therapy that 'hit' central mechanisms in lymphoma pathobiology, such as BTK, PI3K or BCL2 inhibitors. In this review, we will outline the current view of the genetic landscape of selected entities: follicular lymphoma, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, mantle cell lymphoma, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and marginal zone lymphoma...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631311/the-il-10-stat3-axis-contributions-to-immune-tolerance-by-thymus-and-peripherally-derived-regulatory-t-cells
#13
REVIEW
Klaus G Schmetterer, Winfried F Pickl
The signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins are important mediators for the integration of extrinsic signals provided by cytokines and hormones and thereby adapt cellular processes to their surroundings. In the past decade, the involvement of STAT3 in the regulation of T-cell responses has become a topic of increasing interest. STAT3 is activated in response to multiple cytokines, many of which have been shown to influence T-cell responses. Interestingly, many of these factors have been described with apparent opposing roles, such as the highly pro-inflammatory potency of IL-6 and the anti-inflammatory properties of IL-10, thus raising the possibility that STAT3 signaling may fulfill diverse roles in CD4(+) T-cells...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630905/mechanical-deformation-induces-depolarization-of-neutrophils
#14
Andrew E Ekpenyong, Nicole Toepfner, Christine Fiddler, Maik Herbig, Wenhong Li, Gheorghe Cojoc, Charlotte Summers, Jochen Guck, Edwin R Chilvers
The transition of neutrophils from a resting state to a primed state is an essential requirement for their function as competent immune cells. This transition can be caused not only by chemical signals but also by mechanical perturbation. After cessation of either, these cells gradually revert to a quiescent state over 40 to 120 min. We use two biophysical tools, an optical stretcher and a novel microcirculation mimetic, to effect physiologically relevant mechanical deformations of single nonadherent human neutrophils...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629823/characterization-and-biological-function-analysis-of-the-trim47-gene-from-common-carp-cyprinus-carpio
#15
Yeda Wang, Ming Kuang, Yuanan Lu, Li Lin, Xueqin Liu
The TRIM family protein was known to play an important role in many cellular processes, including potential antiviral activity, which has attracted lots of attention. In this study, a TRIM47 homolog from common carp (Cyprinus carpio) was cloned and the full length coding DNA sequence (CDS) of this gene was analyzed, results showed that there was a 97% similarity between common carp and zebrafish (Danio rerio), but only 18% similarity with that of human (Homo sapiens) and mouse (Mus musculus). The tissue distribution analysis showed TRIM47 had the highest mRNA level in the brain, a few immune related organs such as liver and kidney also had a relatively high level of TRIM47 expression...
June 16, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629761/cytokines-for-the-induction-of-antitumor-effectors-the-paradigm-of-cytokine-induced-killer-cik-cells
#16
Elisa Cappuzzello, Roberta Sommaggio, Paola Zanovello, Antonio Rosato
Cytokine-Induced killer (CIK) cells are raising growing interest in cellular antitumor therapy, as they can be easily expanded with a straightforward and inexpensive protocol, and are safe requiring only GMP-grade cytokines to obtain very high amounts of cytotoxic cells. CIK cells do not need antigen-specific stimuli to be activated and proliferate, as they recognize and destroy tumor cells in an HLA-independent fashion through the engagement of NKG2D. In several preclinical studies and clinical trials, CIK cells showed a reduced alloreactivity compared to conventional T cells, even when challenged across HLA-barriers; only in a few patients, a mild GVHD occurred after treatment with allogeneic CIK cells...
June 3, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629732/impact-of-granulocyte-contamination-on-pbmc-integrity-of-shipped-blood-samples-implications-for-multi-center-studies-monitoring-regulatory-t-cells
#17
Charuta Agashe, David Chiang, Alexander Grishin, Madhan Masilamani, Stacie M Jones, Robert A Wood, Scott H Sicherer, A Wesley Burks, Donald Y M Leung, Peter Dawson, Hugh A Sampson, M Cecilia Berin
In centralized immune monitoring for a multi-center allergen immunotherapy trial, we observed frequent loss of CD4(+) T cell integrity following staining of cultured PBMCs with our regulatory T cell flow cytometry panel. Samples were marked by a loss of total cellular events, altered scatter properties, and reduced CD3(+)CD4(+) events. This occurred only in samples that were stained with Foxp3 and were therefore treated with Foxp3 fixation-permeabilization buffer. We identified granulocyte contamination in samples associated with a loss of integrity, and went on to test the impact of granulocyte depletion on day-old blood samples...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629726/th2-related-immune-responses-by-the-brucella-abortus-cellular-antigens-malate-dehydrogenase-elongation-factor-and-arginase
#18
Young Bin Im, Soojin Shim, Woo Bin Park, Suk Kim, Han Sang Yoo
Brucellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Brucella species. The disease is difficult to control due to the intracellular survival of the bacterium and the lack of precise understanding of pathogenesis. Despite of continuous researches on the pathogenesis of Brucella spp. infection, there is still question on the pathogenesis, especially earlier immune response in the bacterial infection. Malate dehydrogenase (MDH), elongation factor (Tsf), and arginase (RocF), which showed serological reactivity, were purified after gene cloning, and their immune modulating activities were then analyzed in a murine model...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629723/microbial-antioxidant-defense-enzymes
#19
REVIEW
Cindy Staerck, Amandine Gastebois, Patrick Vandeputte, Alphonse Calenda, Gérald Larcher, Louiza Gillmann, Nicolas Papon, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Maxime J J Fleury
Free radicals are often described as chemical compounds characterized by unpaired electrons in their outer orbital rendering them highly reactive species. In mammalians, studies on free radicals were focused on reactive oxygen species (ROS) or reactive nitrogen species (RNS) due to their relative importance in physiological as well as in pathological processes. These cellular compounds are produced by different physiological systems such as the aerobic metabolism and play a major role in cell signaling pathways but also in the host immune defenses against pathogenic microorganisms...
June 16, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629381/the-era-of-bioengineering-how-will-this-affect-the-next-generation-of-cancer-immunotherapy
#20
REVIEW
Michele Graciotti, Cristiana Berti, Harm-Anton Klok, Lana Kandalaft
BACKGROUND: Immunotherapy consists of activating the patient's immune system to fight cancer and has the great potential of preventing future relapses thanks to immunological memory. A great variety of strategies have emerged to harness the immune system against tumors, from the administration of immunomodulatory agents that activate immune cells, to therapeutic vaccines or infusion of previously activated cancer-specific T cells. However, despite great recent progress many difficulties still remain, which prevent the widespread use of immunotherapy...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
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