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cellular immune

Christine L Wimer, Christiane L Schnabel, Gillian Perkins, Susanna Babasyan, Heather Freer, Alison E Stout, Alicia Rollins, Nikolaus Osterrieder, Laura B Goodman, Amy Glaser, Bettina Wagner
The equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) ORF1 and ORF71 genes have immune modulatory effects in vitro. Experimental infection of horses using virus mutants with multiple deletions including ORF1 and ORF71 showed promise as vaccine candidates against EHV-1. Here, the combined effects of ORF1 and ORF71 deletions from the neuropathogenic EHV-1 strain Ab4 on clinical disease and host immune response were further explored. Three groups of EHV-1 naïve horses were experimentally infected with the ORF1/71 gene deletion mutant (Ab4ΔORF1/71), the parent Ab4 strain, or remained uninfected...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin Michael Yeoman, Parag Katira
Cell mobility plays a critical role in immune response, wound healing, and the rate of cancer metastasis and tumor progression. Mobility within a three-dimensional (3D) matrix environment can be characterized by the average velocity of cell migration and the persistence length of the path it follows. Computational models that aim to predict cell migration within such 3D environments need to be able predict both of these properties as a function of the various cellular and extra-cellular factors that influence the migration process...
2018: PloS One
YunYan Tai, Fengjun Cao, Mingxing Li, Pindong Li, Tao Xu, Xuanbin Wang, Yuandong Yu, Bing Gu, Xiongjie Yu, Xiaojun Cai, Feng Ao, Peng Ge, Longchao Xiang, Bingbing Yang, Yingpin Jiang, Yong Li
Metabolic reprogramming is a feature of cancer cells and crucial for tumor growth and metastasis. Interferon-γ (IFNγ) is a cytokine that plays a pivotal role in host antitumor immunity. However, little is known about the roles of metabolic reprogramming in immune responses. Here, we show that colon cancer cells reprogram metabolism to coordinate proper cellular responses to IFNγ by downregulating mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC)1 and 2 via STAT3 signaling. Forced overexpression of MPC promote the production of reactive oxygen species and enhance the apoptosis induced by IFNγ in colon cancer cells...
November 3, 2018: Redox Biology
Zhiyuan An, Jianrong Su
Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) is a Gram-negative bacterium, which acts as an opportunistic pathogen and causes hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia by infecting the alveoli of epithelial cells and macrophages. Evidence reveals that A. baumannii outer membrane protein 34 (Omp34) elicits cellular immune responses and inflammation. The innate immunity NOD-like receptor 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome exerts critical function against pneumonia caused by A. baumannii infection, however, the role of Omp34 in the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and its corresponding regulatory mechanism are not clearly elucidated...
November 12, 2018: Microbes and Infection
Anna Lisa Giuliani, Alba Clara Sarti, Francesco Di Virgilio
Extracellular nucleotides, mainly ATP, but also ADP, UTP, UDP and UDP-sugars, adenosine, and adenine base participate in the "purinergic signalling" pathway, an ubiquitous system of cell-to-cell communication. Fundamental pathophysiological processes such as tissue homeostasis, wound healing, neurodegeneration, immunity, inflammation and cancer are modulated by purinergic signalling. Nucleotides can be released from cells via unspecific or specific mechanisms. A non-regulated nucleotide release can take place from damaged or dying cells, whereas exocytotic granules, plasma membrane-derived microvesicles, membrane channels (connexins, pannexins, calcium homeostasis modulator (CALHM) channels and P2 × 7 receptor) or specific ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporters are involved in the controlled release...
November 12, 2018: Immunology Letters
Jian Yang, Bin Yan, Yajuan Fan, Lihong Yang, Binbin Zhao, Feng Zhu, Jie Zheng, Wei Wang, Ling Bai, Feng Zhang, Xiancang Ma
Schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder with high heritability. GWAS had identified multiple susceptible regions associated with schizophrenia. However, a number of variants remained to be explored due to their location in non-coding regions. Enhancers were important DNA elements that positively regulated the expression of target genes. We applied a novel method to conduct pathway enrichment analysis in schizophrenia across 8 brain regions. GWAS summary data and enhancer-target networks of the 8 regions were integrated in this approach...
November 12, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Ines Lazibat, Maja Rubinić Majdak, Sven Županić
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multicomponent disease characterized by inflammation, neurodegeneration, and cancellation of the central nervous system recovery mechanisms. The cause of MS is still unknown, but it is undeniable that genetic, environmental and immune factors are involved in the etiopathogenesis of this complex and heterogeneous disease. From the aspect of immunopathogenesis, until recently the opinion prevailed that autoreactive T lymphocytes played a major role, the activation of which is a key step in MS...
June 2018: Acta Clinica Croatica
Maria Malm, Kirsi Tamminen, Timo Vesikari, Vesna Blazevic
Majority of norovirus (NoV) outbreaks and sporadic infections in the past 20 years have been caused by GII.4 variants. In 2014, NoV GII.17 genotype replaced GII.4 strains in several Asian countries and major outbreaks were reported in other continents. As GII.17 is a recently evolved NoV strain, there is a gap especially in immunogenicity data. In this study, we investigated GII.17 virus-like particle (VLP) binding to various cellular ligands, histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs), using human saliva, pig gastric mucin, and synthetic oligosaccharides as HBGA sources...
November 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Kambez H Benam, Eszter K Vladar, William J Janssen, Christopher M Evans
Respiratory tissues are bombarded by billions of particles daily. If allowed to accumulate, these particles can cause injury, inflammation, or infection, and thus may significantly disrupt airflow and gas exchange. Mucociliary defense, a primary mechanism for protecting host tissues, operates through the coordinated functions of mucus and cilia that trap and eliminate inhaled materials. Mucociliary function is also required for the elimination of endogenous cells and debris. Although defense is necessarily robust, it is also tightly regulated to minimize physiologic disruption of the host...
November 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Jeffrey A Whitsett
The lung is continuously exposed to particles, toxicants, and microbial pathogens that are cleared by a complex mechanical, innate, and acquired immune system. Mucociliary clearance, mediated by the actions of diverse conducting airway and submucosal gland epithelial cells, plays a critical role in a multilayered defense system by secreting fluids, electrolytes, antimicrobial and antiinflammatory proteins, and mucus onto airway surfaces. The mucociliary escalator removes particles and pathogens by the mechanical actions of cilia and cough...
November 2018: Annals of the American Thoracic Society
Kyung-Ah Cho, Yu-Hee Kim, Minhwa Park, Hye Ji Kim, So-Youn Woo, Joo-Won Park, Kyung-Ha Ryu
Graft-vs.-host disease (GVHD) is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Approximately 50% of patients exhibiting GVHD will not benefit from conventional steroid treatment. Although several second‑line treatments are available for these patients, their prognoses remain poor due to the increased risk of infection, immunosuppression-mediated toxicity and incomplete GVHD remission, which occurs in the majority of cases. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), a multipotent cell population, possess broad immunosuppressive activity and are a reportedly effective treatment of GVHD...
November 13, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Heather L Thompson, Megan J Smithey, Jennifer L Uhrlaub, Ilija Jeftić, Mladen Jergović, Sarah E White, Noreen Currier, Anna M Lang, Afam Okoye, Byung Park, Louis J Picker, Charles D Surh, Janko Nikolich-Žugich
In youth, thymic involution curtails production of new naïve T cells, placing the onus of T-cell maintenance upon secondary lymphoid organs (SLO). This peripheral maintenance preserves the size of the T-cell pool for much of the lifespan, but wanes in the last third of life, leading to a dearth of naïve T cells in blood and SLO, and contributing to suboptimal immune defense. Both keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) and sex steroid ablation (SSA) have been shown to transiently increase the size and cellularity of the old thymus...
November 14, 2018: Aging Cell
Tamara Kukolj, Drenka Trivanović, Slavko Mojsilović, Ivana Okić Djordjević, Hristina Obradović, Jelena Krstić, Aleksandra Jauković, Diana Bugarski
OBJECTIVES: Soluble IL-33 (interleukin (IL)-1-like cytokine) acts as endogenous alarm signal (alarmin). Since alarmins, besides activating immune system, act to restore tissue homeostasis, we investigated whether IL-33 exerts beneficial effects on oral stem cell pull. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenicity, proliferation, differentiation and senescence of stem cells derived from human periodontal ligament (PDLSCs) and dental pulp (DPSCs) were determined after in vitro exposure to IL-33...
November 14, 2018: Cell Proliferation
M Hernández-Bronchud
Successful tumor microenvironments eventually kill the host. They are not only meant to nourish and protect tumor development, but to give them the right "soil" for perpetual malignant properties such as tissue invasion and metastasis. This can only be achieved if cancers avoid immune vigilance. A similar situation occurs in mammalian placental pregnancy but feto-maternal tolerance is required for a correct physiological process only until birth. Once a cancer microenvironment has acquired the genetic and epigenetic "placental immune editing switches" (PIES) phenotype, it seems likely that it will keep them "available", whenever needed, for the rest of its development, because it gives cellular clones a competitive advantage to pass unnoticed by the host's immune system...
November 15, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
M Cieślak, K Roszek, M Wujak
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder characterized by degeneration of upper motor neurons in the brainstem and lower motor neurons in the spinal cord. Multiple mechanisms of motor neuron injury have been implicated, including more than 20 different genetic factors. The pathogenesis of ALS consists of two stages: an early neuroprotective stage and a later neurotoxic. During early phases of disease progression, the immune system through glial and T cell activities provides anti-inflammatory factors that sustain motor neuron viability...
November 14, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Katarzyna Micka-Michalak, Thomas Biedermann, Ernst Reichmann, Martin Meuli, Agnes S Klar
PURPOSE: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation adversely affects skin health at cellular and molecular levels. Hence, UV radiation can directly induce inflammatory responses in the dermis by inducing erythema, edema, inflammation, dermal fibroblasts alterations, and extracellular matrix modifications. METHODS: Human keratinocytes, melanocytes, and fibroblasts were isolated from skin biopsies, cultured, and expanded in vitro. Fibroblasts were seeded into collagen type I hydrogels that were subsequently covered by keratinocytes and melanocytes...
November 14, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Austin E F Sheppe, Evangel Kummari, Alyssa Walker, Angela Richards, Winnie W Hui, Jung Hwa Lee, Lauren Mangum, Abdolsamad Borazjani, Matthew K Ross, Mariola J Edelmann
Eicosanoids are cellular metabolites, which shape the immune response, including inflammatory processes in macrophages. The effects of these lipid mediators on inflammation and bacterial pathogenesis are not clearly understood. Certain eicosanoids are suspected to act as molecular sensors for the recruitment of neutrophils, while others regulate bacterial uptake. In this study, gene expression analyses indicated that genes involved in eicosanoid biosynthesis including COX-1, COX-2, DAGL, and PLA-2 are differentially regulated in THP-1 human macrophages infected with Salmonella enterica Typhimurium or Yersinia enterocolitica ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bernard Le Foll, Leon French
Due to size and accessibility, most information about the habenula is derived from rodent studies. To better understand the molecular signature of the habenula we characterized the genes that have high expression in the habenula. We compared anatomical expression profiles of three normal adult human brains and four fetal brains. We used gene set enrichment analyses to determine if genes annotated to specific molecular functions, cellular components, and biological processes are enriched in the habenula. We also tested gene sets related to depression and addiction to determine if they uniquely involve the habenula...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Roser Vento-Tormo, Mirjana Efremova, Rachel A Botting, Margherita Y Turco, Miquel Vento-Tormo, Kerstin B Meyer, Jong-Eun Park, Emily Stephenson, Krzysztof Polański, Angela Goncalves, Lucy Gardner, Staffan Holmqvist, Johan Henriksson, Angela Zou, Andrew M Sharkey, Ben Millar, Barbara Innes, Laura Wood, Anna Wilbrey-Clark, Rebecca P Payne, Martin A Ivarsson, Steve Lisgo, Andrew Filby, David H Rowitch, Judith N Bulmer, Gavin J Wright, Michael J T Stubbington, Muzlifah Haniffa, Ashley Moffett, Sarah A Teichmann
During early human pregnancy the uterine mucosa transforms into the decidua, into which the fetal placenta implants and where placental trophoblast cells intermingle and communicate with maternal cells. Trophoblast-decidual interactions underlie common diseases of pregnancy, including pre-eclampsia and stillbirth. Here we profile the transcriptomes of about 70,000 single cells from first-trimester placentas with matched maternal blood and decidual cells. The cellular composition of human decidua reveals subsets of perivascular and stromal cells that are located in distinct decidual layers...
November 2018: Nature
Cindy Nürnberger, Bianca S Bodmer, Anna H Fiedler, Gülsah Gabriel, Michael D Mühlebach
The impact of the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic highlights the need for vaccines that reduce or prevent infection and reliably prevent teratogenic complications. The live-attenuated measles virus (MV) vaccine strains are a promising vaccine platform since they induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses against additional antigens and have an excellent safety record. To explore its potential to protect against ZIKV, we compared a recombinant Schwarz strain MV that encodes ZIKV prM and soluble E proteins (MV-Zika-sE) with a prototypic alum-adjuvanted whole-inactivated ZIKV particle vaccine...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
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