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cellular immune

Niels P Riksen, Rinke Stienstra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is increasingly recognized that profound metabolic changes occur in activated myeloid cells, which shape their inflammatory phenotype and cellular functions. The purpose of this review is to summarize the accumulating evidence that major metabolic adaptations occur in monocytes and macrophages in the context of atherosclerosis ultimately modulating atherosclerotic plaque formation. RECENT FINDINGS: Plaque macrophages show a profound metabolic reprogramming which is driven by atherogenic factors in the plaque microenvironment, such as damage associated molecular patterns, modified lipoproteins, and hypoxia...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Holger Winkels, Erik Ehinger, Yanal Goshesh, Dennis Wolf, Klaus Ley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The immune system plays a critical role in the development and modulation of atherosclerosis. New high-parameter technologies, including mass cytometry (CyTOF) and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNAseq), allow for an encompassing analysis of immune cells. Unexplored marker combinations and transcriptomes can define new immune cell subsets and suggest their functions. Here, we review recent advances describing the immune cells in the artery wall of mice with and without atherosclerosis...
July 16, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Max Augustin, Carola Horn, Julian Koch, Ute Sandaradura de Silva, Martin Platten, Dirk Nierhoff, Isabelle Suarez, Seung-Hun Chon, Jan Rybniker, Clara Lehmann
The gastrointestinal mucosa (Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue, GALT) represents the largest site of chronic immune activation and HIV replication. Important cellular agents in the immunopathogenesis of an HIV infection are, in particular, CD49b/LAG-3+ Type 1 T regulatory cells (Tr1), which secrete large amounts of IL-10, and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), the main producers of IFN-α. However, the distribution of CD49b/LAG-3+ Tr1 cells along the GALT is unknown. We therefore measured the frequency of Tr1 cells (CD3+CD4+CD49b+LAG-3+), pDC (BDCA2+CD123+), and of CD4+ and CD8+ cells expressing the activation markers CD38+ and HLA-DR in the terminal ileum and the peripheral blood of treated aviremic HIV-infected individuals (n=12) and HIV negative subjects (n=6) using flow cytometry...
July 18, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Hyemi Song, Bong-Kwang Jung, Jaeeun Cho, Jong-Yil Chai
Gymnophalloides seoi worms were rapidly expelled from C57BL/6 mice within days 3-6 post-infection probably due to operation of mucosal innate immunity. To understand better the mucosal immunity related to worm expulsion from the host, we isolated exosomes of G. seoi metacercariae and investigated their role in induction of mRNA and protein expression of several Toll-like receptors and mucin-related factors in vitro. G. seoi-secreted exosomes were collected using differential ultracentrifugation, and cellular internalization of the exosomes into HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells was visualized by confocal microscopy...
July 17, 2018: Parasitology Research
Jose R Hombrebueno, Imran H A Ali, Jian-Xing Ma, Mei Chen, Heping Xu
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cataract surgery in diabetic individuals worsens pre-existing retinopathy and triggers the development of diabetic ocular complications, although the underlying cellular and molecular pathophysiology remains elusive. We hypothesise that lens surgery may exaggerate pre-existing retinal inflammation in diabetes, which may accelerate neurovascular degeneration in diabetic eyes. METHODS: Male heterozygous Ins2Akita mice (3 months of age) and C57BL/6 J age-matched siblings received either lens capsulotomy (to mimic human cataract surgery) or corneal incision (sham surgery) in the right eye...
July 17, 2018: Diabetologia
Zheng Quan Toh, Kathleen Wen Bei Cheow, Fiona M Russell, Edwin Hoe, Rita Reyburn, James Fong, Evelyn Tuivaga, Felisita T Ratu, Cattram D Nguyen, Silivia Matanitobua, Andrea Reitsma, Sepehr N Tabrizi, Suzanne M Garland, Edward K Mulholland, Paul V Licciardi
Background: This study examined the cellular immunity of 0, 1, 2, and 3 doses of Gardasil vaccine (4vHPV) in girls after 6 years and their responses to a subsequent dose of Cervarix vaccine (2vHPV). Methods: A subset of girls (n = 59) who previously received 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 4vHPV 6 years earlier were randomly selected from a cohort study of Fijian girls (age 15-19 years). Blood was collected before and 28 days after a dose of 2vHPV. The HPV16- and HPV18-specific cellular immune response was determined by IFNγ-ELISPOT and by measurement of cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cell supernatants...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Xiaobo Xi, Lijun Zhang, Guihong Lu, Xiaoyong Gao, Wei Wei, Guanghui Ma
Therapeutic vaccines that arouse the cytotoxic T cell immune response to reject infected cells have been investigated extensively for treating disease. Due to the large amounts of resident antigen-presenting cells (APCs) and T cells in lymph nodes, great efforts have been made to explore the strategy of targeting lymph nodes directly with nanovaccines to activate T cells. However, these nanovaccines still have several problems, such as a low loading efficiency and compromised activity of antigens and adjuvants derived from traditional complicated preparation...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Patrizia Cancemi, Miriam Buttacavoli, Gianluca Di Cara, Nadia Ninfa Albanese, Serena Bivona, Ida Pucci-Minafra, Salvatore Feo
The S100 gene family is the largest subfamily of calcium binding proteins of EF-hand type, expressed in tissue and cell-specific manner, acting both as intracellular regulators and extracellular mediators. There is a growing interest in the S100 proteins and their relationships with different cancers because of their involvement in a variety of biological events closely related to tumorigenesis and cancer progression. However, the collective role and the possible coordination of this group of proteins, as well as the functional implications of their expression in breast cancer (BC) is still poorly known...
June 26, 2018: Oncotarget
Jaesung Kim, Se Pyeong Im, Jung Seok Lee, Jassy Mary S Lazarte, Si Won Kim, Jae Wook Jung, Jong Yong Kim, Young Rim Kim, Sangmin Lee, Gwang Joong Kim, Hyun Suk Jung, Kyun Oh Lee, Alexandra Adams, Kim D Thompson, Tae Sung Jung
In hagfish and lampreys, two representative jawless vertebrates, the humoral immunity is directly mediated by variable lymphocyte receptors B (VLRBs). Both monomeric VLRBs are structurally and functionally similar, but their C-terminal tails differ: lamprey VLRB has a Cys-rich tail that forms disulfide-linked pentamers of dimers, contributing to its multivalency, whereas hagfish VLRB has a superhydrophobic tail of unknown structure. Here, we reveal that VLRBs obtained from hagfish plasma have a globular-shaped multimerized form (approximately 0...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elena Wüstenhagen, Fatima Boukhallouk, Inka Negwer, Krishnaraj Rajalingam, Frank Stubenrauch, Luise Florin
The skin represents a physical and chemical barrier against invading pathogens, which is additionally supported by restriction factors that provide intrinsic cellular immunity. These factors detect viruses to block their replication cycle. Here, we uncover the Myb-related transcription factor, partner of profilin (MYPOP) as a novel antiviral protein. It is highly expressed in the epithelium and binds to the minor capsid protein L2 and the DNA of human papillomaviruses (HPV), which are the primary causative agents of cervical cancer and other tumors...
July 17, 2018: Oncogene
P T Lange, C Schorl, D Sahoo, V L Tarakanova
Gammaherpesviruses are oncogenic pathogens that persist in ~95% of the adult population. Cellular metabolic pathways have emerged as important regulators of many viral infections, including infections by gammaherpesviruses that require several lipid synthetic pathways for optimal replication. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are transcription factors that are critical regulators of cellular fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis pathways. Not surprisingly, LXRs are attractive therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease...
July 17, 2018: MBio
Steven M Chirieleison, Joseph K Rathkey, Derek W Abbott
The mammalian IAPs, X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 and 2 (cIAP1 and cIAP2), play pivotal roles in innate immune signaling and inflammatory homeostasis, often working in parallel or in conjunction at a signaling complex. IAPs direct both nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2 (NOD2) signaling complexes and cell death mechanisms to appropriately regulate inflammation. Although it is known that XIAP is critical for NOD2 signaling and that the loss of cIAP1 and cIAP2 blunts NOD2 activity, it is unclear whether these three highly related proteins can compensate for one another in NOD2 signaling or in mechanisms governing apoptosis or necroptosis...
July 17, 2018: Science Signaling
Dongwen Zhou, Aye Myat Myat Thinn, Yan Zhao, Zhengli Wang, Jieqing Zhu
Cells utilize the adhesion receptor integrins to communicate with their surroundings. Integrin activation and cellular signaling are coupled with the changes from a bent to an extended conformation. The β3 integrins, including αIIb β3 that is essential for the function of platelets in hemostasis and thrombosis, and αV β3 that plays multiple roles in diverse cell types, have been prototypes in understanding integrin structure and function. Despite extensive structural studies, a high-resolution integrin structure in an extended conformation remains to be determined...
July 17, 2018: Blood
Cleber Costa de Martini, Jéssica Thomé de Andrade, Stéfani Karin Martiniano de Almeida, Kathlenn Liezbeth Oliveira Silva, Flavia de Rezende Eugenio, Paulo Sergio Patto Dos Santos, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the death of the Leishmania parasite and regulation of apoptosis. We quantified the frequency of cells producing NO and its levels in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), leukocytes from spleen in Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) symptomatic dogs and correlated NO levels with apoptosis and parasite load in the spleen. The percentage of NO+ cells and CD14+/NO+ was higher in PBMC and spleen cells in infected dogs than in controls. The levels of NO+ and CD14+/NO+ cells was higher in PBMC, but lower spleen of dogs infected than compared to control...
April 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Makeda K Austin, Edith Chen, Kharah M Ross, Lisa M McEwen, Julia L Maclsaac, Michael S Kobor, Gregory E Miller
Low socioeconomic status (SES) in early-life and adulthood independently contribute to increased risk for aging-related chronic diseases. One mechanistic hypothesis for these associations involves faster cellular aging of immune cells, which could plausibly contribute to chronic disease pathogenesis by compromising host resistance and/or up-regulating inflammation. However, little is known about the association between life-course SES and cellular aging. The present study examines the association of early-life and current SES with a novel biomarker of cellular aging termed the "epigenetic clock," in monocytes...
July 5, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Huang Ws, Wang Zx, Liang Y, Nie P, Huang B
Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a key adaptor protein required for the signaling of all Toll-like receptors except TLR3, which results to the interaction of activated TLR complexes via C-terminal TIR domain and the binding of downstream kinase via N-terminal death domain. In this study, the MyD88 gene from the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) was identified. The open reading frame of AjMyD88 was 918 bp in length, encoding a protein composed of conserved N-terminal death domain and C-terminal TIR domain, respectively...
July 14, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Young Ah Lee, Arim Min, Myeong Heon Shin
Entamoeba histolytica is an enteric tissue-invading protozoan parasite that causes amoebic colitis and occasionally liver abscess in humans. E. histolytica can induce host-cell apoptosis by initiating various intracellular signaling mechanisms closely associated with tissue pathogenesis and parasitic immune evasion. O-GlcNAcylation, similar to phosphorylation, is involved in various cell-signaling processes, including apoptosis and proliferation, with O-GlcNAc addition and removal regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA), respectively...
July 14, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Maryam Homayoon, Yahya Tahamtan, Mohammad Kargar, Seyed Mohammad Hossein Hosseini, Abbas Akhavan Sepahy
PURPOSE: Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) is a principal pathogen of domestic animals and an opportunistic pathogen of humans. It is the causative agent of pneumonia and haemorrhagic septicaemia in cattle, sheep and goats, fowl cholera in chickens and progressive atrophic rhinitis in swine. In this study, we investigated the humoral and cellular immune responses and protective immunity conferred by an iron-inactivated vaccine with bacterial DNA (IIV+bDNA) as an adjuvant in mice. METHODOLOGY: P...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Ke-Jun Ye, Jie Dai, Ling-Yun Liu, Meng-Jia Peng
The guilt by association (GBA) principle has been widely used to predict gene functions, and a network‑based approach may enhance the confidence and stability of the analysis compared with focusing on individual genes. Fetal growth restriction (FGR), is the second primary cause of perinatal mortality. Therefore, the present study aimed to predict the optimal gene functions for FGR using a network‑based GBA method. The method was comprised of four parts: Identification of differentially‑expressed genes (DEGs) between patients with FGR and normal controls based on gene expression data; construction of a co‑expression network (CEN) dependent on DEGs, using the Spearman correlation coefficient algorithm; collection of gene ontology (GO) data on the basis of a known confirmed database and DEGs; and prediction of optimal gene functions using the GBA algorithm, for which the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was obtained for each GO term...
June 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Li-Ping Han, Bei Sun, Chun-Jun Li, Yun Xie, Li-Ming Chen
Toll‑like receptor 4 (TLR4)‑mediated immune and inflammatory signaling serves a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our previous study demonstrated that celastrol treatment was able to improve hepatic steatosis and inhibit the TLR4 signaling cascade pathway in type 2 diabetic rats. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of celastrol on triglyceride accumulation and inflammation in steatotic HepG2 cells, and the possible mechanisms responsible for the regulation of cellular responses following TLR4 gene knockdown by small interfering RNA (siRNA) in vitro...
July 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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