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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944843/microarray-and-bioinformatics-analyses-of-gene-expression-profiles-in-balb-c-murine-macrophage-polarization
#1
Li Jiang, Xueqin Li, Yingying Zhang, Mengying Zhang, Zongsheng Tang, Kun Lv
Macrophages possess the hallmark feature of plasticity, allowing them to undergo a dynamic transition between M1 and M2 polarized phenotypes. The aim of the present study was to screen for differentially-expressed genes (DEGs) that were associated with BALB/c murine macrophage polarization. The transcription profiles of three M1 and three M2 samples were obtained using microarray analysis. Based on the threshold of fold‑change >2.0 and P‑value <0.05, a total of 1,253 DEGs were identified, of which 696 were upregulated and 557 downregulated in M1 macrophages compared with M2 macrophages...
September 19, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944771/the-spectrum-of-t-cell-metabolism-in-health-and-disease
#2
REVIEW
Glenn R Bantug, Lorenzo Galluzzi, Guido Kroemer, Christoph Hess
In healthy individuals, metabolically quiescent T cells survey lymph nodes and peripheral tissues in search of cognate antigens. During infection, T cells that encounter cognate antigens are activated and - in a context-specific manner - proliferate and/or differentiate to become effector T cells. This process is accompanied by important changes in cellular metabolism (known as metabolic reprogramming). The magnitude and spectrum of metabolic reprogramming as it occurs in T cells in the context of acute infection ensure host survival...
September 25, 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943870/gastrointestinal-tract-as-entry-route-for-hantavirus-infection
#3
Peter T Witkowski, Casey C Perley, Rebecca L Brocato, Jay W Hooper, Christian Jürgensen, Jörg-Dieter Schulzke, Detlev H Krüger, Roland Bücker
Background: Hantaviruses are zoonotic agents that cause hemorrhagic fevers and are thought to be transmitted to humans by exposure to aerosolized excreta of infected rodents. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the predominant endemic hantavirus in Europe. A large proportion of PUUV-infected patients suffer from gastrointestinal symptoms of unclear origin. In this study we demonstrate that PUUV infection can occur via the alimentary tract. Methods: We investigated susceptibility of the human small intestinal epithelium for PUUV infection and analyzed the resistance of virions to gastric juice...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943194/intradermal-vaccination-with-hollow-microneedles-a-comparative-study-of-various-protein-antigen-and-adjuvant-encapsulated-nanoparticles
#4
Guangsheng Du, Rania M Hathout, Maha Nasr, M Reza Nejadnik, Jing Tu, Roman I Koning, Abraham J Koster, Bram Slütter, Alexander Kros, Wim Jiskoot, Joke A Bouwstra, Juha Mönkäre
In this study, we investigated the potential of intradermal delivery of nanoparticulate vaccines to modulate the immune response of protein antigen using hollow microneedles. Four types of nanoparticles covering a broad range of physiochemical parameters, namely poly (lactic-co-glycolic) (PLGA) nanoparticles, liposomes, mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) were compared. The developed nanoparticles were loaded with a model antigen (ovalbumin (OVA)) with and without an adjuvant (poly(I:C)), followed by the characterization of size, zeta potential, morphology, and loading and release of antigen and adjuvant...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942919/organism-level-analysis-of-vaccination-reveals-networks-of-protection-across-tissues
#5
Motohiko Kadoki, Ashwini Patil, Cornelius C Thaiss, Donald J Brooks, Surya Pandey, Deeksha Deep, David Alvarez, Ulrich H von Andrian, Amy J Wagers, Kenta Nakai, Tarjei S Mikkelsen, Magali Soumillon, Nicolas Chevrier
A fundamental challenge in immunology is to decipher the principles governing immune responses at the whole-organism scale. Here, using a comparative infection model, we observe immune signal propagation within and between organs to obtain a dynamic map of immune processes at the organism level. We uncover two inter-organ mechanisms of protective immunity mediated by soluble and cellular factors. First, analyzing ligand-receptor connectivity across tissues reveals that type I IFNs trigger a whole-body antiviral state, protecting the host within hours after skin vaccination...
September 4, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942793/delivery-of-biomolecules-via-extracellular-vesicles-a-budding-therapeutic-strategy
#6
Devin M Stranford, Joshua N Leonard
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membrane-enclosed particles that are secreted by nearly all cells and play an important role in intercellular communication by transporting protein and nucleic acids between cells. EV-mediated processes shape phenomena as diverse as cancer progression, immune function, and wound healing. The natural role of EVs in encapsulating and delivering cargo to modify cellular function highlights the potential to use these particles as therapeutic delivery vehicles. In this chapter, we describe emerging strategies for EV engineering and consider how different approaches to EV production, purification, and design may impact the efficacy of EV-based therapeutics...
2017: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942500/evaluation-of-immunostimulatory-and-immunotherapeutic-effects-of-tropical-mushroom-lentinus-edodes-against-eimeriasis-in-chicken
#7
Muhammad Irfan Ullah, Masood Akhtar, Mian Muhammad Awais, Muhammad Irfan Anwar, Kashfa Khaliq
Mushrooms (Lentinus edodes) were processed for hot water (HWE), methanolic (ME), and polysaccharide (PSE) extracts. Polysaccharides were isolated through ion exchange (DEAE cellulose) and size exclusion (Sephadex G-100) chromatography. Monosaccharides including maltose (0.282%), glucose (0.113%), and mannose (0.451%) were identified, qualitatively and quantitatively, from the isolated polysaccharides through high-performance liquid chromatography. The whole study was divided into two experiments. Experiment 1 was meant for the evaluation of HWE and ME; whereas, experiment 2 was meant for the evaluation of PSE for immunostimulatory and immunotherapeutic activities...
September 24, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942366/t-regulatory-cells-mediate-local-immunosuppression-in-lymphedema
#8
Gabriela D García Nores, Catherine L Ly, Ira L Savetsky, Raghu P Kataru, Swapna Ghanta, Geoffrey E Hespe, Stanley G Rockson, Babak J Mehrara
Patients who suffer from lymphedema have impaired immunity and, as a result, are at an increased risk for infections. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that lymphadenectomy impairs acquisition of adaptive immune responses and antibody production in response to foreign antigens. Although it is clear that antigen presentation in lymph nodes plays a key role in adaptive immunity, the cellular mechanisms that regulate impaired immune responses in patients with lymphedema or following lymphatic injury remain unknown...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942141/carbon-monoxide-regulates-glycolysis-dependent-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-macrophages
#9
Do Won Lee, Ha Young Shin, Ji Hun Jeong, Jaeseok Han, Seongho Ryu, Kiichi Nakahira, Jong-Seok Moon
Low dose of carbon monoxide (CO) has anti-inflammatory role through various signaling pathways. Cellular metabolism has been implicated in the activation of inflammation in immune cells. However, the mechanisms by which CO-dependent metabolic regulation affect the immune response remain unclear. Here we show that CO-dependent metabolic pathway regulates the activation of the nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich-repeat-containing receptor (NLR), pyrin-domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome. CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3) resulted in reduced glycolysis-dependent NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages...
September 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941667/advances-and-highlights-in-allergen-immunotherapy-on-the-way-to-sustained-clinical-and-immunologic-tolerance
#10
Margot Berings, Cagatay Karaaslan, Can Altunbulakli, Philippe Gevaert, Mübeccel Akdis, Claus Bachert, Cezmi A Akdis
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is an effective treatment strategy for allergic diseases and has been used for more than 100 years. In recent years, however, the expectations on concepts, conduct, statistical evaluation and reporting have been significantly developed. Products have undergone dose-response and confirmative studies in adults and children to provide evidence for the optimal dosage, safety and efficacy of AIT vaccines using subcutaneous and sublingual delivery pathways in large patient cohorts, ensuring solid conclusions to be drawn from them for the advantage of patients and societies alike...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941620/safety-and-immunogenicity-of-heterologous-prime-boost-immunization-with-viral-vectored-malaria-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-matrix-m%C3%A2
#11
Navin Venkatraman, Nicholas Anagnostou, Carly Bliss, Georgina Bowyer, Danny Wright, Karin Lövgren-Bengtsson, Rachel Roberts, Ian Poulton, Alison Lawrie, Katie Ewer, Adrian V S Hill
The use of viral vectors in heterologous prime-boost regimens to induce potent T cell responses in addition to humoral immunity is a promising vaccination strategy in the fight against malaria. We conducted an open-label, first-in-human, controlled Phase I study evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of Matrix-M adjuvanted vaccination with a chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63) prime followed by a modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) boost eight weeks later, both encoding the malaria ME-TRAP antigenic sequence (a multiple epitope string fused to thrombospondin-related adhesion protein)...
September 20, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941454/components-of-the-hepatocellular-carcinoma-microenvironment-and-their-role-in-tumor-progression
#12
REVIEW
M V Novikova, N V Khromova, P B Kopnin
This review summarizes recently published data on the mechanisms of tumor cell interaction with the tumor microenvironment. Tumor stroma influences the processes of hepatocarcinogenesis, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. The tumor microenvironment includes both cellular and noncellular components. Main cellular components of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) stroma are tumor-associated fibroblasts, hepatic stellate cells, immune cells, and endothelial cells that produce extracellular components of tumor microenvironment such as extracellular matrix, various proteins, proteolytic enzymes, growth factors, and cytokines...
August 2017: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940642/b-cells-in-the-pathophysiology-of-myasthenia-gravis
#13
REVIEW
John S Yi, Jeffrey T Guptill, Panos Stathopoulos, Richard J Nowak, Kevin C O'Connor
Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an archetypal autoimmune disease. The pathology is characterized by autoantibodies to the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) in most patients, or to muscle-specific tyrosine kinase (MuSK) in others, and to a growing number of other postsynaptic proteins in smaller subsets. A decrease in the number of functional acetylcholine receptors (AChR), or functional interruption of the AChR, within the muscle end plate of the neuromuscular junction is caused by pathogenic autoantibodies. Although the molecular immunology underpinning the pathology is well understood, much remains to be learned about the cellular immunology contributing to the production of autoantibodies...
September 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940570/encouraging-experience-using-multi-transgenic-xenografts-in-a-pig-to-baboon-cardiac-xenotransplantation-model
#14
Joshua L Chan, Avneesh K Singh, Philip C Corcoran, Marvin L Thomas, Billeta Gt Lewis, David L Ayares, Todd Vaught, Keith A Horvath, Muhammad M Mohiuddin
BACKGROUND: Innovations in transgenic technology have facilitated improved xenograft survival. Additional gene expression appears to be necessary to overcome the remaining immune and biologic incompatibilities. We report for the first time the novel use of six-gene modifications within a pig-to-baboon cardiac xenotransplantation model. METHODS: Baboons (8-15 kg) underwent heterotopic cardiac transplantation using xenografts obtained from genetically engineered pigs...
September 22, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940439/detection-of-abcb5-tumour-antigen-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-melanoma-patients-and-implications-for-immunotherapy
#15
Sylvia Borchers, Christoph Masslo, Christina Ann Müller, Anika Tahedl, Jennifer Volkind, Yvonne Nowak, Viktor Umansky, Jasmina Esterlechner, Markus Hermann Frank, Christoph Ganss, Mark Andreas Kluth, Jochen Utikal
ABCB5 has been identified as a tumour initiating cell marker and is expressed in various malignancies, including melanoma. Moreover, treatment with anti-ABCB5 monoclonal antibodies has been shown to inhibit tumour growth in xenotransplantation models. Therefore, ABCB5 represents a potential target for cancer immunotherapy. However, cellular immune responses against ABCB5 in humans have not been described so far. Here, we investigated whether ABCB5-reactive T cells are present in human melanoma patients and tested the applicability of ABCB5-derived peptides for experimental induction of human T cell responses...
September 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939581/protocol-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial-characterising-the-immune-responses-induced-by-varicella-zoster-virus-vzv-vaccination-in-healthy-kenyan-women-setting-the-stage-for-a-potential-vzv-based-hiv-vaccine
#16
Catia T Perciani, Walter Jaoko, Sharon Walmsley, Bashir Farah, Salaheddin M Mahmud, Mario Ostrowski, Omu Anzala, Kavi-Icr Team, Kelly S MacDonald
INTRODUCTION: A protective HIV vaccine would be expected to induce durable effector immune responses at the mucosa, restricting HIV infection at its portal of entry. We hypothesise that use of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) as an HIV delivery vector could generate sustained and robust tissue-based immunity against HIV antigens to provide long-term protection against HIV. Given that HIV uniquely targets immune-activated T cells, the development of human vaccines against HIV must also involve a specific examination of the safety of the vector...
September 21, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939389/recombinant-allergen-and-peptide-based-approaches-for-allergy-prevention-by-oral-tolerance
#17
REVIEW
Raffaela Campana, Huey-Jy Huang, Raphaela Freidl, Birgit Linhart, Susanne Vrtala, Thomas Wekerle, Alexander Karaulov, Rudolf Valenta
Several studies conducted in animal models for immunologically-mediated hypersensitivity diseases have shown that oral administration of antigens early in life can prevent the development of specific humoral and cellular immune responses and thus hypersensitivity reactions to the respective antigens. Such data were also obtained in models for Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-associated allergy, the most common hypersensitivity disease affecting more than 25% of the population. Based on data obtained in animal models for allergy several clinical intervention studies have been conducted in children to study if oral administration of materials containing allergens or allergen-derived peptides early in life can prevent the subsequent development of allergy...
September 19, 2017: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939213/cytokines-and-microrna-in-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Hamed Mirzaei, Gordon A Ferns, Amir Avan, Majid G Mobarhan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health problem globally. The high incidence and case fatality of CVD are, to a large extent, a consequence of its late diagnosis and lack of highly sensitive and specific markers. Only a very small number of biomarkers, such as troponin, detect late disease. There is some evidence of an association and dysregulation between specific cytokines in the pathogenesis of CVD. These molecules are involved in inflammatory and immune mechanisms associated with atherogenesis. Several molecular/cellular pathways that include STAT, MAPK, and SMAD are modulated by cytokines...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939082/epigenetic-therapy-regulates-the-expression-of-aldh1-and-immunologic-response-relevance-to-the-prognosis-of-oral-cancer
#19
Ming-Shao Tsai, Wen-Cheng Chen, Chia-Hsuan Lai, Yu-Yen Chen, Miao-Fen Chen
OBJECTIVES: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) is associated with tumorigenesis, and shown to identify cancer stem cells (CSC)-like cells. We aimed to investigate the significance of ALDH1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and its correlation with DNMT3b and immune evasion in the present study. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical outcomes of OSCC patients and examined its correlation with the levels of ALDH1 in tumors and circulating myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in the peripheral blood...
October 2017: Oral Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938871/itraq-based-quantitative-proteomic-analysis-of-cynops-orientalis-limb-regeneration
#20
Jie Tang, Yuan Yu, Hanxue Zheng, Lu Yin, Mei Sun, Wenjun Wang, Jihong Cui, Wenguang Liu, Xin Xie, Fulin Chen
BACKGROUND: Salamanders regenerate their limbs after amputation. However, the molecular mechanism of this unique regeneration remains unclear. In this study, isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) coupled with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was employed to quantitatively identify differentially expressed proteins in regenerating limbs 3, 7, 14, 30 and 42 days post amputation (dpa). RESULTS: Of 2636 proteins detected in total, 253 proteins were differentially expressed during different regeneration stages...
September 22, 2017: BMC Genomics
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