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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550425/cpg-oligonucleotide-mediated-co-stimulation-of-mouse-invariant-natural-killer-t-cells-negatively-regulates-their-activation-status
#1
Raveendra R Kulkarni, Alexander Ian Villanueva, Leah R Read, Jennifer T Brisbin, Siddhartha Kumar Bhaumik, Jonathan LaMarre, Kaja Murali-Krishna, Shayan Sharif
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells play important roles in antimicrobial defense and immune-regulation. We have previously shown that iNKT cells express certain toll-like receptors (TLR), and that TLR co-stimulation of iNKT cells in the presence of suboptimal concentrations of T cell receptor (TCR) agonists enhances cellular activation. In the present study, we investigated the regulatory effects of CpG oligonucleotides in mouse primary hepatic and splenic iNKT cells and in DN32.D3 iNKT cells. We show that CpG treatment of iNKT cells in the presence of higher concentrations of TCR agonists (α-GalCer or anti-CD3 mAb) results in the up-regulation of TLR9 in iNKT cells with a concurrent reduction in their cellular activation, as assessed by their production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ compared with controls...
May 27, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550117/comparative-exploration-of-multidimensional-flow-cytometry-software-a-model-approach-evaluating-t-cell-polyfunctional-behavior
#2
Timothy T Spear, Michael I Nishimura, Patricia E Simms
Advancement in flow cytometry reagents and instrumentation has allowed for simultaneous analysis of large numbers of lineage/functional immune cell markers. Highly complex datasets generated by polychromatic flow cytometry require proper analytical software to answer investigators' questions. A problem among many investigators and flow cytometry Shared Resource Laboratories (SRLs), including our own, is a lack of access to a flow cytometry-knowledgeable bioinformatics team, making it difficult to learn and choose appropriate analysis tool(s)...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549970/distinct-patterns-of-cellular-immune-response-elicited-by-influenza-non-adjuvanted-and-as03-adjuvanted-monovalent-h1n1-pdm09-vaccine
#3
Sarah Giarola-Silva, Jordana G A Coelho-Dos-Reis, Marina Moraes Mourão, Ana Carolina Campi-Azevedo, Erick E Nakagaki Silva, Maria Luiza-Silva, Marina Angela Martins, Amanda Cardoso de Oliveira Silveira Cassette, Maurício Azevedo Batista, Vanessa Peruhype-Magalhães, Lis Ribeiro do Valle Antonelli, José Geraldo Leite Ribeiro, Silvana Maria Elói-Santos, Alexandre Vieira Machado, Andréa Teixeira-Carvalho, Olindo Assis Martins-Filho, Márcio Sobreira Silva Araújo
The study aimed at identifying biomarkers of immune response elicited by non-adjuvanted-(NAV) and adjuvanted-(AV) H1N1(pdm09) vaccines. The results showed that despite both vaccines elicited similar levels of anti-H1N1 antibodies at day30 after vaccination, higher reactivity was observed in AV at day180. While AV induced early changes in cell-surface molecules on monocytes, CD4(+), CD8(+) T-cells and B-cells, NAV triggered minor changes, starting later on at day3. Furthermore, AV induced a late and persistent increase in TLR gene expression after day3, except for tlr4, while NAV displayed earlier but transient tlr3/4/7/9 up-regulation...
May 23, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549691/27-hydroxycholesterol-upregulates-the-production-of-heat-shock-protein-60-of-monocytic-cells
#4
Bo-Young Kim, Yonghae Son, Jeongyoon Choi, Seong-Kug Eo, Young Chul Park, Koanhoi Kim
Investigating differentially expressed proteins in a milieu rich in cholesterol oxidation products, we found via mass spectrometry-based proteomics that surface levels of heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) were upregulated on monocytic cells in the presence of 27-hydroxycholesterol (27OHChol). The elevated levels of cytoplasmic membrane HSP60 were verified via Western blot analysis and visualized by confocal microscopy. Treatment with 27OHChol also resulted in increased levels of cellular HSP60 without altering its transcription...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549625/a-matter-of-maturity-the-impact-of-pre-mrna-processing-in-gene-expression-and-antigen-presentation
#5
Rodrigo Prado Martins, Robin Fåhraeus
RNA processing plays a pivotal role in the diversification of high eukaryotes transcriptome and proteome. The expression of gene products controlling a variety of cellular and physiological processes depends largely on a complex maturation process undergone by pre-mRNAs to become translation-competent mRNAs. Here we review the different mechanisms involved in the pre-mRNA processing and disclose their impact in the gene regulation process in eukaryotic cells. We describe some viral strategies targeting pre-mRNA processing to control gene expression and host immune response and discuss their relevance as tools for a better understanding of cell biology...
May 23, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549596/emerging-roles-of-the-cxcl12-cxcr4-axis-in-pancreatic-cancer-progression-and-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Richard L Sleightholm, Beth K Neilsen, Jing Li, Maria M Steele, Rakesh K Singh, Michael A Hollingsworth, David Oupicky
Chemokine networks regulate a variety of cellular, physiological, and immune processes. These normal functions can become appropriated by cancer cells to facilitate a more hospitable niche for aberrant cells by enhancing growth, proliferation, and metastasis. This is especially true in pancreatic cancer, where chemokine signaling is a vital component in the development of the supportive tumor microenvironment and the signaling between the cancer cells and surrounding stromal cells. Although expression patterns vary among cancer types, the chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in nearly every major malignancy and plays a prominent role in pancreatic cancer development and progression...
May 23, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549270/the-effects-of-early-life-adversity-on-the-immune-system
#7
REVIEW
Martha M C Elwenspoek, Annette Kuehn, Claude P Muller, Jonathan D Turner
Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences...
May 17, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548962/prognostic-implication-of-leucocyte-subpopulations-in-diffuse-large-b-cell-lymphoma
#8
Xiao Han, Jing Ruan, Wei Zhang, Daobin Zhou, Dongsheng Xu, Qiang Pei, Mingqi Ouyang, Mengxuan Zuo
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that variables related to host adaptive immunity and the tumor microenvironment may predict the outcome in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study was undertaken to determine the prognostic value of peripheral blood leucocyte subpopulations in diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma patients. METHODS: We prospectively analyzed the 16 leukocyte subpopulations using Cytodiff flow cytometric technique in a cohort of 45 diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma patients at a single institution between February and December 2014...
May 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548953/from-rapalogs-to-anti-aging-formula
#9
Mikhail V Blagosklonny
Inhibitors of mTOR, including clinically available rapalogs such as rapamycin (Sirolimus) and Everolimus, are gerosuppressants, which suppress cellular senescence. Rapamycin slows aging and extends life span in a variety of species from worm to mammals. Rapalogs can prevent age-related diseases, including cancer, atherosclerosis, obesity, neurodegeneration and retinopathy and potentially rejuvenate stem cells, immunity and metabolism. Here, I further suggest how rapamycin can be combined with metformin, inhibitors of angiotensin II signaling (Losartan, Lisinopril), statins (simvastatin, atorvastatin), propranolol, aspirin and a PDE5 inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548945/soluble-antigens-from-the-neurotropic-pathogen-angiostrongylus-cantonensis-directly-induce-thymus-atrophy-in-a-mouse-model
#10
Zhen Liu, Dong-Ming Su, Zi-Long Yu, Feng Wu, Rui-Feng Liu, Shi-Qi Luo, Zhi-Yue Lv, Xin Zeng, Xi Sun, Zhong-Dao Wu
The nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis (A.C.) is a neurotropic pathogen; stage-III larva invade the human (non-permissive host) central nervous system (CNS) to cause eosinophilic meningitis or meningoencephalitis accompanied by immunosuppression. In an A.C.-infectedmouse (another non-permissive host) model, CNS damage-associated T cell immune deficiency and severe inflammation were proposed to result from activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. However, glucocorticoids are anti-inflammatory agents...
May 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548388/epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-how-have-quantitative-mathematical-models-helped-improve-our-understanding
#11
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Satyendra C Tripathi, Jason A Somarelli, Samir M Hanash, Herbert Levine
Phenotypic plasticity, the ability of cells to reversibly alter their phenotypes in response to signals, presents a significant clinical challenge to treating solid tumors. Tumor cells utilize phenotypic plasticity to evade therapies, metastasize, and colonize distant organs. As a result, phenotypic plasticity can accelerate tumor progression. A well-studied example of phenotypic plasticity is the bidirectional conversions among epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype(s). These conversions can alter a repertoire of cellular traits associated with multiple hallmarks of cancer, such as metabolism, immune-evasion, invasion and metastasis...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548079/design-of-live-attenuated-bacterial-vaccines-based-on-d-glutamate-auxotrophy
#12
Maria P Cabral, Patricia García, Alejandro Beceiro, Carlos Rumbo, Astrid Pérez, Miriam Moscoso, Germán Bou
Vaccine development is a priority for global health due to the growing multidrug resistance in bacteria. D-glutamate synthesis is essential for bacterial cell wall formation. Here we present a strategy for generating effective bacterial whole-cell vaccines auxotrophic for D-glutamate. We apply this strategy to generate D-glutamate auxotrophic vaccines for three major pathogens, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. These bacterial vaccines show virulence attenuation and self-limited growth in mice, and elicit functional and cross-reactive antibodies, and cellular immunity...
May 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546760/analysis-of-immune-status-after-iodine-125-permanent-brachytherapy-in-prostate-cancer
#13
E Du, Lin Wang, Chang-Ying Li, Chang-Wen Zhang, Yan-Chun Qu, Ran-Lu Liu, Yong Xu, Kuo Yang, Zhi-Hong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is an effective treatment choice for low and intermediate risk prostate cancer (PCa). However, the impact of PPB on tumor immune status is still poorly understood. This study aimed to assess the immune status in PCa patients before and at different time points after PPB (1, 3, 6, and 12 months). METHODS: Blood was collected from 32 patients with low and intermediate risk PCa and 12 healthy volunteers. The frequency of immunocompetent cells was identified by flow cytometry...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546680/the-impact-of-the-yogic-lifestyle-on-cancer-prognosis-and-survival-can-we-target-cancer-stem-cells-with-yoga
#14
Kavita Beri
Cancer has recently been known to originate from stem cell-like cells, called cancer stem cells (CSCs). Their unique properties of self-duplication, multiplication, as well as migration give the CSC resistance over conventional cancer therapies. Newer therapies are in developmental stage to target these stem cell-like populations and become the vanguard of future treatments. Several complementary and alternative treatments have been used in cancer management as an adjunct to conventional therapy to improve the overall quality of life and reduce recurrence...
May 2017: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546511/the-nanci-nkx2-1-gene-duplex-buffers-nkx2-1-expression-to-maintain-lung-development-and-homeostasis
#15
Michael J Herriges, David J Tischfield, Zheng Cui, Michael P Morley, Yumiao Han, Apoorva Babu, Su Li, MinMin Lu, Isis Cendan, Benjamin A Garcia, Stewart A Anderson, Edward E Morrisey
A subset of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) is spatially correlated with transcription factors (TFs) across the genome, but how these lncRNA-TF gene duplexes regulate tissue development and homeostasis is unclear. We identified a feedback loop within the NANCI (Nkx2.1-associated noncoding intergenic RNA)-Nkx2.1 gene duplex that is essential for buffering Nkx2.1 expression, lung epithelial cell identity, and tissue homeostasis. Within this locus, Nkx2.1 directly inhibits NANCI, while NANCI acts in cis to promote Nkx2...
May 25, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546080/exosomes-in-hiv-infection-a-review-and-critical-look
#16
REVIEW
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Tiago Degani Veit, José Artur Bogo Chies
Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular medium by different cell types. These vesicles carry a variety of protein and RNA cargos, and have a central role in cellular signaling and regulation. A PubMed search using the term "exosomes" finds 67 articles published in 2006. Ten years later, the same search returns approximately 1200 results for 2016 alone. The growing interest in exosomes within the scientific community reflects the different roles exerted by extracellular vesicles in biological systems and diseases...
May 22, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546078/doxycycline-affects-gene-expression-profiles-in-aortic-tissues-in-a-rat-model-of-vascular-calcification
#17
Hailin Lu, Wenhong Jiang, Han Yang, Zhong Qin, Si-En Guo, Ming Hu, Xiao Qin
Vitamin D3-induced vascular calcification (VC) in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with calcification occurring in human atherosclerosis, diabetes mellitus and chronic kidney disease, thereby it is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Doxycycline has been shown to effectively attenuated VC. This study aimed to explore the effects of doxycycline on gene expression profiles in VC rats. The model of VC in rats was established by subcutaneous injection of vitamin D3 for 3days. Doxycycline at 120mgkg(-1)day(-1) was given via subcutaneous injection for 14days...
May 22, 2017: Microvascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546020/the-evolution-and-functional-characterization-of-miiuy-croaker-interferon-regulatory-factor-9-involved-in-immune-response
#18
Qiong Yang, Junxia Cui, Weihua Song, Xueyan Zhao, Tianjun Xu
Interferon regulatory factors (IRFs) are transcription factors playing important roles in regulating the expression of type I interferons (IFNs) and IFN-stimulated genes. IRF9 is one of the IRF family gene members which belongs to the IRF4 subfamily. Mammalian IRF9 has been known to be involved in antiviral response as the DNA sequence recognition subunit of IFN-stimulated gene factor 3 (ISGF3) complex. In fish, only a few studies investigated the characteristics of IRF9 and the role in IFN signaling. In this study, we identify the IRF9 gene from miiuy croaker (mmiIRF9) and studied its feature and function...
May 22, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545993/the-effect-of-entomopathogenic-fungal-culture-filtrate-on-the-immune-response-of-the-greater-wax-moth-galleria-mellonella
#19
Louise Mc Namara, James C Carolan, Christine T Griffin, David Fitzpatrick, Kevin Kavanagh
Galleria mellonella is a well-established model species regularly employed in the study of the insect immune response at cellular and humoral levels to investigate fungal pathogenesis and biocontrol agents. A cellular and proteomic analysis of the effect of culture filtrate of three entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) species on the immune system of G. mellonella was performed. Treatment with Beauveria caledonica and Metarhizium anisopliae 96h culture filtrate facilitated a significantly increased yeast cell density in larvae (3 fold and 3...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545888/delivering-safer-immunotherapies-for-cancer
#20
Lauren Milling, Yuan Zhang, Darrell J Irvine
Cancer immunotherapy is now a powerful clinical reality, with a steady progression of new drug approvals and a massive pipeline of additional treatments in clinical and preclinical development. However, modulation of the immune system can be a double-edged sword: Drugs that activate immune effectors are prone to serious non-specific systemic inflammation and autoimmune side effects. Drug delivery technologies have an important role to play in harnessing the power of immune therapeutics while avoiding on-target/off-tumor toxicities...
May 22, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
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