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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150735/glycomics-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-and-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#1
REVIEW
Jun-Ichi Furukawa, Kazue Okada, Yasuro Shinohara
Most cells are coated by a dense glycocalyx composed of glycoconjugates such as glycosphingolipids, glycoproteins, and proteoglycans. The overall glycomic profile is believed to be crucial for the diverse roles of glycans, which are mediated by specific interactions that regulate cell-cell adhesion, the immune response, microbial pathogenesis, and other cellular events. Many cell surface markers were discovered and identified as glycoconjugates such as stage-specific embryonic antigen, Tra-1-60/81 and various other cell surface molecules (e...
November 18, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150567/amplifying-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-in-dendritic-cells-by-cd11c-specific-loss-of-socs1-increases-innate-immunity-to-infection-while-decreasing-adaptive-immunity
#2
Alejandro F Alice, Gwen Kramer, Shelly Bambina, Jason R Baird, Keith S Bahjat, Michael J Gough, Marka R Crittenden
Although prophylactic vaccines provide protective humoral immunity against infectious agents, vaccines that elicit potent CD8 T cell responses are valuable tools to shape and drive cellular immunity against cancer and intracellular infection. In particular, IFN-γ-polarized cytotoxic CD8 T cell immunity is considered optimal for protective immunity against intracellular Ags. Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS)1 is a cross-functional negative regulator of TLR and cytokine receptor signaling via degradation of the receptor-signaling complex...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150244/proteomic-analysis-of-follicular-fluid-from-tropically-adapted-goats
#3
Alexandre R Paula Junior, Mauricio F van Tilburg, Marina D P Lobo, Ana C O Monteiro-Moreira, Renato A Moreira, Carlos H S Melo, Joanna M G Souza-Fabjan, Airton A Araújo, Luciana M Melo, Dárcio I A Teixeira, Arlindo A Moura, Vicente J F Freitas
The present study was conducted to characterize the major proteome of ovarian follicular fluid from locally-adapted, "Canindé" goats in the northeast of Brazil. Eight estrous cycling goats received a hormonal treatment consisting of medroxyprogesterone acetate, D-cloprostenol and FSH. Fluid was collected by laparoscopy from small (<3mm), medium (3-4mm) and large (>4mm) follicles and then, proteins were analyzed by 2-D SDS-PAGE and tandem mass spectrometry. Thirty-six proteins were identified in the goat follicular fluid, including albumin, immunoglobulins, ceruloplasmin, complement factor B, alpha-1B-glycoprotein precursor, serotransferrin, complement C3 and serpins, among others...
November 6, 2017: Animal Reproduction Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150086/the-ex-vivo-toll-like-receptor-7-tolerance-induction-in-donor-lymphocytes-prevents-murine-acute-graft-versus-host-disease
#4
Nikolaos Zogas, Garyfalia Karponi, Fotios Iordanidis, Stylianos Malasidis, Vasilios Paraskevas, Anastasia Papadopoulou, Zaharias George Scouras, Achilles Anagnostopoulos, Evangelia Yannaki
BACKGROUND AIMS: Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, mediated by alloreactive donor T cells. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a family of conserved pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs), represent key players in donors' T-cell activation during aGVHD; however, a regulatory, tolerogenic role for certain TLRs has been recognized in a different context. We investigated whether the ex vivo-induced TLR-2,-4,-7 tolerance in donor cells could prevent alloreactivity in a mismatched transplantation model...
November 14, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149942/mechanisms-of-organ-dysfunction-in-sepsis
#5
REVIEW
Rachel Pool, Hernando Gomez, John A Kellum
Sepsis-associated organ dysfunction involves multiple responses to inflammation, including endothelial and microvascular dysfunction, immune and autonomic dysregulation, and cellular metabolic reprogramming. The effect of targeting these mechanistic pathways on short- and long-term outcomes depends highly on the timing of therapeutic intervention. Furthermore, there is a need to understand the adaptive or maladaptive character of these mechanisms, to discover phase-specific biomarkers to guide therapy, and to conceptualize these mechanisms in terms of resistance and tolerance...
January 2018: Critical Care Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149923/gastrointestinal-and-hepatic-disease-in-systemic-sclerosis
#6
REVIEW
Tracy M Frech, Diane Mar
Although classification criteria for systemic sclerosis (SSc) do not incorporate gastrointestinal tract (GIT) manifestations often present in this disease, the GIT is the most common internal organ involved. Pathophysiology of GIT involvement is thought to be similar to other organs in SSc with fibroproliferative vascular lesions of small arteries and arterioles, increased production of profibrotic growth factors, and alterations of innate, humoral, and cellular immunity. These processes result in neuropathy progressing to myopathy with eventual fibrosis...
February 2018: Rheumatic Diseases Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149405/current-understanding-of-the-tctp-interactome
#7
Siting Li, Feng Ge
Evolutionarily conserved and pleiotropic, the translationally controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a housekeeping protein present in eukaryotic organisms. It plays an important role in regulating many fundamental processes, such as cell proliferation, cell death, immune responses, and apoptosis. As a result of the pioneer work by Adam Telerman and Robert Amson, the critical role of TCTP in tumor reversion was revealed. Moreover, TCTP has emerged as a regulator of cell fate determination and a promising therapeutic target for cancers...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149404/the-translational-controlled-tumour-protein-tctp-biological-functions-and-regulation
#8
Ulrich-Axel Bommer
The Translational Controlled Tumour Protein TCTP (gene symbol TPT1, also called P21, P23, Q23, fortilin or histamine-releasing factor, HRF) is a highly conserved protein present in essentially all eukaryotic organisms and involved in many fundamental cell biological and disease processes. It was first discovered about 35 years ago, and it took an extended period of time for its multiple functions to be revealed, and even today we do not yet fully understand all the details. Having witnessed most of this history, in this chapter, I give a brief overview and review the current knowledge on the structure, biological functions, disease involvements and cellular regulation of this protein...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149056/characterization-of-ovine-a3z1-restriction-properties-against-small-ruminant-lentiviruses-srlvs
#9
Lorena de Pablo-Maiso, Idoia Glaria, Helena Crespo, Estanislao Nistal-Villán, Valgerdur Andrésdóttir, Damián de Andrés, Beatriz Amorena, Ramsés Reina
Intrinsic factors of the innate immune system include the apolipoprotein B editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) protein family. APOBEC3 inhibits replication of different virus families by cytosine deamination of viral DNA and a not fully characterized cytosine deamination-independent mechanism. Sheep are susceptible to small ruminant lentivirus (SRLVs) infection and contain three APOBEC3 genes encoding four proteins (A3Z1, Z2, Z3 and Z2-Z3) with yet not deeply described antiviral properties...
November 17, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148828/increased-cellular-aging-by-3-years-of-age-in-latino-preschool-children-who-consume-more-sugar-sweetened-beverages-a-pilot-study
#10
Janet M Wojcicki, Rosalinda Medrano, Jue Lin, Elissa Epel
BACKGROUND: Previous studies in adults and older children find that sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption increases risk for obesity and cellular aging, as measured by leukocyte telomere length (LTL). METHODS: In a previously described, San Francisco-based Latino birth cohort, where telomere length was measured at birth, we evaluate the relationship between beverage consumption (including SSB and 100% fruit juice), obesity, and LTL at 2-3 years old, as well as change in LTL from birth...
November 17, 2017: Childhood Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147610/host-immune-response-index-in-gastric-cancer-identified-by-comprehensive-analyses-of-tumor-immunity
#11
Charny Park, Junhun Cho, Jeeyun Lee, So Young Kang, Ji Yeong An, Min Gew Choi, Jun Ho Lee, Tae Sung Sohn, Jae Moon Bae, Sung Kim, Seung Tae Kim, Se Hoon Park, Joon Oh Park, Won Ki Kang, Insuk Sohn, Sin Ho Jung, Myung-Soo Kang, Kyoung-Mee Kim
Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated/microsatellite-unstable (MSI) gastric carcinomas (GC) constitute immune-active principal cellular components of tumor microenvironment and contribute to better prognosis. With the remarkable success of cancer immunotherapies, there is an urgent need for a comprehensive understanding of tumor-immune interactions in patients with GC in the context of host immune response. To identify GC subtype-specific immune response gene set, we tested differentially expressed genes for MSI and EBV+ GC subtypes in randomly selected test set (n = 278) in merged ACRG-SMC microarray and TCGA RNA sequencing data set...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147088/evaluation-and-characterization-of-milk-derived-microvescicle-isolated-from-bovine-colostrum
#12
Brighton E Maburutse, Mi-Ri Park, Sangnam Oh, Younghoon Kim
Extracellular microvesicles are membranous nano-sized cellular organelles secreted by a variety of cells under normal and pathological conditions and heterogeneous in size ranging from 30 nm to 1 μm. They carry functional microRNAs that can influence immunity and development. For a particular application of microvesicles, choice of isolation method is particularly important; however, their isolation methods from colostrum in particular have not been described clearly. In this work, differential ultracentrifugation as a conventional method, ultracentrifugation with some modification such as additional precipitations, ultrafiltration, sucrose gradient separation and ExoQuick™ as a commercial reagent were compared...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146453/cellular-and-biochemical-parameters-following-autotomy-and-ablation-mediated-cheliped-loss-in-the-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#13
Xiao-Zhen Yang, Cong Zhang, Gen-Yong Huang, Min-Jie Xu, Yong-Xu Cheng, Zhi-Gang Yang, Qian Zhang, Yi-Yue Wang
In the pond culture of juvenile Eriocheir sinensis, various factors have frequently led to a high rate of autotomy and limb impairments. This study evaluated the differential effects of cheliped loss with autotomy and ablation on the short-term cellular and biochemical parameters of juvenile E. sinensis. In this study, compared with the crabs before treatment, the total hemocyte counts (THC), granulocyte counts (GC), hemocyte agglutination, phosphatase activity and glucose metabolism levels were significantly increased, while hyalinocyte counts (HC) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) were significantly decreased within 3 h...
November 13, 2017: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146236/infectious-bursal-disease-virus-protein-vp4-suppresses-type-i-interferon-expression-via-inhibiting-k48-linked-ubiquitylation-of-glucocorticoid-induced-leucine-zipper-gilz
#14
Zhiyuan He, Xiang Chen, Mengjiao Fu, Jun Tang, Xiaoqi Li, Hong Cao, Yongqiang Wang, Shijun J Zheng
Viruses have developed a variety of methods to evade host immune response. Our previous study showed that infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) inhibited type I interferon production via interaction of VP4 with cellular glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ) protein. However, the exact underlying molecular mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we found that IBDV VP4 suppressed GILZ degradation by inhibiting K48-linked ubiquitylation of GILZ. Furthermore, mutation of VP4 (R41G) abolished the inhibitory effect of VP4 on IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation, indicating that the amino acid 41R of VP4 was required for the suppression of IFN-β expression and GILZ ubiquitylation...
October 28, 2017: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145733/harnessing-novel-imaging-approaches-to-guide-hiv-prevention-and-cure-discoveries-a-national-institutes-of-health-and-global-hiv-vaccine-enterprise-2017-meeting-report
#15
Brigitte Elisabeth Sanders-Beer, Yegor Voronin, David McDonald, Anjali Singh
Advances in imaging technologies have greatly increased our understanding of cellular and molecular interactions in humans and their corresponding animal models of infectious diseases. In the HIV/SIV field, imaging has provided key insights into mucosal viral transmission, local and systemic virus spread, host-virus dynamics, and chronic inflammation/immune activation and the resultant immunopathology. Recent developments in imaging applications are yielding physical, spatial, and temporal measurements to enhance insight into biological functions and disease processes, while retaining important cellular, microenvironmental, organ and intact organism contextual details...
November 16, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145441/distinct-t-and-nk-cell-populations-may-serve-as-immune-correlates-of-protection-against-symptomatic-pandemic-influenza-a-h1n1-virus-infection-during-pregnancy
#16
Miloje Savic, Jennifer L Dembinski, Ida Laake, Olav Hungnes, Rebecca Cox, Fredrik Oftung, Lill Trogstad, Siri Mjaaland
Maternal influenza infection during pregnancy is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. However, the link between the anti-influenza immune responses and health-related risks during infection is not well understood. We have analyzed memory T and NK cell mediated immunity (CMI) responses in pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 (pdm09) virus infected non-vaccinated pregnant women participating in the Norwegian Influenza Pregnancy Cohort (NorFlu). The cohort includes information on immunization, self-reported health and disease status, and biological samples (plasma and PBMC)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144836/autophagy-and-inflammation
#17
Yu Matsuzawa-Ishimoto, Seungmin Hwang, Ken Cadwell
The cellular degradative pathway of autophagy has a fundamental role in immunity. Here, we review the function of autophagy and autophagy proteins in inflammation. We discuss how the autophagy machinery controls the burden of infectious agents while simultaneously limiting inflammatory pathologies, which often involves processes that are distinct from conventional autophagy. Among the newly emerging processes we describe are LC3-associated phagocytosis and targeting by autophagy proteins, both of which require many of the same proteins that mediate conventional autophagy...
November 16, 2017: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144192/seeding-of-the-mucosal-leukocytes-in-the-halt-and-trachea-of-white-leghorn-chickens
#18
M Krunkosky, M García, L G Beltran Garza, E Karpuzoglu-Belgin, J Levin, R J Williams, R M Gogal
Characterizing the immune cells of the head associated lymphoid tissues (HALT) and trachea during maturation in young birds is critical to understanding the immunological responses to avian respiratory diseases and vaccines. Selected mucosal leukocytes of the conjunctiva-associated lymphoid tissue (CALT), Harderian gland (HG), nasal associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) and trachea from 4, 6, 8 and 10-week-old chickens were enumerated and phenotyped. HG, NALT, and trachea cellularity increased as the birds aged with cell viability varying by tissue...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143979/analysis-of-anti-tnf-induced-skin-lesions-reveals-strong-th1-activation-with-some-distinct-immunological-characteristics
#19
E Stoffel, H Maier, E Riedl, M-C Brüggen, B Reininger, M Schaschinger, C Bangert, E Guenova, G Stingl, P M Brunner
BACKGROUND: Psoriasiform and eczematous eruptions are the most common dermatological adverse reaction linked to anti-TNF-α therapy. Yet, a detailed characterization of their immune phenotype is lacking. OBJECTIVES: We sought to characterize anti-TNF-α induced inflammatory skin lesions on a histopathologic, cellular and molecular level, compared to psoriasis, eczema (atopic dermatitis), and healthy control skin. METHODS: Histopathologic evaluation, gene expression (quantitative RT-PCR) and computer-assisted immunohistologic studies (TissueFAXS) were performed on 19 skin biopsies from IBD (n=17) and rheumatoid arthritis (n=2) patients with new-onset inflammatory skin lesions during anti-TNF-α-therapy...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143814/structural-basis-of-nucleotide-sugar-transport-across-the-golgi-membrane
#20
Joanne L Parker, Simon Newstead
Glycosylation is a fundamental cellular process that, in eukaryotes, occurs in the lumen of both the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum. Nucleotide sugar transporters (NSTs) are an essential component of the glycosylation pathway, providing the diverse range of substrates required for the glycosyltransferases. NSTs are linked to several developmental and immune disorders in humans, and in pathogenic microbes they have an important role in virulence. How NSTs recognize and transport activated monosaccharides, however, is currently unclear...
November 15, 2017: Nature
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