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Sodium hydroxide

Simon Felz, Salah Al-Zuhairy, Olav Andreas Aarstad, Mark C M van Loosdrecht, Yue Mei Lin
To evaluate and develop methodologies for the extraction of gel-forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), EPS from aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was extracted using six different methods (centrifugation, sonication, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), formamide with sodium hydroxide (NaOH), formaldehyde with NaOH and sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) with heat and constant mixing). AGS was collected from a pilot wastewater treatment reactor. The ionic gel-forming property of the extracted EPS of the six different extraction methods was tested with calcium ions (Ca(2+))...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Qingqi Yan, Yumei Wang, Wawat Rodiahwati, Antje Spiess, Michael Modigell
Screw press processing of biomass can be considered as a suitable mechanically based pretreatment for biofuel production since it disrupts the structure of lignocellulosic biomass with high shear and pressure forces. The combination with chemical treatment has been suggested to increase the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars. Within the study, the synergetic effect of alkaline (sodium hydroxide, NaOH) soaking and screw press pretreatment on wheat straw was evaluated based on, e.g., sugar recovery and energy efficiency...
October 19, 2016: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Ying Zhang, Chaojie Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Leiyu Feng, Yongmei Li, Qi Zhou
Alkaline treatment with steel slag and NaOH addition were investigated under different pH conditions for the fermentation of waste activated sludge. Better performance was achieved in steel slag addition scenarios for both sludge hydrolysis and acidification. More solubilization of organic matters and much production of higher VFA (volatile fatty acid) in a shorter time can be achieved at pH10 when adjusted by steel slag. Higher enzyme activities were also observed in steel slag addition scenarios under the same pH conditions...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Jie Zhang, Shuzhong Wang, Yanhui Li, Jinling Lu, Senlin Chen, XingQi Luo
In this work, we studied the supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) of the textile sludge, the hydrothermal conversion of typical textile compounds and the corrosion properties of stainless steel 316. Moreover, the influence mechanisms of NaOH during these related processes were explored. The results show that decomposition efficiency for organic matter in liquid phase of the textile sludge was improved with the increment of reaction temperature or oxidation coefficient. However, the organic substance in solid phase can be oxidized completely in supercritical water...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Technology
Zahir Talha, Weimin Ding, Esmaeil Mehryar, Muhammad Hassan, Jinhua Bi
To enhance the codigestion of degradation and improve biomethane production potential, sugarcane bagasse and filter mud were pretreated by sodium hydroxide NaOH 1 N at 100°C for 15, 30, and 45 minutes, respectively. Biomethane generation from 1-liter batch reactor was studied at mesophilic temperature (37 ± 1)°C, solid concentrations of 6%, and five levels of mixing proportion with and without pretreatment. The results demonstrate that codigestion of filter mud with bagasse produces more biomethane than fermentation of filter mud as single substrate; even codigested substrate composition presented a better balance of nutrients (C/N ratio of 24...
2016: BioMed Research International
Lidong Cao, Jinlong Wu, Xiuhuan Li, Li Zheng, Miaomiao Wu, Pingping Liu, Qiliang Huang
An efficient and sensitive analytical method based on high-performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of glucosamine (GlcN)₁ and chitooligosaccharides (COS) ranging from (GlcN)₂ to (GlcN)₆ without prior derivatization. Detection limits were 0.003 to 0.016 mg/L (corresponding to 0.4-0.6 pmol), and the linear range was 0.2 to 10 mg/L. The optimized analysis was carried out on a CarboPac-PA100 analytical column (4 × 250 mm) using isocratic elution with 0...
October 10, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Ahmed Amine Azzaz, Salah Jellali, Hanene Akrout, Aymen Amine Assadi, Latifa Bousselmi
The present study investigates the alkaline modification of raw orange tree sawdust (ROS) for an optimal removal of methylene blue (MB), as a cationic dye model, from synthetic solutions. The effects of operating parameters, namely, sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations, ROS doses in NaOH solutions, stirring times, and initial MB concentrations on dye removal efficiency, were followed in batch mode. The process optimization was performed through the response surface methodology approach (RSM) by using Minitab17 software...
October 10, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Yu Kanasaki, Yasuyuki Kobayashi, Keiko Gotoh
Removal process of a fatty acid from four substrates was monitored using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). Model substrates included carbon, silica, and gold sputtered electrodes and a polymer film prepared on a gold sputtered electrode. Stearic acid (SA), a model solid oily contaminant, was deposited on the substrates as an ultra-thin layer using the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique. Cleaning tests of the SA-LB films were performed in aqueous solutions containing sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and/or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)...
2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Lars H Jepsen, Peikun Wang, Guotao Wu, Zhitao Xiong, Flemming Besenbacher, Ping Chen, Torben R Jensen
Sodium amide, NaNH2, has recently been shown to be a useful catalyst to decompose NH3 into H2 and N2, however, sodium hydroxide is omnipresent and commercially available NaNH2 usually contains impurities of NaOH (<2%). The thermal decomposition of NaNH2 and NaNH2-NaOH composites is systematically investigated and discussed. NaNH2 is partially dissolved in NaOH at T > 100 °C, forming a non-stoichiometric solid solution of Na(OH)1-x(NH2)x (0 < x < ∼0.30), which crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell with the space group P212121 determined by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction...
September 14, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mirosław Kwiatkowski, Vanessa Fierro, Alain Celzard
This paper presents the results of the application of the advanced LBET and QSDFT methods compared to the BET and DR approach to the comprehensive analysis of the porous structure of activated carbons obtained by chemical activation of demineralised Kraft lignin with potassium and sodium hydroxides. Based on the analysis of nitrogen adsorption isotherms, the influence of the preparation process conditions on the porous structure formation was investigated. Particularly, the impact of the type of activating agent, the activation temperature, the hydroxide to lignin mass ratio, and the flow rate of inert gas on the porous structure formation was assessed...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Wenping Sun, Dan Zhang, Zhihui Chen, Yu Zhang, Wenbin Luo, Yinzhu Jiang, Shi Xue Dou
Two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterial is one of the most promising candidates for energy storage applications due to its confined thickness and high surface area, which would play an essential role for enhanced reaction kinetics. In this work, a universal process that can be extended to scale-up is developed for synthesizing ultrathin Co/Ni-based hydroxides and oxides. The sodium and lithium storage capability of Co3O4 nanosheets are evaluated in detail. For sodium storage, the Co3O4 nanosheets exhibit excellent rate capability (e...
October 6, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Jingzi Beiyuan, Daniel C W Tsang, Marjorie Valix, Weihua Zhang, Xin Yang, Yong Sik Ok, Xiang-Dong Li
To enhance extraction of strongly bound metals from oxide minerals and organic matter, this study examined the sequential use of reductants, oxidants, alkaline solvents and organic acids followed by a biodegradable chelating agent (EDDS, [S,S]-ethylene-diamine-disuccinic-acid) in a two-stage soil washing. The soil was contaminated by Cu, Zn, and Pb at an e-waste recycling site in Qingyuan city, China. In addition to extraction efficiency, this study also examined the fate of residual metals (e.g., leachability, bioaccessibility, and distribution) and the soil quality parameters (i...
January 2017: Chemosphere
Taejun Park, Vanvimol Ampunan, Sungkyu Maeng, Eunhyea Chung
Phosphorus removal has been studied for decades to reduce the environmental impact of phosphorus in natural waterbodies. Slag has been applied for the phosphorus removal by several mechanisms. In this study, sodium hydroxide coating was applied on the slag surface to enhance the efficiency of precipitation-coagulation process. In the batch test, it was found that the capacity of the slag to maintain high pH decreases with increasing its exposure time to the aqueous solution. In the column test, the coarse-grained coated slag showed higher phosphorus removal efficiency than the fine-grained uncoated slag...
October 3, 2016: Chemosphere
Kengran Yang, Claire E White
Alkali-activated materials (AAMs) are currently being pursued as viable alternatives to conventional ordinary Portland cement due to their lower carbon footprint and established mechanical performance. However, our understanding of the mesoscale morphology (~ 1 to 100 nanometers) of AAMs and related amorphous aluminosilicate gels, including the development of the three-dimensional aluminosilicate network and nanoscale porosity, is severely limited. This study investigates the structural changes that occur during formation of AAM gels at the mesoscale by utilizing a coarse-grained Monte Carlo (CGMC) modeling technique that exploits density functional theory calculations...
October 6, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Jinze Li, Suman Koner, Michael German, Arup K Sengupta
From a sustainability viewpoint, sodium exchange softening, although used widely, is under scrutiny due to its production of excess Na-laden spent regenerant and subsequent discharge to the environment. Many arid regions are introducing regulations disallowing dumping of concentrated sodium salts, the residuals from popular Na-exchange softening. The sodium content of the softened water is, also, always higher than in the feed, which poses a dietary health concern when used for drinking or cooking. An efficient, easy-to-operate hardness removal process with reduced sodium in both the treated water and in the spent regenerant is an unmet global need...
October 4, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Nurul Afifah Mohd Salleh, Sabariah Ismail, Mohd Rohaimi Ab Halim
BACKGROUND: Curcuma xanthorrhiza is a native Indonesian plant and traditionally utilized for a range of illness including liver damage, hypertension, diabetes, and cancer. OBJECTIVE: The study determined the effects of C. xanthorrhiza extracts (ethanol and aqueous) and their constituents (curcumene and xanthorrhizol) on UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and glutathione transferase (GST) activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inhibition studies were evaluated both in rat liver microsomes and in human recombinant UGT1A1 and UGT2B7 enzymes...
October 2016: Pharmacognosy Research
Andrew G Hughson, Brent Race, Allison Kraus, Laura R Sangaré, Lori Robins, Bradley R Groveman, Eri Saijo, Katie Phillips, Luis Contreras, Virkamal Dhaliwal, Matteo Manca, Gianluigi Zanusso, Daniel Terry, Jeffrey F Williams, Byron Caughey
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is produced naturally by neutrophils and other cells to kill conventional microbes in vivo. Synthetic preparations containing HOCl can also be effective as microbial disinfectants. Here we have tested whether HOCl can also inactivate prions and other self-propagating protein amyloid seeds. Prions are deadly pathogens that are notoriously difficult to inactivate, and standard microbial disinfection protocols are often inadequate. Recommended treatments for prion decontamination include strongly basic (pH ≥~12) sodium hypochlorite bleach, ≥1 N sodium hydroxide, and/or prolonged autoclaving...
September 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Guorong Shi, Yating Liu, Zijun He, Jihen Zhou
We investigate the encapsulation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) in chemical-treated and chitosan-coated yeast cells, Saccharomyces cerevisiae (S. cerevisiae), for the controlled release of BSA. The chemical treatment can sufficiently enlarge the small-sized cell-wall cavities and/or break the integrity for the entrance of BSA to the interior of yeast cells, and the additional chitosan coating can well prevent the rapid release of encapsulated BSA from the yeast-derived microcapsules. The sodium hydroxide pretreated S...
August 10, 2016: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Yao Zhao, Kaiyong Chen, Haining Li, Huiyi Wu
PURPOSE: Urinary exosome is an ideal noninvasive, low-cost source of kidney diseases biomarkers. However, many factors effect the isolation of urine-derived exosome. The effect of pH on the yield of exosome isolation under different pH was explored. METHODS: The pH was adjusted for 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 with hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide solution. All samples were incubated for 30 min before differential ultracentrifugation. Exosome-associated protein markers TSG101, ALIX and total concentration of RNA were evaluated by Western-blotting and micro-amount ultraviolet spectrophotometer, respectively...
September 27, 2016: International Urology and Nephrology
Prachi Zawar, Vivek Javalkote, Robert Burnap, Pramod Mahulikar, Pravin Puranik
The present study reports a process wherein CO2 is captured in the form of bicarbonates using calcium oxide and photosynthetically fixed into biomass. Microalgal cultures viz. Chlorella sorokiniana PAZ and Arthrospira sp. VSJ were grown in the medium containing bicarbonates. The rate of bicarbonate utilization by C. sorokiniana PAZ was higher when CO2 trapped in the presence of 2.67mM calcium oxide than in the presence of 10mM sodium hydroxide and with direct addition of 10mM sodium bicarbonate. For Arthrospira sp...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
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