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Sodium hydroxide

Stef Vanhaecht, Thomas Quanten, Tatjana N Parac-Vogt
A new postfunctionalization method was developed for the Anderson-type POM based on a nucleophilic substitution reaction occurring at an electrophilic sp(3) hybridized carbon localized on the hybrid POM. Using this method, several types of different nucleophiles including primary and secondary amines, carboxylates, and thiolates were efficiently coupled to a chloride-functionalized Anderson-type POM in high yields and purity. The heterogeneous acetonitrile-Na2CO3 conditions were found to be superior over other bases and solvents for the coupling of amines and thiolates to the chloride-functionalized POM...
February 15, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Sandra Mejia-Avendaño, Gabriel Munoz, Sébastien Sauvé, Jinxia Liu
Sites impacted by the use of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) present elevated concentrations of perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS). The characterization of the PFAS contamination at such sites may be greatly complicated by the presence of hydrocarbon cocontaminants and by the large variety of PFAS potentially present in AFFFs. In order to further a more comprehensive characterization of AFFF-contaminated soils, the solvent extraction of PFAS from soil was studied under different conditions...
February 6, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Linnea Nilebäck, Jesper Niels Hedin, Mona Widhe, Lotta S Floderus, Annika Krona, Helena Bysell, My Hedhammar
Functionalization of biomaterials with biologically active peptides can improve their performance after implantation. By genetic fusion to self-assembling proteins, the functional peptides can easily be presented on different physical formats. Herein, a chemical-free coating method based on self-assembly of the recombinant spider silk protein 4RepCT is described and used to prepare functional coatings on various biomaterial surfaces. The silk assembly on surfaces was studied in real-time, revealing occurrence of continuous assembly of silk proteins onto surfaces and formation of nanofibrillar structures...
February 13, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Seung Jong Lee, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Hoon Hwang, Sunghun Choi, Sung Hyeon Park, Erhan Deniz, Dae Soo Jung, Jang Wook Choi
Despite the high theoretical capacity, silicon (Si) anodes in lithium-ion batteries have difficulty in meeting the commercial standards in various aspects. In particular, the huge volume change of Si makes it very challenging to simultaneously achieve high initial Coulombic efficiency (ICE) and long-term cycle life. Herein, we report spray pyrolysis to prepare Si-SiOx composite using an aqueous precursor solution containing Si nanoparticles, citric acid, and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). In the precursor solution, Si nanoparticles are etched by NaOH with the production of [SiO4]4-...
February 13, 2017: Nano Letters
Xuchuan Duan, Jinliang Fang, Rui Sun
A sensitive method was developed for the determination of ammonium in an aqueous solution based on gas phase light scattering. In a stream of carrier gas, the gaseous ammonia from the alkalized solution formed a volatile ammonium chloride derivative by reacting with gaseous hydrogen chloride; the gaseous ammonium chloride was analyzed by nondispersive atomic fluorescence spectrometry. The mechanisms of the method are elucidated based on evaporative light scattering detection. Parameters such as temperature, amount of sodium hydroxide, and carrier gas flow rate were studied...
2017: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Won-Hee Lee, Jong-Oh Kim
In this study, we focused on the rate of adsorption of phosphate on to the surface of magnetite in the presence of coexisting anions, organic matters and heavy metals. Magnetite particles were prepared using a co-precipitation method. Iron (II) sulfate heptahydrate and iron (III) chloride hexahydrate were mixed and then a sodium hydroxide solution was added drop-wise in the mixed iron solution. Coexisting anions were found to have no effect on the decrease in phosphate adsorption. However, phosphate adsorbed on to magnetite surface decreased with increasing total organic carbon (TOC) concentration of natural organic matter (NOM) such as citric, oxalic, and humic acid...
February 9, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Wonmi Ahn, Daniel C Ratchford, Pehr E Pehrsson, Blake S Simpkins
Non-radiative plasmon decay in noble metals generates highly energetic carriers under visible light irradiation, which opens new prospects in the fields of photocatalysis, photovoltaics, and photodetection. While localized surface plasmon-induced hot carrier generation occurs in diverse metal nanostructures, inhomogeneities typical of many metal-semiconductor plasmonic nanostructures hinder predictable control of photocarrier generation and therefore reproducible carrier-mediated photochemistry. Here, we generate traveling surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) at the interface between a noble metal/titanium dioxide (TiO2) heterostructure film and aqueous solution, enabling simultaneous optical and electrochemical interrogation of plasmon-mediated chemistry in a system whose resonance may be continuously tuned via the incident optical excitation angle...
February 9, 2017: Nanoscale
T B Freitas, A E Relling, M S Pedreira, W J B Rocha, A R Schroeder, T L Felix
Objectives were to determine the dietary inclusion level of NaOH in a dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS)-based diet needed to improve growth performance and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers, and to determine the effects of NaOH treatment of DDGS on pattern of feed intake. Based on previous research regarding the acidity of DDGS, we hypothesized that using NaOH in cattle fed 50% DDGS-based diets to neutralize the acidity inherent in DDGS would improve growth performance of cattle but shift intake patterns...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
Shuichi Suzuki, Sayaka Kira, Masatoshi Kozaki, Masaki Yamamura, Toru Hasegawa, Tatsuya Nabeshima, Keiji Okada
One-pot synthesis of (nitronyl nitroxide)-gold(i)-phosphine (NN-Au-P) complexes has been developed using chloro(tetrahydrothiophene)gold(i), phosphine ligands, nitronyl nitroxide radicals, and sodium hydroxide. The NN-Au-P complexes can be easily handled because they were quite stable under aerated conditions in both solution and crystalline states. They showed weak absorption bands with vibrational structures in the 450-650 nm region. The oxidation potentials assigned to the NN moieties of NN-Au-P complexes with aromatic phosphines were observed around -0...
February 6, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
A M Abdel-Mohsen, J Jancar, R M Abdel-Rahman, L Vojtek, P Hyršl, M Dušková, H Nejezchlebová
In-situ formed hyaluronan/silver (HA/Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) were used to prepare composite fibers/fabrics for the first time. Different concentrations of silver nitrate (1, 2mg/100ml) were added at ambient temperature to sodium hyaluronate solution (40mg/ml), then the pH was increased to 8 by adding sodium hydroxide. The in-situ formed HA/Ag-NPs were used to prepare fibers/nonwoven fabrics by wet-dry-spinning technique (WDST). UV/vis spectroscopy, SEM, TEM, DLS, XPS, XRD and TGA were employed to characterize the structure and composition of the nanocomposite, surface morphology of fiber/fabrics, particle size of Ag-NPs, chemical interactions of Ag(0) and HA functional groups, crystallinity and thermal stability of the wound dressing, respectively...
February 3, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Stacey J L Sullivan, Philip Stafford, Elon Malkin, Maureen L Dreher, Srinidhi Nagaraja
Analysis of explanted medical implants can provide a wealth of knowledge about device safety and performance. However, the quality of information may be compromised if the methods used to clean tissue from the device disturb the retrieved condition. Common solutions used to digest tissue may adversely affect the surface of the device and its severity can be material and processing dependent. In this study, two groups of stents made from the same material (Nitinol) were shape set in a salt pot (SP) or further processed by mechanical polishing (MP) and then immersed in one of three tissue digestion solutions (TDS): nitric acid (HNO3 ), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), or papain enzyme (papain)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Emad R Attallah, Mostafa Soliman, Mohamed M Abo-Aly
A simple, modified quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe procedure was developed for the determination of diquat in potato using reversed-phase LC coupled with tandem MS (MS/MS) in a total run time of 10 min. Different sample preparation parameters (pH modifier type, sample size, and elevated temperature) were tested and optimized. Potato sample was extracted with acetonitrile in the presence of ammonium hydroxide at 80°C. Phase separation was obtained by shaking the extract with magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride, and analysis was done using LC-MS/MS...
February 2, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
F Marrakchi, M J Ahmed, W A Khanday, M Asif, B H Hameed
In this work, mesoporous-activated carbon (CSAC) was prepared from chitosan flakes (CS) via single-step sodium hydroxide activation for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB). CSAC was prepared using different impregnation ratios of NaOH:CS (1:1, 2:1, 3:1, and 4:1) at 800°C for 90min. The adsorption performance of CSAC was evaluated for MB at different adsorption variables, such MB initial concentrations (25-400mg/L), solution pH (3-11), and temperature (30-50°C). The adsorption isotherm data of CSAC-MB were well fitted to Langmuir model with a maximum adsorption capacity 143...
January 29, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Wenjie Liu, Ronghua Li, Habtamu Ayalew, Yanshi Xia, Guihua Bai, Guijun Yan, Kadambot H M Siddique, Peiguo Guo
Silver staining is one of the widely used methods for DNA fragment detection in biological research. Silver staining protocols have been steadily optimized to improve detection efficiency. This research reports a continuous effort to simplify the existing silver staining protocols, lower experiment cost, and improve DNA detection sensitivity and image clarity. The new method only requires three reagents (silver nitrate, sodium hydroxide and formaldehyde) and 6-7 minutes with high detection sensitivity to visualize as low as 14...
January 31, 2017: Electrophoresis
Alberto Amadasi, Arianna Camici, Davide Porta, Lucia Cucca, Daniele Merli, Chiara Milanese, Antonella Profumo, Nabila Rassifi, Cristina Cattaneo
The treatment of corpses with extremely acid or basic liquids is sometimes performed in criminal contexts. A thorough characterization by chemical analysis may provide further help to macroscopic and microscopic analysis; 63 porcine bone samples were treated with solutions at different pH (1-14) for immersion periods up to 70 days, as well as in extremely acidic sulfuric acid solutions (9 M/18 M) and extremely basic sodium hydroxide. Inductively coupled optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES)/plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that only the sulfuric acid solution 18 M was able to completely dissolve the sample...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Alvise Perosa, Maurizio Selva, Thomas Maschmeyer
We describe a chemical technology for the reductive catalytic multiphase hydrodechlorination (HDC) of chlorinated aromatics to greatly reduce their toxicity and aid the disposal of such species. The system requires no solvent and the catalyst displays a high recycling efficiency. In the present case, 1,3-dichlorobenzene (1,3-DCB) was used as a model compound, and was quantitatively hydrodechlorinated to benzene with hydrogen, in a tri-phasic liquid system consisting of the chlorinated aromatic itself as the top organic phase, an aqueous sodium hydroxide bottom phase (that neutralises acids formed), and an Aliquat(®)336 (A336) intermediate phase containing a Pd/C catalyst...
January 16, 2017: Chemosphere
Akari Takayanagi, Maki Kobayashi, Yoshinori Kawase
Mechanisms for removal of anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) in wastewaters by zero-valent iron (ZVI) were systematically examined. The contributions of four removal mechanisms, i.e., reductive degradation, oxidative degradation, adsorption, and precipitation, changed significantly with solution pH were quantified and the effective removal of SDBS by ZVI was found to be attributed to the adsorption capability of iron oxides/hydroxides on ZVI surface at nearly neutral pH instead of the degradation at acidic condition...
January 31, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guqing Xiao, Ruiming Wen, Aijiao Liu, Guowen He, Dan Wu
Two approaches were used to synthesize two resins with different pore structures. In one way, the CH2Cl groups in macroporous chloromethylated polystyrene resin were transformed to methylene bridges, and achieved a hypercrosslinked resin with plentiful micropores (denoted GQ-06). In the other way, 50% of the CH2Cl groups in chloromethylated polystyrene resin was used to produce micropores, while the residual 50% of the CH2Cl groups was reacted with 2-aminopyridine, and prepared another resin with double pore structure of hypercrosslinked resin and macroporous resin (denoted GQ-11)...
January 22, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Teng Zhang, Ming-Jun Zhu
A study on the fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation (SSCF) of Fenton reaction combined with NaOH pretreated sugarcane bagasse (SCB) at a high solid loading of 10-30% (w/v) was investigated. Enzyme feeding mode, substrate feeding mode and combination of both were compared with the batch mode under respective solid loadings. Ethanol concentrations of above 80g/L were obtained in batch and enzyme feeding modes at a solid loading of 30% (w/v). Enzyme feeding mode was found to increase ethanol productivity and reduce enzyme loading to a value of 1...
April 2017: Bioresource Technology
Veronica Macchi, Alessandro Crestani, Andrea Porzionato, Maria Martina Sfriso, Aldo Morra, Marta Rossanese, Giacomo Novara, Raffaele De Caro, Vincenzo Ficarra
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A detailed understanding of surgical anatomy is an essential requisite to maximize perioperative and functional outcomes of partial nephrectomy. The objectives of this study were 1) to validate the Graves classification and 2) to verify the real absence of collateral arterial blood-supply between different renal segments. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 15 normal kidneys sampled from 8 un-embalmed cadavers. Kidneys with the surrounding perirenal fat tissue were removed en bloc with the abdominal segment of the aorta...
January 24, 2017: BJU International
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