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Sodium hydroxide

Gábor Schuszter, Tünde Gehér-Herczegh, Árpád Szűcs, Ágota Tóth, Dezső Horváth
The role of diffusion in chemical pattern formation has been widely studied due to the great diversity of patterns emerging in reaction-diffusion systems, particularly in H(+)-autocatalytic reactions where hydrogels are applied to avoid convection. A custom-made conductometric cell is designed to measure the effective diffusion coefficient of a pair of strong electrolytes containing sodium ions or hydrogen ions with a common anion. This together with the individual diffusion coefficient for sodium ions, obtained from PFGSE-NMR spectroscopy, allows the determination of the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen ions in hydrogels...
April 27, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Natthawud Dussadee, Rameshprabu Ramaraj, Tapana Cheunbarn
Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples...
May 2017: 3 Biotech
Rachael C Day, Sally M Bradberry, Euan A Sandilands, Simon H L Thomas, John P Thompson, J Allister Vale
INTRODUCTION: Oven cleaning products contain corrosive substances, typically sodium or potassium hydroxide. OBJECTIVE: To determine the reported toxicity from exposure to oven cleaning products. METHODS: Telephone enquiries to the UK National Poisons Information Service regarding oven cleaning products were analysed retrospectively for the period January 2009 to December 2015. RESULTS: There were 796 enquiries relating to 780 patients...
April 26, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
N Urrutia, Y Ying, K J Harvatine
During biohydrogenation-induced milk fat depression, adipose tissue lipogenesis may be increased through nutrients spared from milk fat synthesis. However, the direct effect of trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and the indirect effect of spared nutrients on adipose tissue lipogenesis during milk fat depression is not clear. The objective of this study was to determine the direct effect of CLA, spared acetate, and their interaction on adipose tissue lipogenesis using nonlactating dairy cows as an experimental model, which allows separation of the effect of CLA and nutrient sparing...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Jin Gu, Chuanshuang Hu, Rui Zhong, Dengyun Tu, Hong Yun, Weiwei Zhang, Shao-Yuan Leu
Cellulose fibers have been successfully isolated from medium density fiberboards (MDFs) by sodium chlorite oxidation-potassium hydroxide (NaClO2-KOH) leaching process, at 37.6% yield, comparable to the 39.3% and 37.3% cellulose fibers from eucalyptus and eucalyptus with 12% cured urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin, respectively. At the same sulfuric acid hydrolysis conditions (65% H2SO4, 60°C and 30min), MDF cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were produced at 27.5% yield, similar to 27.4% of CNC yield from eucalyptus with UF resin, but less than 31...
July 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
E S Trofimova, M V Zykova, A A Ligacheva, E Y Sherstoboev, V V Zhdanov, M V Belousov, M S Yusubov, S V Krivoshchekov, M G Danilets, A M Dygai
We studied activation of macrophages with humic acids extracted from peat of large deposits in the Tomsk region by two extraction methods: by hydroxide or sodium pyrophosphate. Humic acid of lowland peat types containing large amounts of aromatic carbon, phenolic and alcohol groups, carbohydrate residues and ethers, irrespectively of the extraction methods contained LPS admixture that probably determines their activating properties. Humic acid of upland peat types characterized by high content of carbonyl, carboxyl, and ester groups enhance NO production and reduce arginase expression, but these effects were minimized when sodium hydroxide was used as an extraction solvent...
April 20, 2017: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Julie A Korak, Richard Huggins, Miguel Arias-Paic
Due to stricter regulations, some drinking water utilities must implement additional treatment processes to meet potable water standards for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), such as the California limit of 10 μg/L. Strong base anion exchange is effective for Cr(VI) removal, but efficient resin regeneration and waste minimization are important for operational, economic and environmental considerations. This study compared multiple regeneration methods on pilot-scale columns on the basis of regeneration efficiency, waste production and salt usage...
March 9, 2017: Water Research
Z Xu, R Peng, X Chen, R Ghosh, H P V Rupasinghe
A novel graphene oxide cotton fibre (GOF) was used to adsorb flavonoids from crude ethanol extracts derived from apple peels. Ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to analyse polyphenol content, and the resulting data demonstrated that GOF-based flash chromatography can be used to efficiently separate polyphenols from sugars and can facilitate the removal of 95% of the sugar content. Flavonoids can be easily separated from phenolic acids. Chalcones and flavonols were eluted with 100% methanol and subsequently flavan-3-ols can be eluted with 0...
April 20, 2017: Natural Product Research
Yangfang Kuang, Shu Chen, Yunfei Long
We have developed a green approach to prepare DNA-templated silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) from the direct reaction between Ag(+) and ascorbic acid in the presence of DNA and sodium hydroxide. The Ag-NPs showed strong resonance light scattering (RLS) intensity property. Then, the interaction between hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and Ag-NPs was studied by measuring their RLS spectra. The results showed that there is a strong interaction between Ag-NPs and H2S, which resulted in a decrease in the size of Ag-NPs and a decrease in the RLS intensity of the Ag-NPs solution at the wavelength of 467 nm...
April 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Fatehy M Abdel-Haleem, Mahmoud S Rizk
We report on the development of optochemical sensor based on Mn(III)-salophen ionophore. The sensor was prepared by embedding the ionophore in a plasticized poly (vinyl chloride) impregnated with the chromoionophore ETH7075. Optical response to thiocyanate occurred due to thiocyanate extraction into the polymer via formation of strong complex with the ionophore and simultaneous protonation of the indicator dye yielding the optical response at 545nm. The developed optochemical sensor exhibited high selectivity for thiocyanate over other anions including the most lipophilic species such as salicylate and perchlorate...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Aleksei Pochivalov, Christina Vakh, Vasil Andruch, Leonid Moskvin, Andrey Bulatov
A fully automated alkaline-induced salting-out homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction (AI-SHLLE) procedure coupled with in-line organic-phase detection by an optical probe has been suggested. Diclofenac was used as a proof-of-concept analyte. The method is based on the oxidation of diclofenac with potassium ferricyanide in an alkaline medium followed by separation of the acetonitrile phase from the homogeneous sample solution and simultaneous extraction of the derivative. Sodium hydroxide serves as both the alkaline agent for the derivatization of diclofenac and as the salting-out agent for the acetonitrile-rich phase formation...
July 1, 2017: Talanta
Shuhui Li, Tianxue Zhu, Jianying Huang, Qingqing Guo, Guoqiang Chen, Yuekun Lai
A facile method was developed to endow cotton fabric with remarkable antibacterial and ultraviolet (UV)-protective properties. The flower-like TiO2 micro-nanoparticles were first deposited onto cotton fabric surface via hydrothermal deposition method. Then, the Ag NPs with a high deposition density were evenly formed onto TiO2@cotton surface by sodium hydroxide solution pretreatment and followed by in situ reduction of ANO3. This work focused on the influence of different hydrothermal reaction durations and the concentration of AgNO3 on antibacterial activity against relevant microorganisms in medicine as well as on the UV-blocking property...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ariel R Fontana, Rubén Bottini
In-vial filtration with dispersive solid-phase extraction (d-SPE) clean-up of QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) extracts is proposed for the determination of ethylphenols (EPs) in red wines. Analytes were extracted from 5mL wine sample (previously alkalinized with 0.5% sodium hydroxide) using 5mL acetonitrile. For phase separation, 1.5g NaCl and 4g anhydrous MgSO4 were added. Then, a 0.5mL aliquot of the partitioned supernatant was cleaned-up using d-SPE and in-vial filtration with a combination of anhydrous CaCl2 (100mg) and primary-secondary amine (PSA, 25mg) as sorbents...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Andrea Celá, Aleš Mádr, Zdeněk Glatz
Amino acids are crucial compounds involved in most biochemical processes essential for life. Since their dynamic turnover reflects the actual physiology of the cell/organism, a turnover assessment may provide valuable information related to multiple physiological and pathophysiological conditions. The sensitive determination of amino acids is predominantly associated with their derivatization which might be laborious, time-consuming and difficult to standardize. However, capillary electrophoresis offers the automatic injection and mixing of reactants, incubation of the reaction mixture, separation and detection of the reaction products in one on-capillary procedure...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nitesh K Mund, Debabrata Dash, Chitta R Barik, Vaibhav V Goud, Lingaraj Sahoo, Prasannajit Mishra, Nihar R Nayak
Sesbania grandiflora (L.) Pers. is one of the fast growing tree legumes having the efficiency to produce around 50tha(-1) above ground dry matters in a year. In this study, biomass of 2years old S. grandiflora was selected for the chemical composition, pretreatments and enzymatic hydrolysis studies. The stem biomass with a wood density of 3.89±0.01gmcm(-3) contains about 38% cellulose, 12% hemicellulose and 28% lignin. Enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated biomass revealed that phosphoric acid (H3PO4) pretreated samples even at lower cellulase loadings [1 Filter Paper Units (FPU)], could efficiently convert about 86% glucose, while, even at higher cellulase loadings (60FPU) alkali pretreated biomass could convert only about 58% glucose...
March 30, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Qi Wang, Chunlei Ma, Wanjun Li, Meng Fan, Songdong Li, Lihua Ma
Eggshell membrane (ESM) is selected as biotemplate to prepare MnO2 submicroparticles (SMPs) using Chinese Brush with sodium hydroxide solution. The size with average 710 nm of the obtained materials is in good consistency with the microsructured biotemplate. An efficient and convenient absorbent for methylene blue (MB) is developed. The removal efficiency could reach up to 93% in 35 min under room temperature without pH adjusting owing to the excellent adsorption from ESM itself and hydroxyl group formed on the surface of MnO2 crystal in the aqueous solution...
2017: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Matti Hellström, Jörg Behler
Ligand exchange plays an important role for organic and inorganic chemical reactions. We demonstrate the existence of a novel water exchange mechanism, the "proton transfer pathway" (PTP), around Na(+)(aq) in basic (high pH) solution, using reactive molecular dynamics simulations employing a high-dimensional neural network potential. An aqua ligand in the first solvation (hydration) shell around a sodium ion is only very weakly acidic, but if a hydroxide ion is present in the second solvation shell, thermal fluctuations can cause the aqua ligand to transfer a proton to the neighboring OH(-), resulting in a transient direct-contact ion pair, Na(+)-OH(-), which is only weakly bound and easily dissociates...
April 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Diana Carolina Albán Reyes, András Gorzsás, Kjell Stridh, Paul de Wit, Ola Sundman
We present a quantitative study, using Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate data analysis, to determine the degree of activation of softwood sulphite dissolving cellulose pulp by aqueous sodium hydroxide. We have chosen industrially relevant conditions, including low stoichiometric ratio of NaOH/Anhydroglucose Unit (AGU)<2 and highly concentrated caustic (≥45% w/w [NaOH]). A design of experiments is used to investigate the effects of simultaneous variation of a set of key parameters on the degree of activation (i...
June 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Erdinc Terzi, Ulas Guvenc, Belma Tursen, Umit Tursen, Tamer Irfan Kaya
BACKGROUND: Chemical matricectomy is performed mainly by 2 agents, phenol and sodium hydroxide. Chemical matricectomy with phenol has a low recurrence rate and good cosmetic results, but it produces extensive tissue destruction and can result in drainage and a delayed healing time. These adverse effects have brought forward the use of chemical agents such as sodium hydroxide and trichloroacetic acid for matricectomy. OBJECTIVE: This prospective study aimed mainly to evaluate the efficacy of partial nail avulsion and selective chemical cauterization of the matrix using 90% bichloracetic acid (BCA) in the treatment of the ingrown nails...
May 2017: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Samuel Roch, Alexander Brinker
The rising evidence of microplastic pollution impacts on aquatic organisms in both marine and freshwater ecosystems highlights a pressing need for adequate and comparable detection methods. Available tissue digestion protocols are time-consuming (>10 h) and/or require several procedural steps, during which materials can be lost and contaminants introduced. This novel approach comprises an accelerated digestion step using sodium hydroxide and nitric acid in combination to digest all organic material within 1 h plus an additional separation step using sodium iodide which can be used to reduce mineral residues in samples where necessary...
April 18, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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