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Sodium hydroxide

Yueming Hu, Chad R Borges
Glycan permethylation was introduced as a tool to facilitate the study of glycans in 1903. Since that time, permethylation procedures have been continually modified to improve permethylation efficiency and qualitative applicability. Typically, however, either laborious preparation steps or cumbersome and uneconomical spin columns have been needed to obtain decent permethylation yields on small glycan samples. Here we describe a spin column-free (SCF) glycan permethylation procedure that is applicable to both O- and N-linked glycans and can be employed upstream to intact glycan analysis by MALDI-MS, ESI-MS, or glycan linkage analysis by GC-MS...
June 21, 2017: Analyst
Juan Wang, Ming Gao, Jianguo Liu, Qunhui Wang, Cong Wang, Zihe Yin, Chuanfu Wu
The feasibility of lactic acid production from Sophora flavescens residues (SFRs) pretreated with sodium hydroxide with the reutilization of the pretreated liquor during fermentation was investigated. After sodium hydroxide pretreatment, 67.5% of the lignin was removed, and hydrolysis efficiency increased from 37.3% to 79.2%. The reutilization of pretreated liquor at 50% loading during open fermentation of unwashed SFR increased lactic acid production by 34.1%. The pretreated liquor acted as pH buffer and resulted in stable pH and high cellulase activity during fermentation...
June 7, 2017: Bioresource Technology
G Starukh
Calcined and organo-modified Zn-Al layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were studied as adsorbents and photocatalysts for removal of cationic dye, as namely methylene blue (MB). Zn-Al LDHs with a cationic ratio of 2:4 were obtained by the coprecipitation method. As-synthesized samples were calcined at different temperatures and the phase transformations were investigated by XRD, TG/DTG, and UV-vis-DR methods. The activity of as-synthesized and calcined Zn-Al LDHs under UV light was attributed to the presence of ZnO phase...
December 2017: Nanoscale Research Letters
Bing Gong, Yi Deng, Yuanyi Yang, Yong He, Xiaolong Sun, Li-Ya Ge, Kewei Zhang, Weizhong Yang
Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration fly ash (IFA) can be potentially reused as a substitute for some raw materials, but treatment for detoxification is indispensable owing to high contents of heavy metals in fly ash. In the present work, due to excessive leaching concentration of lead (Pb), a moderate thermal treatment with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) addition was employed to stabilize Pb in IFA. The moderate thermal treatment was performed under relatively low temperature ranging from 300 to 500°C and at retention time from 1 to 3 h with NaOH addition in a range of 1 to 9%...
2017: PloS One
Joanna Kowalska, Anna Jeżewska
BACKGROUND: Toluenediamines are harmful substances. Toluene-2,4-diamine has been assigned to Carcinogen 1B hazard class, pursuant to Regulation (European Community - EC) No. 1272/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council, and toluene- 2,6-diamine to Mutagen 2 hazard class. The main routes of exposure to toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine are via the respiratory tract and the skin. Toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine occur in the work environment in Poland. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a method for the determination of toluene-2,4-diamine and toluene-2,6-diamine that allows the simultaneous determination of their concentrations in the workplace air by personal sampling...
May 26, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
Huimin Deng, Fei Yang, Zhonghao Li, Zhaoyang Bian, Ziyan Fan, Ying Wang, Shanshan Liu, Gangling Tang
Aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke have long been monitored due to their carcinogenic toxicity. In this work, a reliable and rapid method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 9 aromatic amines in mainstream cigarette smoke by modified dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and ultraperformance convergence chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPC(2)-MS/MS). Briefly, the particulate phase of the cigarette smoke was captured by a Cambridge filter pad, and diluted hydrogen chloride aqueous solution is employed to extract the aromatic amines under mechanical shaking...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
Nuruldiyanah Binti Kamarudin, Swati Sharma, Arun Gupta, Chua Gek Kee, Syed Mohd Saufi Bin Tuan Chik, Ritu Gupta
Uncontrolled disposal of feathers from the poultry industry and slaughterhouses is environmentally undesirable. The feathers are composed of approximately 90% of keratin which is an important ingredient of cosmetics, shampoos and hair treatment creams. This study aimed to determine the optimum conditions for the extraction of keratin from chicken feathers. The extraction of keratin using various reducing agents was studied using statistical experimental design. In the extraction process, pH, temperature, ratio of reducing agents, mass of chicken feathers and incubation time were analyzed...
June 2017: 3 Biotech
Gui-Ping Cao, Run-Ye Yang, Ya-Feng Zhuang, Di Zuo, Yan-Hua Wang
A new fluorescent probe, 6-amino-1,3-naphthalenedisulfonic acid (ANDSA), has been developed for the determination of trace nitrite in different waters. This probe is based on the selective reaction of nitrite with ANDSA in hydrochloric acid solution to form the corresponding diazonium acid in sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature. The diazonium acid produced has high fluorescence intensity at 488 nm (excitation at 367 nm), whereas ANDSA has high fluorescence intensity at 465 nm (excitation at 354 nm)...
June 2, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Regina Huber, Regine Schoenlechner
Fresh egg waffles are continuously baked in tunnel baking ovens in industrial scale. Waffles that partly or fully stick to the baking plates cause significant product loss and increased costs. The aim of this study was, therefore, to investigate the effect of different recipe ingredients on the sticking behavior of waffles. In this second part, ingredients investigated were different leavening agents (sodium acid pyrophosphate, ammonium bicarbonate, magnesium hydroxide carbonate, or monocalcium phosphate), different fat sources (rapeseed oil, cocos fat, butter, or margarine), and different water sources (tap water 12°dH and distilled water)...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
Qingpeng Meng, Hong Chen, Junzhong Lin, Zhang Lin, Junliang Sun
High quality zeolite A was synthesized through a hydrothermal process using alkaline-assisted pre-activated halloysite mineral as the alumina and silica source. The synthesis conditions employed in this study were finely tuned by varying the activating temperature, sodium hydroxide content, water content and Si/Al ratio. The obtained zeolite A showed excellent adsorption properties for both single metal cation solutions and mixed cation solutions when the concentrations of the mixed cations were comparable with those in polluted natural river water and industrial wastewater...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Suchita Rai, K L Wasewar, A Agnihotri
In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign...
June 2017: Waste Management & Research
Suthawan Charoenprasert, Jerry A Zweigenbaum, Gong Zhang, Alyson E Mitchell
Acrylic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine and glucosamine were investigated for their role in the formation of acrylamide in California-style black ripe olives [CBROs]. Levels of acrylic acid and glucosamine are reported for the first time in fresh (333.50 ± 21.88 and 243.59 ± 10.06 nmol/g, respectively) and in brine-stored olives (184.50 ± 6.02 and 165.88 ± 11.51 nmol/g, respectively). Acrylamide levels significantly increased when acrylic acid (35.2%), N-acetyl-glucosamine (29.9%), and glucosamine (124.0%) were added to olives prior to sterilization...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Food Science
C Maria Magdalane, K Kaviyarasu, J Judith Vijaya, B Siddhardha, B Jeyaraj
Ceria (CeO2) is an exciting alternative noble metal catalyst, because it has ability to release and absorb oxygen in the redox system, and function as an oxygen buffer. In this study, heterostructured catalysts consisting of CeO2/Y2O3 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized by hydrothermal method in the presence of sodium hydroxide as a reducing agent from cerium nitrate and yttrium nitrate as a precursor which was then evaluated for its photocatalytic activity in the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) synthetic dye...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Kanako Chiba, Tamako Miyazaki, Yasushi Sekiyama, Masao Miyazaki, Keiji Okada
Bovine digital dermatitis (BDD) is the most prevalent infectious cause of lameness in cattle. Because Treponema infection is a major etiology of BDD, the most common treatment of BDD is an antibiotic. Nonetheless, dairy cows require a withdrawal period after antibiotic treatment before their milk can be marketed. To address the problem, in this study, we tested whether 3 nonantibiotic agents (used separately)-allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), sodium alginate, and calcium hydroxide-alleviate BDD lesions in dairy cows...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Keiichi Ueda, Ichiro Nakamura, Eiko Nakagawa Itano, Kazunori Takemura, Yasutomo Nakazato, Ayako Sano
"Paracoccidioidomycosis ceti" is a rare zoonotic fungal infection affecting dolphins and is endemic worldwide. The causative agents are Paracoccidioides species; however, it is impossible to isolate the fungal species. We isolated Trichosporon asteroides from multifocal, irregularly raised skin lesions on a female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) captured off coast of Japan, which was suspected to have "paracoccidioidomycosis ceti." An abundance of round, yeast-like cells was detected in a potassium hydroxide direct-mount specimen of the skin samples; however, nested PCR targeting the partial sequence of 43-kDa glycoprotein-coding gene correspondent to Paracoccidioides sp...
May 25, 2017: Mycopathologia
Kaixuan Huang, Yong Xu, Wen Lu, Shiyuan Yu
The thermodynamic dissociation constants of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were studied via potentiometric methods, and the results were verified using lactic acid, which has a known pKa value, as a model compound. Solutions of xylonic acid and gluconic acid were titrated with a standard solution of sodium hydroxide. The determined pKa data were processed via the method of derivative plots using computer software, and the accuracy was validated using the Gran method. The dissociation constants associated with the carboxylic acid group of xylonic and gluconic acids were determined to be pKa1 = 3...
May 25, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Michael Ranniery Garcia Ribeiro, Érika Bárbara Abreu Fonseca Thomaz, Darlon Martins Lima, Tarcísio Jorge Leitão, José Bauer, Soraia De Fátima Carvalho Souza
Purpose. To evaluate the mineral ion loss of root dentine after treatment with 2% chlorhexidine solution (CHX) and to compare its yield and flexural strength (fs) after exposure to calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]. Materials and Methods. Dentine bars (DB) were made from 90 roots of bovine incisors and randomized into three groups: GControl: distilled/deionized water (DDW), GNaOCl: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA, and GCHX: CHX + DDW. The release of phosphate (PO4) and calcium (Ca) ions was measured by spectrophotometry...
2017: International Journal of Dentistry
Xiaojing Lv, Chunjiang Xiong, Shuai Li, Xiaodong Chen, Wenjuan Xiao, Dou Zhang, Jiasheng Li, Yingxue Gong, Jianghai Lin, Zehuan Liu
Sodium hydroxide pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse under vacuum conditions was established and evaluated in this study. Compared to pretreatment under conventional moderate pressure conditions, only half of the total phenolic compounds and less than half of the formic acid were produced under vacuum conditions, while the yield of total fermentable sugar was significantly increased by 31.38%. The pretreatment parameters: NaOH concentration, pretreatment time, and pretreatment temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology based on the response values of the total fermentable sugar yield (TFSY) and the total fermentable sugar concentration (TFSC), respectively...
September 2017: Bioresource Technology
Laura J Juszczak, Azaria S Eisenberg
Several peptides and a protein with an inter- or intramolecular cation-π interaction between tryptophan (Trp) and an amine cation are shown to absorb and fluoresce in the visible region of the spectrum. Titration of indole with sodium hydroxide or ammonium hydroxide yields an increasing visible fluorescence as well. Visible absorption and multipeaked fluorescence excitation spectra correlate with experimental absorption spectra and the vibrational modes of calculated absorption spectra for the neutral Trp radical...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Eszter Kókai, Judit Halász, András Dancsó, József Nagy, Gyula Simig, Balázs Volk
The chemistry of the 5,7-dihydro-6H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-6-one (1,3-diazaoxindole) compound family, possessing a drug-like scaffold, is unexplored. In this study, the alkylation reactions of N(7)-unsubstituted 5-isopropyl-1,3-diazaoxindoles bearing various substituents at the C(2) position have been investigated. The starting compounds were synthesized from the C(5)-unsubstituted parent compounds by condensation with acetone and subsequent catalytic reduction of the 5-isopropylidene moiety. Alkylation of the thus obtained 5-isopropyl derivatives with methyl iodide or benzyl bromide in the presence of a large excess of sodium hydroxide led to 5,7-disubstituted derivatives...
May 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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