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Lipid signaling

Zhong-Guang Li, Ying Xu, Li-Kang Bai, Shu-Yan Zhang, Yue Wang
Melatonin (MT), derived from tryptophan, is an amazing signaling molecule with multiple functions in plants. Heat stress (HS) induced by high temperature is a major stress factor that limits metabolism, growth, development, and productivity of plants. However, whether MT could enhance the thermotolerance of maize seedlings and the underlying mechanisms is not completely known. In this study, treatment of maize seedlings with MT enhanced the survival percentage of maize seedlings under HS conditions, mitigated an increase in malondialdehyde (MDA, product of membrane lipid peroxidation) and electrolyte leakage, and improved tissue vitality compared with the control without MT treatment, indicating that MT treatment could enhance the theromotolerance of maize seedlings...
September 22, 2018: Protoplasma
Yuya Urano, Shingo Oda, Koichi Tsuneyama, Tsuyoshi Yokoi
Fasiglifam (TAK-875), a G protein-coupled receptor 40 (GPR40) agonist, was a drug candidate for type 2 diabetes. However, its development was terminated in phase 3 trials due to liver safety concerns. Although TAK-875 was reported to inhibit hepatobiliary transporters such as bile salt export pump (Bsep) and disturb bile acid disposition, pathogenic mechanisms of TAK-875-induced liver injury are not fully understood. In this study, we sought to identify these mechanisms with a hepatic genome-wide transcriptomic analysis in a murine model...
September 20, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
Gabor J Tigyi, Junming Yue, Derek D Norman, Erzsebet Szabo, Andrea Balogh, Louisa Balazs, Guannan Zhao, Sue Chin Lee
The lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) in biological fluids is primarily produced by cleavage of lysophospholipids by the lysophospholipase D enzyme Autotaxin (ATX). LPA has been identified and abundantly detected in the culture medium of various cancer cell types, tumor effusates, and ascites fluid of cancer patients. Our current understanding of the physiological role of LPA established its role in fundamental biological responses that include cell proliferation, metabolism, neuronal differentiation, angiogenesis, cell migration, hematopoiesis, inflammation, immunity, wound healing, regulation of cell excitability, and the promotion of cell survival by protecting against apoptotic death...
September 16, 2018: Advances in Biological Regulation
Philipp Moser, Lukas Hingerl, Bernhard Strasser, Michal Považan, Gilbert Hangel, Ovidiu C Andronesi, Andre van der Kouwe, Stephan Gruber, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
An adiabatic MEscher-GArwood (MEGA)-editing scheme, using asymmetric hyperbolic secant editing pulses, was developed and implemented in a B1 + -insensitive, 1D-semiLASER (Localization by Adiabatic SElective Refocusing) MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence for the non-invasive mapping of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) over a whole brain slice. Our approach exploits the advantages of edited-MRSI at 7T while tackling challenges that arise with ultra-high-field-scans. Spatial-spectral encoding, using density-weighted, concentric circle echo planar trajectory readout, enabled substantial MRSI acceleration and an improved point-spread-function, thereby reducing extracranial lipid signals...
September 19, 2018: NeuroImage
V Palombo, M Milanesi, S Sgorlon, S Capomaccio, M Mele, E Nicolazzi, P Ajmone-Marsan, F Pilla, B Stefanon, M D'Andrea
Bovine milk is important for human nutrition, but its fat content is often criticized as a risk factor in cardiovascular disease. Selective breeding programs could be used to alter the fatty acid (FA) composition of bovine milk to improve the healthiness of dairy products for human consumption. Here, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on bovine milk to identify genomic regions or specific genes associated with FA profile and to investigate genetic differences between the Italian Simmental (IS) and Italian Holstein (IH) breeds...
September 19, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Saet Buyl Lee, Mi-Chung Suh
The hydrophobic biopolymer suberin, which is deposited in the root endodermis and seed coats, functions as an extracellular barrier against uncontrolled water, gas, and ion loss. Suberin monomers synthesized in the ER are exported through the plasma membrane to the apoplast. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying suberin monomer export and assembly. In this study, we investigated the in planta role of LTPG15 encoding a glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored lipid transfer protein...
September 22, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Sebastiaan T A Koenders, Berend Gagestein, Mario van der Stelt
Lipids perform a wide range of functions inside the cell, ranging from structural building block of membranes and energy storage to cell signaling. The mode of action of many signaling lipids has remained elusive due to their low abundance, high lipophilicity, and inherent instability. Various chemical biology approaches, such as photoaffinity or activity-based protein profiling methods, have been employed to shed light on the biological role of lipids and the lipid-protein interaction profile. In this review, we will summarize the recent developments in the field of chemical probes to study lipid biology, especially in immunology, and indicate potential avenues for future research...
September 22, 2018: Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology
Xiangjian Luo, Xu Zhao, Can Cheng, Namei Li, Ying Liu, Ya Cao
Metastasis is the most malignant stage of cancer. Lipid metabolic abnormalities are now increasingly recognized as characteristics of cancer cells. The accumulation of certain lipid species, such as signaling lipids, due to the avidity of lipid metabolism may be a causal factor of tumor malignant progression and metastatic behavior. In this review, we first describe signaling lipids implicated in cancer migration, invasion and metastasis. Next, we summarize the regulatory signaling hubs of lipid anabolic and catabolic metabolism...
September 21, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Oyebola O Oyesola, Simon P Früh, Lauren M Webb, Elia D Tait Wojno
Parasitic helminth infection elicits a type 2 cytokine-mediated inflammatory response. During type 2 inflammation, damaged or stimulated epithelial cells exposed to helminths and their products produce alarmins and cytokines including IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin. These factors promote innate immune cell activation that supports the polarization of CD4+ T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Activated innate and Th2 cells produce the cytokines IL-4, -5, -9, and -13 that perpetuate immune activation and act back on the epithelium to cause goblet cell hyperplasia and increased epithelial cell turnover...
September 18, 2018: Cytokine
Alex Toker, Christian C Dibble
In this issue of Molecular Cell, Liu et al. (2018) show that PI34P2 and PIP3, the lipid products of class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), display distinct spatiotemporal kinetics in cells that result in differential activation of the effectors AKT1, AKT2, and AKT3.
September 20, 2018: Molecular Cell
Gabriel Adan Araujo Leite, Jorge Willian Franco de Barros, Airton da Cunha Martins, Janete Aparecida Anselmo-Franci, Fernando Barbosa, Wilma De Grava Kempinas
Dyslipidemias are occurring earlier in the population due to the augmentation of obesity. Rosuvastatin reduces cholesterol and triglycerides; however, previous studies have shown that it may affect male reproduction. Ascorbic acid (AA), an antioxidant compound, plays a protective role in the male reproductive system. This study aimed to evaluate whether pre-pubertal exposure to rosuvastatin may impair testicular structure and antioxidant status in male rats and if supplementation with AA may alleviate these damages...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Henrik H Thomsen, Nikolaj Rittig, Mogens Johannsen, Andreas B Møller, Jens Otto Jørgensen, Niels Jessen, Niels Møller
Background: Acute inflammation, and subsequent release of bacterial products (e.g. LPS), inflammatory cytokines, and stress hormones, is catabolic, and the loss of lean body mass predicts morbidity and mortality. Lipid intermediates may reduce protein loss, but the roles of free fatty acids (FFAs) and ketone bodies during acute inflammation are unclear. Objective: We aimed to test whether infusions of 3-hydroxybutyrate (3OHB), FFAs, and saline reduce protein catabolism during exposure to LPS and Acipimox (to restrict and control endogenous lipolysis)...
September 18, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Martin Audet, Raymond C Stevens
The first crystal structure of a G Protein-Coupled Receptor (GPCR) was that of the bovine rhodopsin, solved in 2000, and is a light receptor within retina rode cells that enables vision by transducing a conformational signal from the light-induced isomerization of retinal covalently bound to the receptor. More than seven years after this initial discovery and following more than twenty years of technological developments in GPCR expression, stabilization, and crystallography, the high-resolution structure of the adrenaline binding β2 -adrenergic receptor, a ligand diffusible receptor, was discovered...
September 21, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Masayuki Nagahashi, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Kazuaki Takabe, Toshifumi Wakai
Many inflammatory mediators are involved in the process of carcinogenesis and cancer progression. In addition to cytokines and chemokines, lipid mediators have recently attracted attention as signaling molecules associated with inflammatory diseases. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a pleiotropic lipid mediator that regulates cell survival and migration, immune cell recruitment, angiogenesis, and lymphangiogenesis. S1P also plays a significant role in inflammation and cancer. The gradation of S1P concentration in the blood, lymph, and tissue regulates lymphocyte trafficking, an important component of inflammation...
September 20, 2018: Cancer Science
Rémi Terrasse, Mathias Winterhalter
Selective permeability is a key feature of biological membranes. It is controlled by the physico-chemical properties of the lipid bilayer and by channel-forming membrane proteins. Here we focus on the permeation of small molecules across channel-forming proteins in Gram-negative bacteria called porins and present a new approach based on artificial amino acids. We introduced Hco, a fluorescent amino acid with characteristic excitation and emission wavelengths, into OmpF and measured FRET from Hco to dissolved Bocillin FL using solubilized OmpF porins...
September 24, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Tanja Eberhart, Werner J Kovacs
Peroxisomes are ubiquitous and highly dynamic organelles that play a central role in the metabolism of lipids and reactive oxygen species. The importance of peroxisomal metabolism is illustrated by severe peroxisome biogenesis disorders in which functional peroxisomes are absent or disorders caused by single peroxisomal enzyme deficiencies. These multisystemic diseases manifest specific clinical and biochemical disturbances that originate from the affected peroxisomal pathways. An emerging role of the peroxisome has been identified in many types of diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, aging, obesity, and diabetes...
September 21, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
Xingchen Pang, Hongjiao Li, Feng Guan, Xiang Li
The three types of blood cells (red blood cells for carrying oxygen, white blood cells for immune protection, and platelets for wound clotting) arise from hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in the adult bone marrow, and function in physiological regulation and communication with local microenvironments to maintain systemic homeostasis. Hematological malignancies are relatively uncommon malignant disorders derived from the two major blood cell lineages: myeloid (leukemia) and lymphoid (lymphoma). Malignant clones lose their regulatory mechanisms, resulting in production of a large number of dysfunctional cells and destruction of normal hematopoiesis...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Helmut Pein, Alexia Ville, Simona Pace, Veronika Temml, Ulrike Garscha, Martin Raasch, Khaled Alsabil, Guillaume Viault, Chau-Phi Dinh, David Guilet, Fabiana Troisi, Konstantin Neukirch, Stefanie König, Rosella Bilancia, Birgit Waltenberger, Hermann Stuppner, Maria Wallert, Stefan Lorkowski, Christina Weinigel, Silke Rummler, Marc Birringer, Fiorentina Roviezzo, Lidia Sautebin, Jean-Jacques Helesbeux, Denis Séraphin, Alexander S Mosig, Daniela Schuster, Antonietta Rossi, Pascal Richomme, Oliver Werz, Andreas Koeberle
Systemic vitamin E metabolites have been proposed as signaling molecules, but their physiological role is unknown. Here we show, by library screening of potential human vitamin E metabolites, that long-chain ω-carboxylates are potent allosteric inhibitors of 5-lipoxygenase, a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of chemoattractant and vasoactive leukotrienes. 13-((2R)-6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-yl)-2,6,10-trimethyltridecanoic acid (α-T-13'-COOH) can be synthesized from α-tocopherol in a human liver-on-chip, and is detected in human and mouse plasma at concentrations (8-49 nM) that inhibit 5-lipoxygenase in human leukocytes...
September 20, 2018: Nature Communications
José Carlos Bozelli, William Jennings, Stephanie Black, Yu Heng Hou, Darius Lameire, Preet Chatha, Tomohiro Kimura, Bob Berno, Adree Khondker, Maikel Rheinstädter, Richard M Epand
Signaling events at membranes are often mediated by membrane lipid composition or membrane physical properties. These membrane properties could act either by favoring the membrane binding of downstream effectors or by modulating their activity. Several proteins can sense/generate membrane physical curvature ( i.e. , shape). However, the modulation of the activity of enzymes by a membrane's shape has not yet been reported. Here, using a cell-free assay with purified diacylglycerol kinase ε (DGKε) and liposomes, we studied the activity and acyl chain specificity of an enzyme of the phosphatidylinositol (PI) cycle, DGKε...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Tetsuto Nakagawa, Chihiro Takahashi, Hitomi Matsuzaki, Yoshiyuki Kuroda, Hideyoshi Higashi
Several G protein-coupled receptors are present in lipid rafts. We have shown that most of the P2Y2 receptor (P2Y2 R) protein is fractionated into lipid rafts in COS 7 cells. In the same cells, about 25-30% of the bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) protein is also fractionated into lipid rafts. When both P2Y2 R and B2R are co-expressed, the distribution of P2Y2 R remained unchanged, but more B2R shifted into the raft fraction. This indicates that the interaction between both receptors recruited B2R into the lipid rafts...
September 17, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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