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Lipid signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805811/caveolin-1-dependent-nanoscale-organization-of-the-bcr-regulates-b-cell-tolerance
#1
Susana Minguet, Kathrin Kläsener, Anna-Maria Schaffer, Gina J Fiala, Teresa Osteso-Ibánez, Katrin Raute, Inmaculada Navarro-Lérida, Frederike A Hartl, Maximilian Seidl, Michael Reth, Miguel A Del Pozo
Caveolin-1 (Cav1) regulates the nanoscale organization and compartmentalization of the plasma membrane. Here we found that Cav1 controlled the distribution of nanoclusters of isotype-specific B cell antigen receptors (BCRs) on the surface of B cells. In mature B cells stimulated with antigen, the immunoglobulin M BCR (IgM-BCR) gained access to lipid domains enriched for GM1 glycolipids, by a process that was dependent on the phosphorylation of Cav1 by the Src family of kinases. Antigen-induced reorganization of nanoclusters of IgM-BCRs and IgD-BCRs regulated BCR signaling in vivo...
August 14, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805698/artemisia-iwayomogi-extract-attenuates-high-fat-diet-induced-hypertriglyceridemia-in-mice-potential-involvement-of-the-adiponectin-ampk-pathway-and-very-low-density-lipoprotein-assembly-in-the-liver
#2
Jinhui Lee, Vikram P Narayan, Eun Young Hong, Wan Kyunn Whang, Taesun Park
This study aimed to examine the protective effect of Artemisia iwayomogi extract (AI) against hypertriglyceridemia induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice and to uncover the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57BL/6N mice were fed chow, HFD, HFD + 0.1% AI, HFD + 0.25% AI, or HFD + 0.5% AI for 10 weeks. The addition of 0.25% and 0.5% AI resulted in dose-dependent improvements in the major parameters of hypertriglyceridemia, including plasma triglyceride, free fatty acids, apolipoprotein B, and lipoprotein lipase, with parallel reductions in body weight gain, hepatic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance...
August 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805491/intermedin-inhibits-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction-induced-oxidative-stress-via-nadph-oxidase-nox4-and-camp-dependent-mechanisms
#3
Xi Qiao, Lihua Wang, Yanhong Wang, Xiaole Su, Yue Qi, Yun Fan, Zhiqiang Peng
NADPH oxidase Nox4-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in renal fibrosis. Our previous study demonstrated that intermedin (IMD) alleviated unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO)-induced renal fibrosis by inhibition of ROS. However, the precise mechanisms remain unclear. Herein, we investigated the effect of IMD on Nox4 expression and NADPH oxidase activity in rat UUO model, and explored if these effect were achieved through cAMP-PKA pathway, the important post-receptor signal transduction pathway of IMD, in TGF-β1-stimulated rat proximal tubular cell (NRK-52E)...
November 2017: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805275/participation-of-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinases-1-2-in-osteoblast-and-adipocyte-differentiation-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-grown-on-titanium-surfaces
#4
Heitor F Silva, Rodrigo P F Abuna, Helena B Lopes, Marcelo S Francischini, Paulo T de Oliveira, Adalberto L Rosa, Marcio M Beloti
Osteoblasts and adipocytes coexist in the implantation site and affect the process of titanium (Ti) osseointegration. As extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) are involved in osteogenesis and adipogenesis, the aim of our study was to investigate if the effects of Ti surface topography on osteoblast and adipocyte differentiation are modulated by ERK1/2. The experiments were conducted based on the effect of the ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059, on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) grown under osteogenic and adipogenic conditions on Ti with nanotopography (Ti-Nano) or on machined Ti (Ti-Machined)...
August 14, 2017: European Journal of Oral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804986/effects-of-hydroxycitric-acid-on-lipid-droplet-accumulation-in-chicken-embryos
#5
Mengling Peng, Longlong Li, Lei Yu, Chongyang Ge, Haitian Ma
This study was conducted to determine the impact of (-)-hydroxycitric acid ((-)-HCA) on biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters in chicken embryos. Two hundred and forty fertilized eggs were divided into six groups and injected with (-)-HCA at concentrations of 0, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 10.0 and 50 mg/kg (n = 40). After 19 days of incubation, serum and liver were collected for analysis of biochemical indices and lipid metabolism parameters. Results showed no significant differences on serum biochemical indices: 1-50 mg/kg (-)-HCA significantly increased serum glucose and hepatic glycogen contents (P < 0...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804683/erratum-leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#6
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Qiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
[This corrects the article on p. 33 in vol. 7, PMID: 28533928.].
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804444/intrinsic-and-antipsychotic-drug-induced-metabolic-dysfunction-in-schizophrenia
#7
Zachary Freyberg, Despoina Aslanoglou, Ripal Shah, Jacob S Ballon
For decades, there have been observations demonstrating significant metabolic disturbances in people with schizophrenia including clinically relevant weight gain, hypertension, and disturbances in glucose and lipid homeostasis. Many of these findings pre-date the use of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) which on their own are also strongly associated with metabolic side effects. The combination of APD-induced metabolic changes and common adverse environmental factors associated with schizophrenia have made it difficult to determine the specific contributions of each to the overall metabolic picture...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803964/tgf%C3%AE-smad-signalling-modulates-mll-and-mll-af4-mediated-5-lipoxygenase-promoter-activation
#8
Meike J Saul, Florian Groher, Anett B Hegewald, Michaela Müller-McNicoll, Rolf Marschalek, Beatrix Suess, Dieter Steinhilber
5-Lipoxygenase (5-LO) catalyzes the initial two steps of the conversion of arachidonic acid to leukotrienes which represent a group of pro-inflammatory lipid mediators involved in immune defense reactions as well as inflammation, allergy and cancer. Transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ) and calcitriol strongly upregulate 5-LO expression during myeloid cell differentiation and MLL-AF4 has been shown to strongly activate the 5-LO promoter. Here, we investigated the role of TGFβ/SMAD signalling in 5-LO promoter activation...
August 10, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803924/differential-regulation-of-the-tlr4-signalling-pathway-in-post-mortem-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-in-chronic-schizophrenia-relationship-with-sp-transcription-factors
#9
Karina S MacDowell, Raquel Pinacho, Juan C Leza, Joan Costa, Belén Ramos, Borja García Bueno
Alterations in innate immunity may underlie the pathophysiology of schizophrenia (SZ). Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is a master element of innate immunity. The specificity proteins (SPs), transcription factors recently implicated in SZ, are putative regulatory agents of this. This work was aimed at describing alterations in the TLR4 signalling pathway in postmortem brain prefrontal cortex (PFC) and cerebellum (CB) of 16 chronic SZ patients and 14 controls. The possible association of TLR4 pathway with SP1 and SP4 and SZ negative symptomatology is explored...
August 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802581/pkm2-aggravates-palmitate-induced-insulin-resistance-in-hepg2-cells-via-stat3-pathway
#10
Ling Chen, Zhuqi Tang, Xiaohua Wang, Hong Ma, Dandan Shan, Shiwei Cui
Studies have identified that PKM2 is related to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance in rodents and humans. However, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we found that PKM2 expression was significantly elevated in insulin-resistant hepatic tissues and hepatocytes, implicating an association between PKM2 expression and hepatic insulin resistance (IR). In vitro study revealed that overexpression of PKM2 impaired the insulin signaling pathway by decreasing the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β)...
August 9, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802547/good-ol-fat-links-between-lipid-signaling-and-longevity
#11
REVIEW
Victor Bustos, Linda Partridge
Aging is the single greatest risk factor for the development of disease. Understanding the biological molecules and mechanisms that modulate aging is therefore critical for the development of health-maximizing interventions for older people. The effect of fats on longevity has traditionally been disregarded as purely detrimental. However, new studies are starting to uncover the possible beneficial effects of lipids working as signaling molecules on health and longevity. These studies highlight the complex links between aging and lipid signaling...
August 9, 2017: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802226/taraxerol-a-pentacyclic-triterpenoid-from-abroma-augusta-leaf-attenuates-diabetic-nephropathy-in-type-2-diabetic-rats
#12
Ritu Khanra, Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Jatin Kalita, Prasenjit Manna, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycaemia coupled with inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of taraxerol isolated from the methanol extract of Abroma augusta leaf against DN using rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was experimentally induced by high fat diet and a single low-single dose of streptozotocin (35mg/kg, i.p.). Accumulation of serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid, activation of lactate dehydrogenase and creatinin kinase, and release of urinary albumin represented the glomerular damage and the progression of nephropathy in T2D rats...
August 9, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801239/salsalate-activates-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-and-protects-mice-from-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-dysfunction
#13
Li Nie, Xin-Lu Yuan, Ke-Tao Jiang, Yu-Hui Jiang, Jin Yuan, Lan Luo, Shi-Wei Cui, Cheng Sun
Salsalate plays beneficial roles for ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in type 2 diabetes patients, but the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. In this study, by administering salsalate to mice fed with high fat diet and examining how salsalate rectifies metabolic dysfunction in these obese mice, we found that salsalate stimulated body temperature and attenuated body weight gain without affecting food intake. Our results showed that salsalate application decreased lipid accumulation in liver and epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inhibited hepatic gluconeogenesis and improved insulin signaling transduction in eWAT...
August 4, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801108/breaching-barriers-in-glioblastoma-part-ii-targeted-drug-delivery-and-lipid-nanoparticles
#14
REVIEW
Ana Miranda, María Blanco-Prieto, João Sousa, Alberto Pais, Carla Vitorino
Tailored nanocarriers have gained huge research focus for brain drug delivery, aimed at combating several neuro-oncological conditions, such as the glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The progress of knowledge on the pathogenesis of GBM has allowed identifying the major hurdles for efficient treatment, encompassing biological interfaces (blood-brain barrier and blood-brain tumour barrier), specificities of tumour microenvironment, as well as both bulk and glioma stem cell subpopulations. These findings provided new insights into the molecular basis of GBM, being a strong driving force behind development of targeted nanomedicines in this area...
August 8, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800633/feeding-fasting-dependent-recruitment-of-membrane-microdomain-proteins-to-lipid-droplets-purified-from-the-liver
#15
Kritika Sadh, Priyanka Rai, Roop Mallik
Lipid droplets (LDs) are cellular stores of neutral fat that facilitate lipid and protein trafficking in response to metabolic cues. Unlike other vesicles, the phospholipid membrane on the LD is a monolayer. Interestingly, this monolayer membrane has free cholesterol, and may therefore contain lipid microdomains that serve as a platform for assembling proteins involved in signal transduction, cell polarity, pathogen entry etc. In support of this, cell culture studies have detected microdomain-associated "raftophilic" proteins on LDs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799714/potential-biological-effects-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-on-the-treatment-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#16
REVIEW
Cheng Chen, Qian Liu, Lin Liu, Yi-Yang Hu, Qin Feng
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major health issue throughout the world. However, no validated treatments for NAFLD are currently available. In-depth studies have demonstrated the efficacy of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), a main bioactive chemical extracted from green tea, in treating NAFLD. EGCG exhibits multi-pronged preventive and therapeutic activities, including promoting lipid and glucose metabolism, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-inflammation activities, anti-fibrosis, and anti-NAFLD related tumor, thus contributing to the mitigation of NAFLD occurrence and progression...
August 11, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799169/mitotic-inheritance-of-the-golgi-complex-and-its-role-in-cell-division
#17
REVIEW
Inmaculada Ayala, Antonino Colanzi
The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in the processing and sorting of proteins and lipids, but it can also act as a signalling hub and a microtubule-nucleation centre. The Golgi complex of mammalian cells is composed of stacks connected by tubular bridges to form a continuous membranous system. In spite of this structural complexity, the Golgi structure is highly dynamic, and this feature becomes particularly evident during mitosis, when the Golgi complex undergoes a multi-step disassembly process that allows its correct partitioning and inheritance by daughter cells...
August 10, 2017: Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798193/the-role-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-b-in-metabolic-homeostasis-current-evidence
#18
Mohammad Ishraq Zafar, Juan Zheng, Wen Kong, Xiaofeng Ye, Luoning Gou, Anita Regmi, Lu-Lu Chen
It has been shown that adipose tissue and skeletal muscles of lean individuals respond to meal-induced hyperinsulinemia by increases in perfusion, the effect not observed in patients with metabolic syndrome. In conditions of hyperglycaemia and hypertriglyceridemia, this insufficient vascularization leads to the liberation of reactive oxygen species, and disruption of nitric oxide synthesis and endothelial signalling responsible for the uptake of circulating fatty acids, whose accumulation in skeletal muscles and adipose tissue is widely associated with impairment of insulin signalling...
August 10, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797930/%C3%AE-tocotrienol-induced-disruption-of-lipid-rafts-in-human-breast-cancer-cells-is-associated-with-a-reduction-in-exosome-heregulin-content
#19
Osama A Alawin, Rayan A Ahmed, Venkateshwararao Dronamraju, Karen P Briski, Paul W Sylvester
Overexpression of heregulin, a potent ligand that activates HER3 and HER4 receptors, plays a significant role in the development of chemotherapy resistance in breast cancer patients. Exosomes released from cancer cells are small vesicles originating from the outward budding of lipid rafts that carry various mitogenic proteins that then act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner to stimulate cancer cell growth. Since the anticancer activity of γ-tocotrienol has been shown to be mediated in part through the disruption of lipid rafts, studies were conducted to determine the effect of γ-tocotrienol on exosomes mitogenic biopotency...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796901/from-peroxisomal-disorders-to-common-neurodegenerative-diseases-the-role-of-ether-phospholipids-in-the-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Fabian Dorninger, Sonja Forss-Petter, Johannes Berger
The emerging diverse roles of ether (phospho)lipids in nervous system development and function in health and disease are currently attracting growing interest. Plasmalogens, a subgroup of ether lipids, are important membrane components involved in vesicle fusion and membrane raft composition. They store polyunsaturated fatty acids and may serve as antioxidants. Ether lipid metabolites act as precursors for the formation of glycosyl-phosphatidyl-inositol (GPI) anchors; others, like platelet-activating factor, are implicated in signaling functions...
August 10, 2017: FEBS Letters
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