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Lipid signaling

Ze Yu, Haiyan Pei, Qingjie Hou, Changliang Nie, Lijie Zhang, Zhigang Yang, Xiaodong Wang
The algal extracellular substances (AESs), mainly excreted in the lag and stationary phases, inhibited the algal growth and culture recycle. The AESs consisted of protein-like substances and saccharides, which restrained the algal lipid and protein biosynthesis. Moreover, the increasing reactive oxygen species and anti-oxidative enzymes caused by AESs led to the oxidative damage and suppressed the cell activity. The AESs affected the cells through two possible ways: one is the AESs adhered to the cell surfaces; another is the cells yielded signal molecules in response to the AESs...
July 7, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Hossein Sendi, Ivy Mead, Meimei Wan, Marjan Mehrab-Mohseni, Kenneth Koch, Anthony Atala, Herbert L Bonkovsky, Colin E Bishop
To investigate the role of miR-122 in the development and regression of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in vitro, we used multicellular 3D human liver organoids developed in our laboratory. These organoids consist of primary human hepatocytes, Kupffer cells, quiescent stellate cells and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells. They remain viable and functional for 4 weeks expressing typical markers of liver function such as synthesis of albumin, urea, and alpha-1 p450 drug metabolism. Before mixing, hepatic cells were transduced with lentivirus to inhibit miR122 expression (ABM, CA)...
2018: PloS One
Cesar A Sommer, Amalia Capilla, Francisco J Molina-Estevez, Andreia Gianotti-Sommer, Nicholas Skvir, Ignacio Caballero, Sanjib Chowdhury, Gustavo Mostoslavsky
Mutations in the gene Adenomatous Polyposis Coli or APC appear in most sporadic cases of colorectal cancer and it is the most frequent mutation causing hereditary Familial Adenomatous Polyposis. The detailed molecular mechanism by which APC mutations predispose to the development of colorectal cancer is not completely understood. This is in part due to the lack of accessibility to appropriate models that recapitulate the early events associated with APC mediated intestinal transformation. We have established a novel platform utilizing human induced Pluripotent Stem cells or iPSC from normal or FAP-specific APC mutant individuals and evaluated the effect of the mutation in the cells before and after differentiation into intestinal organoids...
2018: PloS One
Yi Wan, Fengge Song, Guoqing Wang, Hong Liu, Meng An, Aimin Wang, Xi Wu, Chunxin Ma, Ning Wang
Despite of recent advances in signal reporter-based assays for bacteria detection and profiling, the low-cost, ultrasensitive, accurate and fast diagnosis remains a challenge for better patient care. Herein, we present a novel bacteria identification method based on α-hemolysin-labelled sandwich assay (HLSA). A pore-forming protein α-hemolysin, is used as an electrical signal reporter. The assay takes advantage of the specific binding of target nucleic acid with two hybridization probes: capture probe decorated magnetic microparticles, and oligonucleotides detecting probe and α-hemolysin modified gold nanoparticles...
July 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Angelina Angelova, Markus Drechsler, Vasil M Garamus, Borislav Angelov
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω-3 PUFAs) are bioactive lipids with considerable impact in medicine and nutrition. These compounds exert structuring effects on the cellular membrane organization, regulate the gene expression, and modulate various signaling cascades and metabolic processes. The purpose of the present work is to demonstrate the structural features of ω-3 PUFA-containing three-dimensional supramolecular lipid assemblies suitable for pharmaceutical applications that require soft porous carriers...
March 31, 2018: ACS Omega
Sandeep Palvai, Meenu Mahesh Kuman, Poulomi Sengupta, Sudipta Basu
Colon cancer has emerged as one of the most devastating diseases in the whole world. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-phosphatidylinsitol-3-kinase (PI3K) signaling hub has gained lots of attention due to its deregulation in colon cancer cells. However, selective targeting of oncogenic MAPK-PI3K hub in colon cancer has remained highly challenging, hence it has mostly been unexplored. To address this, we have engineered a hyaluronic acid layered lipid-based chimeric nanoparticle (HA-CNP) consisting of AZD6244 (MAPK inhibitor), PI103 (PI3K inhibitor), and cisplatin (DNA impairing drug) ratiometrically in a single particle...
November 30, 2017: ACS Omega
Nuria Oliva-Vilarnau, Simona Hankeova, Sabine U Vorrink, Souren Mkrtchian, Emma R Andersson, Volker M Lauschke
The liver fulfills central roles in metabolic control and detoxification and, as such, is continuously exposed to a plethora of insults. Importantly, the liver has a unique ability to regenerate and can completely recoup from most acute, non-iterative insults. However, multiple conditions, including viral hepatitis, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), long-term alcohol abuse and chronic use of certain medications, can cause persistent injury in which the regenerative capacity eventually becomes dysfunctional, resulting in hepatic scaring and cirrhosis...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
Paulraj Kanmani, Hojun Kim
The beneficial effects of probiotics in several liver diseases have been investigated in both animal and clinical models; however, the precise mechanisms responsible for their effects have not yet been elucidated. Gut transmitted endotoxins such as LPS have been shown to play critical roles in hepatic inflammation and injury. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the beneficial role of selected lactic acid bacteria (LABs) on reduction of hepatic steatosis (HS) and attenuation of LPS induced inflammatory response in vitro ...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Joanne J Liu, Adrienne Hezghia, Saame Raza Shaikh, Joshua F Cenido, Ruth E Stark, J John Mann, M Elizabeth Sublette
Lipid microdomains ("rafts") are dynamic, nanoscale regions of the plasma membrane enriched in cholesterol and glycosphingolipids, that possess distinctive physicochemical properties including higher order than the surrounding membrane. Lipid microdomain integrity is thought to affect neurotransmitter signaling by regulating membrane-bound protein signaling. Among the proteins potentially affected are monoaminergic receptors and transporters. As dysfunction of monoaminergic neurotransmission is implicated in major depressive disorder and other neuropsychiatric conditions, interactions with lipid microdomains may be of clinical importance...
June 28, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Vikas A Tillu, Ye-Wheen Lim, Oleksiy Kovtun, Sergey Mureev, Charles Ferguson, Michele Bastiani, Kerrie-Ann McMahon, Harriet P Lo, Thomas E Hall, Kirill Alexandrov, Brett M Collins, Robert G Parton
Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations involved in transport, signalling and mechanical membrane sensing in metazoans. Their formation depends upon multiple interactions between membrane-embedded caveolins, lipids and cytosolic cavin proteins. Of the four cavin family members, only cavin1 is strictly required for caveola formation. Here, we demonstrate that an eleven residue (undecad) repeat sequence (UC1) exclusive to cavin1 is essential for caveolar localization and promotes membrane remodelling through binding to phosphatidylserine...
July 18, 2018: EMBO Reports
Mina Amiri, Saghar Yousefnia, Farzad Seyed Forootan, Maryam Peymani, Kamran Ghaedi, Mohammad Hossein Nasr Esfahani
One of the most importantly involved pathways in cancer development is fatty-acid signaling pathway. Synthesized lipids as energetic sources are consumed by cancer cells for proliferation, growth, survival, invasion and angiogenesis. Fatty acids as signaling compounds regulate metabolic and transcriptional networks, survival pathways and inflammatory responses. Aggregation of fatty acids with fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) facilitates their transportation to different cell organelles. FABPs, a group of lipid binding proteins modulate fatty acid metabolism, cell growth and proliferation and cancer development...
July 15, 2018: Gene
Huiyu Qiao, Feiyu Li, Dongxiang Xu, Gaifen Liu, Chun Yuan, Xihai Zhao
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study sought to investigate the feasibility of three-dimensional MPRAGE in identifying the lipid-rich necrotic core (LRNC) and calcification (CA) of carotid atherosclerotic plaques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twelve patients (mean age 68.4 ± 11.8 years; 7 males) with carotid atherosclerotic plaques on ultrasound were included and underwent multicontrast magnetic resonance (MR) vessel wall imaging. The contrast enhanced T1W (CE-T1W) images were considered as reference for identifying LRNC...
July 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Haifeng Liu, Huan Li, Long Jin, Guilin Li, Silu Hu, Chunyou Ning, Jiazhong Guo, Surong Shuai, Xuewei Li, Mingzhou Li
Emerging studies indicated that both long noncoding RNAs and micro-RNAs play crucial roles in the mediation of adipogenesis, which is closely linked to obesity-related diseases. However, the mechanisms of lncRNA-miRNAs coregulating in adipogenesis are still largely unknown. In this study, we determined that lncRNA growth arrest-specific 5 (GAS5) presented an opposite expression pattern with miR-21a-5p in 3T3-L1 adipocytes development. To explore the role of GAS5 in adipogenesis, pcDNA3.1-GAS5 expression vectors and GAS5-siRNAs were used to perform GAS5 overexpression and knockdown, respectively...
July 18, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
Sobia Aleem
BACKGROUND: Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is an advanced and chronic endocrine disorder characterized by an insufficiency of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells and liver, adipose tissues, and skeletal muscles. OBJECTIVE: The main objective of this study is to understand the mechanism and genes which are responsible for the prevalence of diabetes. The study also covers various types of diabetic complications with special reference to insulin role and defects. METHODS: The scientific literature and patents were reviewed and analyzed based on their suitability and relevance to the theme of the study...
July 17, 2018: Recent Patents on Inflammation & Allergy Drug Discovery
Jeffrey Laurence, Sonia Elhadad, Jasimuddin Ahamed
HIV infection is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This risk is accentuated by certain combination antiretroviral therapies (cARTs), independent of their effects on lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. We sought to define potential mechanisms for this association through systematic review of clinical and preclinical studies of CVD in the setting of HIV/cART from the English language literature from 1989 to March 2018. We used PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Google Scholar, and conference abstracts for the years 2015-March 2018...
2018: Open Heart
Yue Niu, Yun Xiang
Biological membranes are highly ordered structures consisting of mosaics of lipids and proteins. Elevated temperatures can directly and effectively change the properties of these membranes, including their fluidity and permeability, through a holistic effect that involves changes in the lipid composition and/or interactions between lipids and specific membrane proteins. Ultimately, high temperatures can alter microdomain remodeling and instantaneously relay ambient cues to downstream signaling pathways. Thus, dynamic membrane regulation not only helps cells perceive temperature changes but also participates in intracellular responses and determines a cell's fate...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lina Sun, Chenggang Lin, Xiaoni Li, Lili Xing, Da Huo, Jingchun Sun, Libin Zhang, Hongsheng Yang
Sea cucumbers exposed to stressful circumstances eviscerate most internal organs, and then regenerate them rapidly under favorable environments. Reversible protein phosphorylation and acetylation are major modifications regulating protein function. Herein, for the first time, we perform quantitative phospho- and acetyl proteomics analyses of intestine regeneration in a sea cucumber species Apostichopus japonicus . We identified 1,862 phosphorylation sites in 1,169 proteins, and 712 acetylation sites in 470 proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Sophie Lepropre, Shakeel Kautbally, Marie Octave, Audrey Ginion, Marie-Blanche Onselaer, Gregory R Steinberg, Bruce E Kemp, Alexandre Hego, Odile Wéra, Sanne Brouns, Frauke Swieringa, Martin Giera, Victor M Darley-Usmar, Jérôme Ambroise, Bruno Guigas, Johan Heemskerk, Luc Bertrand, Cécile Oury, Christophe Beauloye, Sandrine Horman
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) α1 is activated in platelets upon thrombin or collagen stimulation, and as consequence phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). Since ACC is crucial for the synthesis of fatty acids, which are essential for platelet activation, we hypothesized that this enzyme plays a central regulatory role in platelet function. To investigate this, we used a double knock-in (DKI) mouse model in which the AMPK phosphorylation sites Ser79 on ACC1 and Ser212 on ACC2 were mutated to prevent AMPK-signaling to ACC...
July 17, 2018: Blood
Almudena Veiga-Lopez, Yong Pu, Jeremy Gingrich, Vasantha Padmanabhan
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds that are part of everyday consumer products and industrial manufacturing processes. EDCs can interfere with the endocrine system, including the adipose tissue. Accumulating evidence from epidemiological, animal, and in vitro studies demonstrates that EDCs can alter body weight, adipose tissue expansion, circulating lipid profile, and adipogenesis, with some resulting in transgenerational effects. These outcomes appear to be mediated through multiple mechanisms, from nuclear receptor binding to epigenetic modifications...
July 12, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
Núria Dalmau, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Romà Tauler, Carmen Bedia
BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is known to be one of the most important environmental hazards acting on the skin. The most part of UV radiation is absorbed in the epidermis, where keratinocytes are the most abundant and exposed cell type. Lipids have an important role in skin biology, not only for their important contribution to the maintenance of the permeability barrier but also for the production and storage of energy, membrane organization and cell signalling functions. However, the effects on the lipid composition of keratinocytes under UV radiation are little explored...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
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