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Lipid signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535513/pkc-%C3%AE-triggers-egfr-ubiquitination-endocytosis-and-erk-activation-in-podocytes-stimulated-with-high-glucose
#1
Chun-Tao Lei, Yan-Hong Wei, Hui Tang, Qian Wen, Chen Ye, Chun Zhang, Hua Su
BACKGROUND: Protein Kinase C-α (PKC-α) and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) are both involved in diabetic kidney disease; however, the connection between these two proteins during high glucose-induced podocyte injury remains uncertain. METHODS: Diabetes was induced in SD rats by streptozotocin (STZ). Fourteen days later, the kidney cortex was removed and subjected to plasma membrane isolation and lipid raft fractionation. In vitro study human podocyte cell line was differentiated and subjected to various treatments...
May 25, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534168/father-s-obesity-programs-the-adipose-tissue-in-the-offspring-via-the-local-renin-angiotensin-system-and-mapks-pathways-especially-in-adult-male-mice
#2
Fernanda Ornellas, Isabele Bringhenti, Brenda Akemi N F Mattos, Carlos Alberto Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Marcia Barbosa Aguila
PURPOSE: Studies demonstrated the influence of mother's obesity on offspring. However, the father is also related to programming the future generation. The study aimed to evaluate the effects of father's obesity upon white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling, resulting in activation of signaling pathways and inflammation in male and female offspring. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice received control diet (lean father group; 17% energy from lipids) or high-fat diet (obese father group; 49% energy from lipids) for 8 weeks before mating...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533928/leucine-nicotinic-acid-synergy-stimulates-ampk-sirt1-signaling-and-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-lifespan-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-and-hyperlipidemia-and-atherosclerosis-in-mice
#3
Antje Bruckbauer, Jheelam Banerjee, Quiang Cao, Xin Cui, Jia Jing, Lin Zha, Fenfen Li, Bingzhong Xue, Hang Shi, Michael B Zemel
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Nicotinic acid (NA), a lipid-lowering drug, serves as a source of NAD(+), the cofactor for Sirt1. Leucine (Leu) stimulates the AMPK/Sirt1 axis and amplifies the effects of other AMPK/Sirt1 activating compounds. Therefore, we tested the interactive effects of leucine and low dose NA on AMPK/Sirt1 signaling and downstream effects of lipid metabolism in cell culture, C. elegans and mice. METHODS: LDL-receptor knockout mice were fed an atherogenic Western diet supplemented with leucine (24 g/kg diet) and sub-therapeutic NA combinations (50 mg/kg diet and 250 mg/kg diet) or low therapeutic NA (1000 mg/kg diet) for 8 weeks to evaluate markers of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis...
2017: American Journal of Cardiovascular Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533793/exogenous-supplementation-of-silicon-improved-the-recovery-of-hyperhydric-shoots-in-dianthus-caryophyllus-l-by-stabilizing-the-physiology-and-protein-expression
#4
Prabhakaran Soundararajan, Abinaya Manivannan, Yoon S Cho, Byoung R Jeong
Hyperhydricity is one of the major problems hindering in vitro propagation of Dianthus caryophyllus L. Silicon (Si) is a well-known beneficial element renowned for its stress amelioration properties in plants. This study has demonstrated the physiological and molecular mechanism behind the Si-mediated recovery from hyperhydricity in D. caryophyllus L. 'Green Beauty'. Four weeks old hyperhydric shoots obtained from temporary immersion system were cultured on the Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 0 (control), 1...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533752/protocatechuic-acid-a-phenolic-from-sansevieria-roxburghiana-leaves-suppresses-diabetic-cardiomyopathy-via-stimulating-glucose-metabolism-ameliorating-oxidative-stress-and-inhibiting-inflammation
#5
Niloy Bhattacharjee, Tarun K Dua, Ritu Khanra, Swarnalata Joardar, Ashis Nandy, Achintya Saha, Vincenzo De Feo, Saikat Dewanjee
Persistent hyperglycemia, impairment of redox status and establishment of inflammatory pathophysiology integrally play important role in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiomyopathy (DC). Present study examined the therapeutic potential of protocatechuic acid isolated from the Sansevieria roxburghiana rhizomes against DC employing rodent model of type 2 diabetes (T2D). T2D was induced by high fat diet + a low-single dose of streptozotocin (35 mg/kg, i.p.). T2D rats exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high fasting blood glucose level...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533555/scopolin-ameliorates-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-potential-involvement-of-sirt1-mediated-signaling-cascades-in-the-liver
#6
Ahyoung Yoo, Vikram P Narayan, Eun Young Hong, Wan Kyunn Whang, Taesun Park
The present study aimed to investigate whether scopolin exhibits beneficial effects on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. The involvement of sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) as a molecular target for scopolin was also explored. Scopolin decreased the Km of SIRT1 for p53 and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide without altering Vmax in a cell-free system. Scopolin alleviated oleic acid-induced lipid accumulation and downregulation of SIRT1 activity in HepG2 cells, and these beneficial effects of scopolin were abolished in the presence of SIRT1 inhibitor...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533545/treatment-effects-of-the-traditional-chinese-medicine-shenks-in-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis-through-regulation-of-tgf-beta-smad3-signaling-and-oxidative-stress
#7
Haiyan Chu, Ying Shi, Shuai Jiang, Qicheng Zhong, Yongqiang Zhao, Qingmei Liu, Yanyun Ma, Xiangguang Shi, Weifeng Ding, Xiaodong Zhou, Jimin Cui, Li Jin, Gang Guo, Jiucun Wang
Pulmonary fibrosis is a kind of devastating interstitial lung disease due to the limited therapeutic strategies. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) practices have put forth Shenks as a promising treatment approach. Here, we performed in vivo study and in vitro study to delineate the anti-fibrotic mechanisms behind Shenks treatment for pulmonary fibrosis. We found that regardless of the prophylactic or therapeutic treatment, Shenks was able to attenuate BLM-induced-fibrosis in mice, down regulate extracellular matrix genes expression, and reduce collagen production...
May 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533488/tim-3-inhibits-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-atherogenic-responses-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#8
Ming-Ke Qiu, Song-Cun Wang, Yong Tang, Chang Pan, Yang Wang, Shu-Qing Wang, Zhi-Wei Quan, Jing-Min Ou
Endothelial injury and dysfunction followed by endothelial activation and inflammatory cell recruitment are factors contributing to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) promotes inflammation during atherogenesis and lipid deposition in the arterial wall. We observed that stimulation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with ox-LDL activated pro-inflammatory cytokine production and apoptosis, inhibited cell migration, and upregulated T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) expression...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533339/structure-based-prediction-of-wnt-binding-affinities-for-frizzled-type-cysteine-rich-domain
#9
Mark Agostino, Sebastian Öther-Gee Pohl, Arunasalam Dharmarajan
Wnt signaling pathways are of significant interest in development and oncogenesis. The first step in these pathways typically involves the binding of a Wnt protein to the cysteine-rich domain (CRD) of a Frizzled receptor; Wnt-Frizzled interactions can be antagonized by secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), which also contain a Frizzled-like CRD. The large number of Wnts, Frizzleds and sFRPs, as well as the hydrophobic nature of Wnt, pose challenges to laboratory-based investigations of interactions involving Wnt...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533326/prostaglandin-e-receptor-subtype-4-regulates-lipid-droplet-size-and-mitochondrial-activity-in-murine-subcutaneous-white-adipose-tissue
#10
Fan Ying, Yin Cai, Yu Cai, Yu Wang, Eva Hoi Ching Tang
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether genetic ablation of prostaglandin E receptor subtype 4 (EP4) affects white adipose tissue (WAT) remodeling mediated by β3-adrenergic stimulation. The selective β3-adrenergic agonist, CL316243 (1 mg/kg/d, i.p.) caused a greater increase in metabolic rate in EP4-knockout mice. CL316243 fragmented the unilocular lipid droplet into multilocular lipid vacuoles and increased mitochondrial biogenesis and its activity. These changes were amplified in mice with EP4 deficiency and were selectively seen in subcutaneous WAT...
May 22, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532855/long-term-influence-of-prenatal-high-sucrose-intake-on-learning-and-memory-of-aged-rat-offspring-with-oxidative-stress-and-disruptions-in-nmdars-wnt-signaling-in-hippocampus
#11
Axin He, Yingying Zhang, Lingjun Li, Xueqin Feng, Bin Wei, Di Zhu, Yanping Liu, Lei Wu, Lubo Zhang, Zhice Xu, Miao Sun
Maternal over-nutrition may increase risks of various diseases in the offspring. Our recent work demonstrated that prenatal high sucrose (HS) could impair spatial acquisitionin the adolescentoffspringrats. This study investigated whether prenatal HS has a long-term impact on cognitive capabilities in the aged offspring rats. The aged HS offspring showed impaired glucose tolerance, significantly increased fasting insulin and insulin resistance index, with unchanged plasma glucose. In the navigation test, the aged HS offspring exhibited longer escape latency and longer swimming path length to the platform...
May 19, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532301/heterotrimeric-g-protein-regulatory-circuits-in-plants-conserved-and-novel-mechanisms
#12
Sona Pandey
Article Addendum Efficient activation and deactivation of Gα protein is critical for the regulation of heterotrimeric G-protein mediated signaling pathways. While the core G-protein components and their activation/deactivation chemistries are broadly conserved throughout the eukaryotic evolution, their regulatory mechanisms seem to have been rewired in plants to meet specific needs. Plants such as Arabidopsis, which have a limited number of G-protein components and their regulators, offer a unique opportunity to dissect the mechanistic details of distinct signaling pathways...
May 22, 2017: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531236/psychosine-enhances-the-shedding-of-membrane-microvesicles-implications-in-demyelination-in-krabbe-s-disease
#13
Ludovic D'Auria, Cory Reiter, Emma Ward, Ana Lis Moyano, Michael S Marshall, Duc Nguyen, Giuseppe Scesa, Zane Hauck, Richard van Breemen, Maria I Givogri, Ernesto R Bongarzone
In prior studies, our laboratory showed that psychosine accumulates and disrupts lipid rafts in brain membranes of Krabbe's disease. A model of lipid raft disruption helped explaining psychosine's effects on several signaling pathways important for oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation but provided more limited insight in how this sphingolipid caused demyelination. Here, we have studied how this cationic inverted coned lipid affects the fluidity, stability and structure of myelin and plasma membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531112/effects-of-polyphenols-on-oxidative-stress-mediated-injury-in-cardiomyocytes
#14
REVIEW
Rosanna Mattera, Monica Benvenuto, Maria Gabriella Giganti, Ilaria Tresoldi, Francesca Romana Pluchinotta, Sonia Bergante, Guido Tettamanti, Laura Masuelli, Vittorio Manzari, Andrea Modesti, Roberto Bei
Cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Hypertension, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes and anti-cancer drugs contribute to heart failure through oxidative and nitrosative stresses which cause cardiomyocytes nuclear and mitochondrial DNA damage, denaturation of intracellular proteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammation. Oxidative or nitrosative stress-mediated injury lead to cardiomyocytes apoptosis or necrosis. The reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) concentration is dependent on their production and on the expression and activity of anti-oxidant enzymes...
May 20, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530121/glucocorticoids-retain-bi-potent-fibroblast-progenitors-during-alveolar-septation-in-mice
#15
Stephen E McGowan, Diann M McCoy
Glucocorticoids have been widely used and exert pleiotropic effects on alveolar structure and function, but do not improve the long-term clinical outcomes for patients with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, or interstitial lung diseases. Treatments which foster alveolar regeneration could substantially improve the long-term outcomes for such patients. One approach to alveolar regeneration is to stimulate and guide intrinsic alveolar progenitors along developmental pathways used during secondary septation...
May 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529926/manipulation-of-host-cholesterol-by-obligate-intracellular-bacteria
#16
REVIEW
Dhritiman Samanta, Minal Mulye, Tatiana M Clemente, Anna V Justis, Stacey D Gilk
Cholesterol is a multifunctional lipid that plays important metabolic and structural roles in the eukaryotic cell. Despite having diverse lifestyles, the obligate intracellular bacterial pathogens Chlamydia, Coxiella, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia all target cholesterol during host cell colonization as a potential source of membrane, as well as a means to manipulate host cell signaling and trafficking. To promote host cell entry, these pathogens utilize cholesterol-rich microdomains known as lipid rafts, which serve as organizational and functional platforms for host signaling pathways involved in phagocytosis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529539/jiangtang-decoction-ameliorate-diabetic-nephropathy-through-the-regulation-of-pi3k-akt-mediated-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-in-kk-ay-mice
#17
Jin-Ni Hong, Wei-Wei Li, Lin-Lin Wang, Hao Guo, Yong Jiang, Yun-Jia Gao, Peng-Fei Tu, Xue-Mei Wang
BACKGROUND: Jiangtang decoction (JTD) is a China patented drug which contains Euphorbia humifusa Willd, Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Astragalus mongholicus Bunge, Anemarrhena asphodeloides Bunge, and Coptis chinensis Franch. For decades, it has also been used clinically to treat diabetic nephropathy (DN) effectively; however, the associated mechanisms remain unknown. Thus, the present study aimed to examine the protective efficacy of JTD in DN and elucidate the underlying molecular mechanisms...
2017: Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528915/sphingosine-metabolism-as-a-therapeutic-target-in-cutaneous-melanoma
#18
REVIEW
Mohammed Dany
Melanoma is by far the most aggressive type of skin cancer with a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Understanding the mechanisms involved in melanoma pathogenesis, response, and resistance to treatment has gained a lot of attention worldwide. Recently, the role of sphingolipid metabolism has been studied in cutaneous melanoma. Sphingolipids are bioactive lipid effector molecules involved in the regulation of various cellular signaling pathways such as inflammation, cancer cell proliferation, death, senescence, and metastasis...
May 4, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528682/chemical-fixation-to-arrest-phospholipid-signaling-for-chemical-cytometry
#19
Angela Proctor, Christopher E Sims, Nancy L Allbritton
Chemical cytometry is a powerful tool for measuring biological processes such as enzymatic signaling at the single cell level. Among these technologies, single-cell capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has emerged as a powerful tool to assay a wide range of cellular metabolites. However, analysis of dynamic processes within cells remains challenging as signaling pathways are rapidly altered in response to changes in the cellular environment, including cell manipulation and storage. To address these limitations, we describe a method for chemical fixation of cells to stop the cellular reactions to preserve the integrity of key signaling molecules or reporters within the cell and to enable the cell to act as a storage reservoir for the reporter and its metabolites prior to assay by single-cell CZE...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528666/role-of-nonneuronal-trpv4-signaling-in-inflammatory-processes
#20
Pradeep Rajasekhar, Daniel P Poole, Nicholas A Veldhuis
Transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channels are important signaling components in nociceptive and inflammatory pathways. This is attributed to their ability to function as polymodal sensors of environmental stimuli (chemical and mechanical) and as effector molecules in receptor signaling pathways. TRP vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) is a nonselective cation channel that is activated by multiple endogenous stimuli including shear stress, membrane stretch, and arachidonic acid metabolites. TRPV4 contributes to many important physiological processes and dysregulation of its activity is associated with chronic conditions of metabolism, inflammation, peripheral neuropathies, musculoskeletal development, and cardiovascular regulation...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
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