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Lipid signaling

Yuna Kurokawa, Akane Yoshida, Emi Fujii, Kanna Tomioku, Hiroki Hayashi, Kenji Tanabe, Akikazu Fujita
Phosphatidylinositol 4-phophate (PtdIns(4)P) is an essential signaling molecule in the Golgi body, endosomal system, and plasma membrane and functions in the regulation of membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal organization, lipid metabolism, and signal transduction pathways, all mediated by direct interaction with PtdIns(4)P-binding proteins. PtdIns(4)P was recently reported to have functional roles in autophagosome biogenesis. LC3 and GABARAP subfamilies and a small GTP-binding protein, Rab7, are localized on autophagosomal membranes and participate at each stage of autophagosome formation and maturation...
November 13, 2018: Traffic
Kai Lu, Jinming Zhou, Xia Chen, Wenru Li, Yue Li, Yibei Cheng, Jing Yan, Keke You, Zhineng Yuan, Qiang Zhou
Provisioning of sufficient lipids and vitellogenin to the oocytes is an indispensable process for fecundity of oviparous insects. Acute mobilization of lipid reserves in insects is controlled by the Brummer (Bmm), an orthologous of human adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL). To investigate the functional roles of brummer-mediated lipolysis in the fecundity of the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens , RNA interference (RNAi) analyses were performed with double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) against NlBmm in adult females...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dirk Mossmann, Sujin Park, Michael N Hall
Oncogenic signalling and metabolic alterations are interrelated in cancer cells. mTOR, which is frequently activated in cancer, controls cell growth and metabolism. mTOR signalling regulates amino acid, glucose, nucleotide, fatty acid and lipid metabolism. Conversely, metabolic inputs, such as amino acids, activate mTOR. In this Review, we discuss how mTOR signalling rewires cancer cell metabolism and delineate how changes in metabolism, in turn, sustain mTOR signalling and tumorigenicity. Several drugs are being developed to perturb cancer cell metabolism...
November 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Daihiko Hakuno, Masahiro Kimura, Shinji Ito, Junko Satoh, Yasuhiro Nakashima, Takahiro Horie, Yasuhide Kuwabara, Masataka Nishiga, Yuya Ide, Osamu Baba, Hitoo Nishi, Tetsushi Nakao, Tomohiro Nishino, Fumiko Nakazeki, Satoshi Koyama, Ritsuko Hanada, Ruiz R Randolph, Jin Endo, Takeshi Kimura, Koh Ono
Acute cardiac rupture and adverse left ventricular (LV) remodeling causing heart failure are serious complications of acute myocardial infarction (MI). While cardio-hepatic interactions have been recognized, their role in MI remains unknown. We treated cultured cardiomyocytes with conditioned media from various cell types and analyzed the media by mass spectrometry to identify α1-microglobulin (AM) as an Akt-activating hepatokine. In mouse MI model, AM protein transiently distributed in the infarct and border zones during the acute phase, reflecting infiltration of AM-bound macrophages...
November 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rolf Teschke
Alcoholic liver disease is the result of cascade events, which clinically first lead to alcoholic fatty liver, and then mostly via alcoholic steatohepatitis or alcoholic hepatitis potentially to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Pathogenetic events are linked to the metabolism of ethanol and acetaldehyde as its first oxidation product generated via hepatic alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and the microsomal ethanol-oxidizing system (MEOS), which depends on cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), and is inducible by chronic alcohol use...
November 12, 2018: Biomedicines
Song Zhang, Li Wang, Shijun Li, Wenzhen Zhang, Xueyao Ma, Gong Cheng, Wucai Yang, Linsen Zan
Adipose tissue is the most important energy metabolism and secretion organ, and these functions are conferred during the adipogenesis process. However, the cause and the molecular events underlying adipogenesis are still unclear. In this study, we performed integrated bioinformatics analyses to identify vital genes involved in adipogenesis and reveal potential molecular mechanisms. Five mouse high-throughput expression profile datasets were downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database; these datasets contained 24 samples of 3T3-L1 cells during adipogenesis, including 12 undifferentiated samples and 12 differentiated samples...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Kan Shoji, Ryuji Kawano
This study reports double-stacked planar bilayer lipid membranes (pBLMs) formed using a droplet contact method (DCM) for microfluidic formation with five-layered microchannels that have four micro guide pillars. pBLMs are valuable for analyzing membrane proteins and modeling cell membranes. Furthermore, multiple-pBLM systems have broadened the field of application such as electronic components, light-sensors, and batteries because of electrical characteristics of pBLMs and membrane proteins. Although multiple-stacked pBLMs have potential, the formation of multiple-pBLMs on a micrometer scale still faces challenges...
May 22, 2018: Micromachines
Jian Peng, Zheng Li, Yan Yang, Peng Wang, Xuan Zhou, Tujing Zhao, Mengpei Guo, Meng Meng, Tianlei Zhang, Wenliang Qian, Qingyou Xia, Daojun Cheng, Ping Zhao
The fat body plays key roles in energy storage and utilization as well as biosynthetic and metabolic activities in insects. During metamorphosis from larva to pupa, the fat body undergoes dramatic changes in morphology and metabolic processes. However, the genetic basis underlying these changes has not been completely understood. In this study, the authors performed a time-course transcriptome analysis of the fat body during silkworm metamorphosis using RNA-sequencing. A total of 5217 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the fat body at different developmental time points...
November 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chung Gi Lee, Dong Kwon Rhee, Byung Oh Kim, Sung Hee Um, Suhkneung Pyo
Under specific conditions, white adipose tissue (WAT) depots are readily converted to a brown-like state, which is associated with weight loss. However, whether diet-derived factors directly induce browning of white adipocytes has yet to be established. Thus, we investigated the effects of allicin, one of the major components of garlic, on brown-like adipocyte formation in inguinal WAT (iWAT), and prevention of obesity and related complications in animal models. Allicin significantly increased mRNA and/or protein expression of brown adipocyte markers including uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) in differentiated mouse embryonic fibroblast cell line 3T3-L1 and differentiated iWAT stromal vascular cells (SVC), suggesting that allicin induced brown-like adipocyte formation in vitro...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Li Zhu, Zhong Tian, Shuang Guo, Wen Liu, Fen Zhu, Xiao-Ping Wang
Many organisms have evolved a series of adaptions, such as dormancy or diapause in insects that enable them to withstand seasonally adverse conditions. In insects, photoperiodic signals received during the diapause induction phase have irreversible effect on diapause initiation. Insects continue to be exposed to diapause-inducing photoperiod after the diapause induction phase during diapause preparation before they enter diapause. However, how photoperiodic signals experienced during the diapause preparation phase (DPP) regulate diapause remains largely unclear...
November 10, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Danielle Kamato, Micah Burch, Zhou Yang, Raafat Mohamed, Jennifer L Stow, Narin Osman, Peter J Little
Growth factors such as thrombin and transforming Growth Factor (TGF)-β facilitate glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on proteoglycans, a phenomenon that increases lipoprotein binding in the vessel wall and the development of atherosclerosis. TGF -β signals via canonical carboxy terminal phosphorylation of R-Smads and also non-canonical linker region phosphorylation of R-Smads. The G protein coupled receptor agonist, thrombin, can transactivate the TGF-β receptor leading to both canonical and non-canonical Smad signalling...
November 10, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Ao Xuan Zhen, Mei Jing Piao, Yu Jae Hyun, Kyoung Ah Kang, Yea Seong Ryu, Suk Ju Cho, Hee Kyoung Kang, Young Sang Koh, Mee Jung Ahn, Tae Hoon Kim, Jin Won Hyun
Purpurogallin, a natural phenol obtained from oak nutgalls, has been shown to possess antioxidant, anticancer, and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, in addition to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation that induces cell apoptosis via oxidative stress, particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5 ) was shown to trigger excessive production of reactive oxygen species. In this study, we observed that UVB radiation and PM2.5 severely damaged human HaCaT keratinocytes, disrupting cellular DNA, lipids, and proteins and causing mitochondrial depolarization...
November 12, 2018: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
Steven J Tobin, Devin L Wakefield, Lars Terenius, Vladana Vukojević, Tijana Jovanović-Talisman
The complex spatiotemporal organization of proteins and lipids in the plasma membrane is an important determinant of receptor function. Certain substances, such as ethanol, can penetrate into the hydrophobic regions of the plasma membrane. By altering protein-lipid and protein-protein interactions, these substances can modify the dynamic lateral organization and the function of plasma membrane receptors. To assess changes in plasma membrane receptor organization, we used photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM)...
November 12, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Thomas D Newport, Mark S P Sansom, Phillip J Stansfeld
Integral membrane proteins fulfil important roles in many crucial biological processes, including cell signalling, molecular transport and bioenergetic processes. Advancements in experimental techniques are revealing high resolution structures for an increasing number of membrane proteins. Yet, these structures are rarely resolved in complex with membrane lipids. In 2015, the MemProtMD pipeline was developed to allow the automated lipid bilayer assembly around new membrane protein structures, released from the Protein Data Bank (PDB)...
November 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Tim Ambrose, Alison Simmons
Cannabis sativa and its extracts have been used for centuries both medicinally and recreationally. There is accumulating evidence that exogenous cannabis and related cannabinoids improve symptoms associated with inflammatory bowel disease such as pain, loss of appetite, and diarrhoea. In vivo, exocannabinoids have been demonstrated to improve colitis, mainly in chemical models.Exocannabinoids signal through the endocannabinoid system, an increasingly understood network of endogenous lipid ligands and their receptors, together with a number of synthetic and degradative enzymes and the resulting products...
November 12, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Raafat Mohamed, Parisa Dayati, Reyhaneh Niayesh Mehr, Danielle Kamato, Faezeh Seif, Hossein Babaahmadi-Rezaei, Peter J Little
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 mediates glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chain hyperelongation on secreted proteoglycans and these modifications are associated with increased lipid binding in the vessel wall and the development of atherosclerosis. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), TGF-β1 regulated GAG elongation via extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 as well as Smad2 linker region phosphorylation. In this study, our aim was to identify the TGF-β1 mediated signalling pathway involving reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Smad2 linker region phosphorylation that regulate the mRNA expression of GAG synthesizing enzymes, chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase 1 (CHST11) and chondroitin sulfate synthase 1 (CHSY1) which are the rate limiting enzymes involved in GAG chain elongation...
November 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
Yi-Ping Wang, Qun-Ying Lei
Metabolite sensing is one of the most fundamental biological processes. During evolution, multilayered mechanisms developed to sense fluctuations in a wide spectrum of metabolites, including nutrients, to coordinate cellular metabolism and biological networks. To date, AMPK and mTOR signaling are among the best-understood metabolite-sensing and signaling pathways. Here, we propose a sensor-transducer-effector model to describe known mechanisms of metabolite sensing and signaling. We define a metabolite sensor by its specificity, dynamicity, and functionality...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Paul M Ridker
Life-threatening cardiovascular events occur despite control of conventional risk factors. Inflammation, as measured by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) concentration, is associated with future vascular events in both primary and secondary prevention, independent of usual risk markers. Statins are powerful lipid-lowering agents with clinically relevant anti-inflammatory effects. Recent data support targeting the interleukin (IL)-1-to-IL-6-to-CRP signaling pathway as an adjunctive method for atheroprotection...
November 2, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Krizia Sagini, Lorena Urbanelli, Eva Costanzi, Nico Mitro, Donatella Caruso, Carla Emiliani, Sandra Buratta
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are lipid bilayer surrounded particles that are considered an additional way to transmit signals outside the cell. Lipids have not only a structural role in the organization of EVs membrane bilayer, but they also represent a source of lipid mediators that may act on target cells. Senescent cells are characterized by a permanent arrest of cell proliferation, but they are still metabolically active and influence nearby tissue secreting specific signaling mediators, including those carried by EVs...
November 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Juanjuan Zhu, Mingyu Zhou, Xueke Zhao, Mao Mu, Mingliang Cheng
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most prevalent diseases worldwide. Blueberry, combined with probiotics (BP), might be a potential candidate for NAFLD treatment, due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties. Here, we investigated whether the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-22, was involved in the therapeutic process of BP, using cell and rat models of NAFLD. Results indicated that BP significantly reduced lipid droplets and triglyceride (TG) accumulation in NAFLD cells. However, when IL-22 was deficient, the lipid droplets and TG content were significantly increased...
November 9, 2018: Food & Function
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