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Lipid signaling

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917812/a-minimum-phase-shinnar-le-roux-spectral-spatial-excitation-rf-pulse-for-simultaneous-water-and-lipid-suppression-in-1-h-mrsi-of-body-extremities
#1
Paul Kyu Han, Chao Ma, Kexin Deng, Shuang Hu, Kyung-Wook Jee, Kui Ying, Yen-Lin Chen, Georges El Fakhri
PURPOSE: To develop a spectral-spatial (SPSP) excitation RF pulse for simultaneous water and lipid suppression in proton ((1)H) magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) of body extremities. METHODS: An SPSP excitation pulse is designed to excite Creatine (Cr) and Choline (Cho) metabolite signals while suppressing the overwhelming water and lipid signals. The SPSP pulse is designed using a recently proposed multidimensional Shinnar-Le Roux (SLR) RF pulse design method...
September 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917487/glutamate-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-oxidative-damage-and-mrna-expression-changes-of-tight-junction-and-defensin-proteins-inflammatory-and-apoptosis-response-signaling-molecules-in-the-intestine-of-fish
#2
Jun Jiang, Long Yin, Jin-Yang Li, Qian Li, Dan Shi, Lin Feng, Yang Liu, Wei-Dan Jiang, Pei Wu, Ye Zhao, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
The present study explored the possible preventive effects of dietary glutamate (Glu) on LPS-induced oxidative damage, mRNA expression changes of tight junction (TJ) proteins and defensins, inflammatory and apoptosis response signaling molecules in fish intestine. Young Jian carp were fed five diets supplemental graded levels of Glu (0, 4, 8, 16 and 32 g kg(-1) diet) for 63 days. The results indicated that Glu supplementation depressed LPS induced the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and severe oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation) in fish intestine, which was partially due to the increased glutathione (GSH) content and antioxidant enzyme activities including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and glutathione reductase (GR) (P < 0...
September 13, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917260/roles-of-sigma-1-receptors-on-mitochondrial-functions-relevant-to-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
REVIEW
Tzu-Yu Weng, Shang-Yi Anne Tsai, Tsung-Ping Su
The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a chaperone that resides mainly at the mitochondrion-associated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (called the MAMs) and acts as a dynamic pluripotent modulator in living systems. At the MAM, the Sig-1R is known to play a role in regulating the Ca(2+) signaling between ER and mitochondria and in maintaining the structural integrity of the MAM. The MAM serves as bridges between ER and mitochondria regulating multiple functions such as Ca(2+) transfer, energy exchange, lipid synthesis and transports, and protein folding that are pivotal to cell survival and defense...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917184/investigation-of-the-chemical-mechanisms-involved-in-the-electropulsation-of-membranes-at-the-molecular-level
#4
Marie Breton, Lluis M Mir
The chemical consequences of electropulsation on giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs), in particular the possible oxidation of unsaturated phospholipids, have been investigated by mass spectrometry, flow cytometry and absorbance methods. Pulse application induced oxidation of the GUV phospholipids and the oxidation level depended on the duration of the pulse. Light and O2 increased the level of pulse-induced lipid peroxidation whereas the presence of antioxidants either in the membrane or in the solution completely suppressed peroxidation...
September 11, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917060/lipids-and-ions-traverse-the-membrane-by-the-same-physical-pathway-in-the-nhtmem16-scramblase
#5
Tao Jiang, Kuai Yu, H Criss Hartzell, Emad Tajkhorshid
From bacteria to mammals, different phospholipid species are segregated between the inner and outer leaflets of the plasma membrane by ATP-dependent lipid transporters. Disruption of this asymmetry by ATP-independent phospholipid scrambling is important in cellular signaling, but its mechanism remains incompletely understood. Using MD simulations coupled with experimental assays, we show that the surface hydrophilic transmembrane cavity exposed to the lipid bilayer on the fungal scramblase nhTMEM16 serves as the pathway for both lipid translocation and ion conduction across the membrane...
September 16, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916720/glucose-availability-controls-adipogenesis-in-mouse-3t3-l1-adipocytes-via-upregulation-of-nicotinamide-metabolism
#6
Robert M Jackson, Beth A Griesel, Jami M Gurley, Luke I Szweda, Ann Louise Olson
Expansion of adipose tissue in response to a positive energy balance underlies obesity and occurs through both hypertrophy of existing cells and increased differentiation of adipocyte precursors (hyperplasia). To better understand the nutrient signals that promote adipocyte differentiation, we investigated the role of glucose availability in regulating adipocyte differentiation and maturation. 3T3-L1 preadipocytes were grown and differentiated in media containing a standard differentiation hormone cocktail and either 4 or 25mM glucose...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916714/interleukin-6-blockade-raises-ldl-via-reduced-catabolism-rather-than-via-increased-synthesis-a-cytokine-specific-mechanism-for-cholesterol-changes-in-rheumatoid-arthritis
#7
Jamie Robertson, Duncan Porter, Naveed Sattar, Chris J Packard, Muriel Caslake, Iain McInnes, David McCarey
OBJECTIVES: Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have reduced serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), which increases following therapeutic IL-6 blockade. We aimed to define the metabolic pathways underlying these lipid changes. METHODS: In the KALIBRA study, lipoprotein kinetic studies were performed on 11 patients with severe active RA at baseline and following three intravenous infusions of the IL-6R blocker tocilizumab. The primary outcome measure was the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) of LDL...
September 15, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916592/cytological-and-transcriptomic-analyses-reveal-important-roles-of-cle19-in-pollen-exine-formation
#8
Shuangshuang Wang, Jianan Lu, Xiufen Song, Shi-Chao Ren, Chenjiang You, Jie Xu, Chun-Ming Liu, Hong Ma, Fang Chang
The CLAVATA3/ESR-RELATED (CLE) peptide signals are required for cell-cell communication in several plant growth and developmental processes. However, little is known regarding possible functions of the CLEs in the anther. Here, we show that a T-DNA insertional mutant, and dominant-negative (DN) and overexpression (OX) transgenic plants of the CLE19 gene exhibited significantly reduced anther size and pollen grain number, and abnormal pollen wall formation. Interestingly, the DN-CLE19 pollen grains showed a more extensively covered surface but CLE19-OX pollen exine exhibited clearly missing connections in the network and lacked separation between areas that normally form the lacunae...
September 15, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916189/phosphoinositide-5-phosphatase-activities-control-cell-motility-in-glioblastoma-two-phosphoinositides-pi-4-5-p2-and-pi-3-4-p2-are-involved
#9
REVIEW
Ana Raquel Ramos, William's Elong Edimo, Christophe Erneux
Inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatases or phosphoinositide 5-phosphatases (PI 5-phosphatases) are enzymes that can act on soluble inositol phosphates and/or phosphoinositides (PIs). Several PI 5-phosphatases have been linked to human genetic diseases, in particular the Lowe protein or OCRL which is mutated in the Lowe syndrome. There are 10 different members of this family and 9 of them can use PIs as substrate. One of these substrates, PI(3,4,5)P3 binds to specific PH domains and recruits as effectors specific proteins to signaling complexes...
September 5, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913658/liver-specific-reconstitution-of-ceacam1-reverses-the-metabolic-abnormalities-caused-by-its-global-deletion-in-male-mice
#10
Lucia Russo, Harrison T Muturi, Hilda E Ghadieh, Simona S Ghanem, Thomas A Bowman, Hye Lim Noh, Sezin Dagdeviren, Godwin Y Dogbey, Jason K Kim, Garrett Heinrich, Sonia M Najjar
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) promotes insulin clearance. Mice with global null mutation (Cc1 (-/-)) or with liver-specific inactivation (L-SACC1) of Cc1 (also known as Ceacam1) gene display hyperinsulinaemia resulting from impaired insulin clearance, insulin resistance, steatohepatitis and obesity. Because increased lipolysis contributes to the metabolic phenotype caused by transgenic inactivation of CEACAM1 in the liver, we aimed to further investigate the primary role of hepatic CEACAM1-dependent insulin clearance in insulin and lipid homeostasis...
September 14, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913635/skin-lipids-of-the-striped-plateau-lizard-sceloporus-virgatus-correlate-with-female-receptivity-and-reproductive-quality-alongside-visual-ornaments
#11
Jay K Goldberg, Alisa K Wallace, Stacey L Weiss
Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards...
September 14, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913408/hepatocyte-specific-deletion-of-mouse-lamin-a-c-leads-to-male-selective-steatohepatitis
#12
Raymond Kwan, Graham F Brady, Maria Brzozowski, Sujith V Weerasinghe, Hope Martin, Min-Jung Park, Makayla J Brunt, Ram K Menon, Xin Tong, Lei Yin, Colin L Stewart, M Bishr Omary
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Lamins are nuclear intermediate filament proteins that comprise the major components of the nuclear lamina. Mutations in LMNA, which encodes lamins A/C, cause laminopathies, including lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, and premature aging syndromes. However, the role of lamins in the liver is unknown, and it is unclear whether laminopathy-associated liver disease is caused by primary hepatocyte defects or systemic alterations. METHODS: To address these questions, we generated mice carrying a hepatocyte-specific deletion of Lmna (knockout [KO] mice) and characterized the KO liver and primary hepatocyte phenotypes by immunoblotting, immunohistochemistry, microarray analysis, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, and Oil Red O and Picrosirius red staining...
November 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912680/fyn-signaling-is-compartmentalized-to-dopamine-d1-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-dorsal-medial-striatum
#13
Khanhky Phamluong, Emmanuel Darcq, Su Wu, Samuel A Sakhai, Dorit Ron
The tyrosine kinase Fyn plays an important role in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. Here we report that Fyn is activated in response to 15 min D1 receptor (D1R) but not D2 receptor (D2R) stimulation specifically in the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) of mice but not in the other substriatal regions, the dorsolateral striatum (DLS), and the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Once activated Fyn phosphorylates its substrate GluN2B, and we show that GluN2B is phosphorylated only in the DMS but not in the other striatal regions...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912581/secretory-phospholipase-a2-iia-overexpressing-mice-exhibit-cyclic-alopecia-mediated-through-aberrant-hair-shaft-differentiation-and-impaired-wound-healing-response
#14
Gopal L Chovatiya, Rahul M Sarate, Raghava R Sunkara, Nilesh P Gawas, Vineet Kala, Sanjeev K Waghmare
Secretory phospholipase A2 Group-IIA (sPLA2-IIA) is involved in lipid catabolism and growth promoting activity. sPLA2-IIA is deregulated in many pathological conditions including various cancers. Here, we have studied the role of sPLA2-IIA in the development of cyclic alopecia and wound healing response in relation to complete loss of hair follicle stem cells (HFSCs). Our data showed that overexpression of sPLA2-IIA in homozygous mice results in hyperproliferation and terminal epidermal differentiation followed by hair follicle cycle being halted at anagen like stage...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910747/transcriptome-analysis-of-rana-chensinensis-liver-under-trichlorfon-stress
#15
Yu Ma, Bo Li, Yang Ke, Yongan Zhang, Yuhui Zhang
Trichlorfon is a selective organophosphate insecticide that is widely applied in aquaculture and agriculture for control of various parasites. However, repeated and excess applications of trichlorfon often lead to water pollution and threaten non-targeted species. Our previous studies showed that trichlorfon could cause oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and hepatic lesions in the liver of Rana chensinensis, but the related molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To explore the interference of trichlorfon in gene transcription, the differentially expressed genes in the liver of R...
September 11, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910421/correction-adiponectin-signaling-regulates-lipid-production-in-human-sebocytes
#16
Yu Ra Jung, Jin-Hyup Lee, Kyung-Cheol Sohn, Young Lee, Young-Joon Seo, Christos C Zouboulis, Chang-Deok Kim, Jeung-Hoon Lee, Seung-Phil Hong, Seong-Jun Seo, Seong-Jin Kim, Myung Im
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0169824.].
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910323/comparative-proteomic-analyses-reveal-the-proteome-response-to-short-term-drought-in-italian-ryegrass-lolium-multiflorum
#17
Ling Pan, Zhongfu Yang, Jianping Wang, Pengxi Wang, Xiao Ma, Meiliang Zhou, Ji Li, Nie Gang, Guangyan Feng, Junming Zhao, Xinquan Zhang
Drought is a major abiotic stress that impairs growth and productivity of Italian ryegrass. Comparative analysis of drought responsive proteins will provide insight into molecular mechanism in Lolium multiflorum drought tolerance. Using the iTRAQ-based approach, proteomic changes in tolerant and susceptible lines were examined in response to drought condition. A total of 950 differentially accumulated proteins was found to be involved in carbohydrate metabolism, amino acid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and signal transduction pathway, such as β-D-xylosidase, β-D-glucan glucohydrolase, glycerate dehydrogenase, Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase, glutamine synthetase 1a, Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, diacylglycerol, and inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate, which might contributed to enhance drought tolerance or adaption in Lolium multiflorum...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910305/aspirin-increases-metabolism-through-germline-signalling-to-extend-the-lifespan-of-caenorhabditis-elegans
#18
Xiao-Bing Huang, Xiao-Hui Mu, Qin-Li Wan, Xiao-Ming He, Gui-Sheng Wu, Huai-Rong Luo
Aspirin is a prototypic cyclooxygenase inhibitor with a variety of beneficial effects on human health. It prevents age-related diseases and delays the aging process. Previous research has shown that aspirin might act through a dietary restriction-like mechanism to extend lifespan. To explore the mechanism of action of aspirin on aging, we determined the whole-genome expression profile of Caenorhabditis elegans treated with aspirin. Transcriptome analysis revealed the RNA levels of genes involved in metabolism were primarily increased...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910295/identification-of-a-mouse-lactobacillus-johnsonii-strain-with-deconjugase-activity-against-the-fxr-antagonist-t-%C3%AE-mca
#19
Michael DiMarzio, Brigida Rusconi, Neela H Yennawar, Mark Eppinger, Andrew D Patterson, Edward G Dudley
Bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity against the bile acid tauro-beta-muricholic acid (T-β-MCA) was recently reported to mediate host bile acid, glucose, and lipid homeostasis via the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling pathway. An earlier study correlated decreased Lactobacillus abundance in the cecum with increased concentrations of intestinal T-β-MCA, an FXR antagonist. While several studies have characterized BSHs in lactobacilli, deconjugation of T-β-MCA remains poorly characterized among members of this genus, and therefore it was unclear what strain(s) were responsible for this activity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906444/short-term-intake-of-a-fructose-fat-and-cholesterol-rich-diet-causes-hepatic-steatosis-in-mice-effect-of-antibiotic-treatment
#20
Annette Brandt, Cheng Jun Jin, Katja Nolte, Cathrin Sellmann, Anna Janina Engstler, Ina Bergheim
Intestinal microbiota and barrier functions seem to play an important role in the development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, whether these changes are an early event in the development of NAFLD or are primarily associated with later stages of the disease, has not yet been clarified. Using a pair-feeding model, we determined the effects of a short-term intake of a fat-, fructose- and cholesterol-rich diet (FFC) on the development of early hepatic steatosis and markers of intestinal barrier function in mice treated with and without non-resorbable antibiotics (AB)...
September 14, 2017: Nutrients
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