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Early onset meningitis in sepsis

Adam W Bartlett, Ben Smith, C R Robert George, Brendan McMullan, Alison Kesson, Monica M Lahra, Dip Paed, Pamela Palasanthiran
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a recognized cause of sepsis and meningitis, particularly in infants. Early onset (<7 days) GBS disease has been well characterized, whereas the epidemiology of late onset disease (LOD, 7-89 days) and very late onset disease (VLOD, ≥90 days) is less well understood. The aims of this study were to assess risk factors, presentation, management, and outcome for GBS LOD and VLOD. METHODS: Microbiology laboratory databases and hospital diagnostic coding for Sydney Children's Hospital and the Children's Hospital at Westmead were investigated for patients ≥ 7 days of age diagnosed with GBS bloodstream infection or meningitis from 1st January 2000 to 31st December 2014 (15 years)...
October 3, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Vanessa Poliquin, Elissa Cohen, Philippe Guillaume Poliquin, Carol Schneider, Savas Menticoglou
OBJECTIVE: We reviewed cases of group B Streptococcus (GBS) sepsis in term infants at our institution to identify areas for potential prevention. METHODS: We identified cases by searching our institution's microbiology databases for all positive GBS blood and cerebrospinal fluid cultures taken from infants between 2008 and 2013. Patients were included if the timing of the positive culture met the criteria for early-onset GBS disease (age 7 days or under). Charts that met inclusion criteria were abstracted for details related to antepartum screening, intrapartum care, and postpartum outcome...
October 2016: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Sormeh Salehian, Abhinav Rastogi, Olivier Ghez, Margarita Burmester
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is recognised as one of the leading organisms in early-onset neonatal sepsis but is also a cause of late-onset GBS septicaemia, meningitis and rarely, infective endocarditis (IE). We report a case of a healthy term neonate who developed GBS septicaemia and meningitis having presented with parental concern and poor feeding. Subsequent identification and treatment of GBS resulted in the requirement for long-line intravascular access in order to administer antibiotic therapy. One week later, after repeated parental concern and symptoms of shortness of breath, the neonate presented to Accident and Emergency and subsequently a Paediatric Cardiorespiratory Intensive Care Unit where emergency resuscitation procedures were required and diagnosis of severe IE affecting the mitral valve was made...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Monica Fabbrini, Fabio Rigat, C Daniela Rinaudo, Irene Passalaqua, Sceida Khacheh, Roberta Creti, Lucilla Baldassarri, Filippo Carboni, Giulia Anderloni, Roberto Rosini, Domenico Maione, Guido Grandi, John L Telford, Immaculada Margarit
BACKGROUND: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a major cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. A vaccine targeting pregnant women could protect infants through placentally transferred antibodies. The association between GBS maternal antibody concentrations and the risk of neonatal infection has been investigated in US and African populations. Here we studied naturally acquired immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses to GBS capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and pilus proteins in European pregnant women...
September 15, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Sara Rego, Timothy J Heal, Grace R Pidwill, Marisa Till, Alice Robson, Richard J Lamont, Richard B Sessions, Howard F Jenkinson, Paul R Race, Angela H Nobbs
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the predominant cause of early-onset infectious disease in neonates and is responsible for life-threatening infections in elderly and immunocompromised individuals. Clinical manifestations of GBS infection include sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Here, we describe BspA, a deviant antigen I/II family polypeptide that confers adhesive properties linked to pathogenesis in GBS. Heterologous expression of BspA on the surface of the non-adherent bacterium Lactococcus lactis confers adherence to scavenger receptor gp340, human vaginal epithelium, and to the fungus Candida albicans Complementary crystallographic and biophysical characterization of BspA reveal a novel β-sandwich adhesion domain and unique asparagine-dependent super-helical stalk...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Paul T Heath
Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus (GBS)) is the leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis in many countries. Intrapartum antibiotic strategies have reduced the incidence of early-onset neonatal GBS in a number of countries but have had no impact on late onset GBS infection (LOD). In low/middle income settings, the disease burden remains uncertain although in several countries of Southern Africa appears comparable to or higher than that of high-income countries. As disease may be rapidly fulminating cases can be missed before appropriate samples are obtained and this may lead to underestimation of the true burden...
June 3, 2016: Vaccine
Ma Esterlita Villanueva-Uy, Pimol Wongsiridej, Varaporn Sangtawesin, Vivina Chiu, Veronica Tallo, Nancy Nazaire-Bermal, Hans Bock, Marianne Cunnington, Cassandra Nan, Irving Boudville
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of meningitis and sepsis in infancy, but burden of disease data are scarce for Asia. We performed two hospital-based, prospective, descriptive, observational studies using similar protocols in the Philippines and Thailand to evaluate neonatal GBS disease epidemiology. Infants aged <90 days with a GBS-positive culture from normally sterile sites using routine microbiological standards were eligible for inclusion. Awareness of GBS symptoms was raised by informing all women at delivery and follow-up for 90 days post-delivery...
July 2015: Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health
Fu-Kuei Huang, Hsiu-Lin Chen, Peng-Hong Yang, Hung-Chih Lin
Though the incidence of neonatal infection in term and near-term infants is relatively low, incidence of infection in preterm very low birth weight infants is as high as 20-30% and may result in neurodevelopmental impairment or mortality. Pediatricians should be familiar with recognition and emergency management of life-threatening neonatal infections, such as congenital pneumonia, early onset sepsis, late onset sepsis, bacterial and fungal meningitis, disseminated neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV), and HSV meningoencephalitis...
June 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Alicia Alvarez, Yi Jia, Cesar J Garcia, Eduardo D Rosas-Blum, Darius Boman, Marc J Zuckerman
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus bovis bacteremia has been associated with gastrointestinal diseases, especially colon cancer, neoplastic colon polyps, and other malignancies of the GI tract in adults. Sporadic cases of S. bovis disease have also been reported in neonates and young infants. Although uncommon, S. bovis infection can cause fulminant neonatal sepsis and meningitis. OBJECTIVES: We report a series of pediatric patients with S. bovis bacteremia in a county hospital in a United States-Mexico border city in order to examine the demographic and clinical associations...
2015: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Scott J Weissman, Nellie I Hansen, Kristen Zaterka-Baxter, Rosemary D Higgins, Barbara J Stoll
BACKGROUND: Escherichia coli associated with early-onset sepsis (EOS) have historically been antibiotic-susceptible and K1-encapsulated. In the era of emerging antibiotic resistance, however, the clonal makeup of E coli associated with EOS has not been well characterized. METHODS: Escherichia coli isolates were collected from 28 cases of EOS and early-onset meningitis (EOM) from April 2008 through December 2009, during a parent study conducted at National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers from February 2006 through December 2009...
September 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Annalisa Nuccitelli, C Daniela Rinaudo, Domenico Maione
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is cause of neonatal invasive diseases as well as of severe infections in the elderly and immune-compromised patients. Despite significant advances in the prevention and treatment of neonatal disease, sepsis and meningitis caused by GBS still represent a significant public health care concern globally and additional prevention and therapeutic strategies against infection are highly desirable. The introduction of national recommended guidelines in several countries to screen pregnant women for GBS carriage and the use of antibiotics during delivery significantly reduced disease occurring within the first hours of life (early-onset disease), but it has had no effect on the late-onset diseases occurring after the first week and is not feasible in most countries...
May 2015: Therapeutic Advances in Vaccines
S Basu, P Agarwal, S Anupurba, R Shukla, A Kumar
OBJECTIVE: Prematurity and sepsis are the major contributors of neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental sequelae. The present study was conducted to measure the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentration of interleukin (IL)-1β and tumor necrotic factor (TNF)-α in preterm neonates with early-onset clinical sepsis (EOCS), and to find out their association with combined outcome of death or abnormal neuroimaging. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-two preterm (⩽34 weeks) neonates with EOCS and 32 gestational age-matched, healthy neonates served as cases and controls, respectively...
October 2015: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Brian A Darlow, Lesley Voss, Diana R Lennon, Keith Grimwood
BACKGROUND: Neonatal infection with group B streptococcus (GBS) is an important cause of infant mortality. Intrapartum antibiotics reduce early-onset GBS sepsis, but recommendations vary as to whether they should be offered following antenatal screening or based on risk factors alone. We aimed to determine the incidence of early-onset GBS sepsis in New Zealand five years after the publication of national risk-based GBS prevention guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective surveillance of early-onset GBS sepsis (defined as infection in the first 48 h of life) was undertaken between April 2009 and March 2011 through the auspices of the New Zealand Paediatric Surveillance Unit as part of a survey of infection presenting in the first week of life...
February 2016: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
Joachim Luthander, Rutger Bennet, Christian G Giske, Anna Nilsson, Margareta Eriksson
AIM: This study explored the incidence and aetiology of bloodstream infections after patients received the pneumococcal conjugate vaccination and a risk-based intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis against early onset sepsis caused by group B streptococcus. We also monitored clinically relevant antimicrobial resistance. METHOD: We studied 3986 positive blood cultures from children up to 17 years of age at a paediatric hospital in Stockholm, Sweden, using data from medical records before and after the initiatives, to reduce early onset sepsis, were introduced in 2007 and 2008...
September 2015: Acta Paediatrica
A-L Tarbé de Saint Hardouin, P Mariani, V Esteve, J-C Msélati, M Lorrot, A Blachier, Y Aujard, S Bonacorsi, A Faye
BACKGROUND: Very few studies describe group B streptococcal dermo-hypodermitis in newborns. OBJECTIVES: To describe the incidence, clinical characteristics, and course of group B streptococcal dermo-hypodermitis in infants less than 3 months old. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Infants under 3 months of age, hospitalized for group B streptococcal dermo-hypodermitis at Robert Debré University Hospital, Paris, France, and at Orsay Hospital, Orsay, France, between January 2002 and August 2013, were included in a retrospective study...
July 2015: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
G Tevdorashvili, D Tevdorashvili, M Andghuladze, M Tevdorashvili
Group B streptococcus (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) are encapsulated gram-positive cocci belonging to Lancefield group B, that frequently colonizes the human genital and gastrointestinal tracts. It is an important cause of illness in three categories of population: infants, pregnant women, and adults with underlying medical conditions. In pregnant women and postpartum women, GBS is a frequent cause of asymptomatic bacteriuria, urinary tract infection, upper genital tract infection (i.e. intraamniotic infection or chorioamnionitis), postpartum endometritis (8%), pneumonia (2%), puerperal sepsis (2%), and bacteremia without a focal site (31%)...
April 2015: Georgian Medical News
Ziyaad Dangor, Sanjay G Lala, Clare L Cutland, Anthonet Koen, Lisa Jose, Firdose Nakwa, Tanusha Ramdin, Joy Fredericks, Jeannette Wadula, Shabir A Madhi
INTRODUCTION: Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We aimed to evaluate the burden of invasive early-onset (0-6 days of life, EOD) and late-onset (7-89 days, LOD) GBS disease and subsequent neurological sequelae in infants from a setting with a high prevalence (29.5%) of HIV among pregnant women. METHODS: A case-control study was undertaken at three secondary-tertiary care public hospitals in Johannesburg. Invasive cases in infants <3 months age were identified by surveillance of laboratories from November 2012 to February 2014...
2015: PloS One
Carmen De Luca, Natalina Buono, Vincenzo Santillo, Angelo Licameli, Gianluca Straface, Giovanni Scambia, Marco De Santis
INTRODUCTION: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus [GBS]) is the most common cause of sepsis and meningitis in infants <3 months of age. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) is effective in preventing the transmission of GBS to newborns. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines suggest vaginal and rectal cultures to assess GBS colonization between 35 and 37 weeks' gestation. METHODS: Between July and December 2013, we identified 535 women admitted to the Obstetric and Gynecology Unit of Cardarelli Hospital (Campobasso, Italy) for delivery...
March 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Kelly Porta, Denise Rizzolo
Despite advances in intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP), group B streptococcal infection continues to be a predominant cause of early-onset disease in neonates. About 2% of neonates exposed to group B Streptococcus develop clinical manifestations including sepsis, pneumonia, and meningitis. Screening in late pregnancy reduces the incidence of early-onset sepsis by more than 80%. Clinicians must be able to identify the risk factors and clinical manifestations of group B streptococcal infection and to understand management and prevention guidelines...
March 2015: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Arne Ohlsson, Vibhuti S Shah, Brenda C Stade
BACKGROUND: Although early-onset group B β-hemolytic streptococcus (GBS) infection is rare, it accounts for approximately 30% of neonatal infections, has a high mortality rate, and is acquired through vertical transmission from colonized mothers. Several trials have demonstrated the efficacy of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for preventing early-onset disease (EOD). Vaginal disinfection with chlorhexidine during labour has been proposed as another strategy for preventing GBS EOD in the preterm and term neonate...
2014: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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