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Monkey kidney

Sathiyaseelan Anbazhagan, Kalaichelvan Puthupalayam Thangavelu
Chitosan composite material has been used as an efficient drug carrier for potential drug delivery systems in specific cases of wound dressing management. In the present study, 0.5 g/L of the antibiotic tetracycline hydrochloride (TCH) was loaded into 1% fungal chitosan (FCS) incorporated with 0.2% of Aloe vera extract (AVE). Two types of sponges were prepared, with and without AVE, such as FCS-AVE-TCH and FCS-TCH, respectively. They were characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometer, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
November 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
Refilwe G Kudumela, Lyndy J McGaw, Peter Masoko
BACKGROUND: The constant emergence of antibiotic resistant species and the adverse side effects of synthetic drugs are threatening the efficacy of the drugs that are currently in use. This study was aimed at investigating the possible antibacterial interactions, anti-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of selected medicinal plants based on their traditional usage. METHODS: The acetone extracts of four plant species were assessed independently and in combination for antibacterial activity using microdilution assay and the sum of the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) was calculated...
July 3, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Min-Jeong Kim, Stal S Shrestha, Michelle Cortes, Prachi Singh, Cheryl Morse, Jeih-San Liow, Robert L Gladding, Chad Brouwer, Katharine Henry, Evan Gallagher, George L Tye, Sami S Zoghbi, Masahiro Fujita, Victor W Pike, Robert B Innis
This study assessed whether the newly developed PET radioligands 11 C-PS13 and 11 C-MC1 could image constitutive levels of cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) and COX-2, respectively, in rhesus monkeys. Methods: After intravenous injection of either radioligand, 24 whole-body PET scans were performed. To measure enzyme-specific uptake, scans of the two radioligands were also performed after administration of a non-radioactive drug preferential for either COX-1 or COX-2. Concurrent venous samples were obtained to measure parent radioligand concentrations...
June 29, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Tao Wang, Yonghui Yu, Xiaofei Liang, Shengdong Luo, Zemin He, Zhihui Sun, Yongqiang Jiang, Anders Omsland, Pei Zhou, Lihua Song
Lipid A is an essential basal component of lipopolysaccharide of most Gram-negative bacteria. Inhibitors targeting LpxC, a conserved enzyme in lipid A biosynthesis, are antibiotic candidates against Gram-negative pathogens. Here we report the characterization of the role of lipid A in Coxiella burnetii growth in axenic media, monkey kidney cells (BGMK and Vero), and macrophage-like THP-1 cells by using a potent LpxC inhibitor -LPC-011. We first determined the susceptibility of C. burnetii LpxC to LPC-011 in a surrogate E...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kamilla Rodrigues Rogerio, Leonardo J M Carvalho, Luiza Helena Pinto Domingues, Bruno Junior Neves, José Teófilo Moreira Filho, Rosane Nora Castro, Cesare Bianco Júnior, Claudio Tadeu Daniel-Ribeiro, Carolina Horta Andrade, Cedric Stephan Graebin
BACKGROUND Malaria is responsible for 429,000 deaths per year worldwide, and more than 200 million cases were reported in 2015. Increasing parasite resistance has imposed restrictions to the currently available antimalarial drugs. Thus, the search for new, effective and safe antimalarial drugs is crucial. Heterocyclic compounds, such as dihydropyrimidinones (DHPM), synthesised via the Biginelli multicomponent reaction, as well as bicyclic compounds synthesised from DHPMs, have emerged as potential antimalarial candidates in the last few years...
2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Adela Ngwewondo, Meng Wang, Faustin Pascal T Manfo, Moses Samje, Jessie N'kam Ganin's, Emmanuel Ndi, Raymond J Andersen, Fidelis Cho-Ngwa
BACKGROUND: Ivermectin is the only drug currently recommended for the treatment of onchocerciasis, the second leading infectious cause of blindness in the world. This drug kills only the first stage larvae-microfilariae (mf) of Onchocerca volvulus and is to be used cautiously in areas where Loa loa is prevalent because of severe adverse events observed with coinfected patients. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This study investigated the anti-filarial activities of two Cameroonian medicinal plants, Lantana camara and Tamarindus indica locally used to treat onchocerciasis...
June 13, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Madikizela, L J McGaw
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem for humans worldwide, and was responsible for 1.4 million human deaths in 2015 alone. Although there is treatment for TB, emerging multi-drug, extensively drug and totally drug resistant forms of this disease, as well as co-infection with human immunodefiency virus (HIV) continue to worsen the situation. South Africa is among countries with reported traditional use and published documentation of such knowledge concerning the use of plants against TB...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Yi-Zhong Gu, Katerina Vlasakova, Sean P Troth, Robert L Peiffer, Herve Tournade, Flavia R Pasello Dos Santos, Warren E Glaab, Frank D Sistare
Newer urinary protein kidney safety biomarkers can outperform the conventional kidney functional biomarkers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in rats. However, there is far less experience with the relative performance of these biomarkers in dogs and nonhuman primates. Here, we report urine protein biomarker performance in tenofovir-treated cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs. Tenofovir intravenous daily dosing in monkeys for 2 or 4 weeks at 30 mg/kg/day resulted in minimal to moderate tubular degeneration and regeneration, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate oral dosing in dogs for 10 days at 45 mg/kg/day resulted in mild to marked tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Amit Chanda, Jaideep Adhikari, Aritri Ghosh, Sougata Roy Chowdhury, Sabu Thomas, Pallab Datta, Prosenjit Saha
Fabrication of mechanically stable, biocompatible bilayered polymeric scaffold consisting of chitosan(CS)/polycaprolactone(PCL) and hyaluronic acid(HA) using less toxic solvent system is presented in this study. Electrospinning technique to make the scaffold was used followed by morphological, physiochemical and mechanical characterizations. Average fiber diameter of CS/PCL-HA bilayered scaffold was found 362.2 ± 236 nm which is in the range of collagen fiber found in the extracellular matrices. Enhanced swelling, degradation, hydrophilicity and water vapour transmission rate were found for the bilayered scaffold compared to that of the PCL and CS-PCL scaffolds...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Denis Zofou, Fanny Fri Fombad, Narcisse V T Gandjui, Abdel Jelil Njouendou, Arnaud Jonas Kengne-Ouafo, Patrick W Chounna Ndongmo, Fabrice R Datchoua-Poutcheu, Peter A Enyong, Dizzle Tayong Bita, Mark J Taylor, Joseph D Turner, Samuel Wanji
BACKGROUND: Suitable and scalable in vitro culture conditions for parasite maintenance are needed to foster drug research for loiasis, one of the neglected tropical diseases which has attracted only limited attention over recent years, despite having important public health impacts. The present work aims to develop adequate in vitro culture systems for drug screening against both microfilariae (mf) and infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Loa loa. METHODS: In vitro culture conditions were evaluated by varying three basic culture media: Roswell Park Memorial Institute (RPMI-1640), Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) and Iscove's modified Dulbecco's medium (IMDM); four sera/proteins: newborn calf serum (NCS), foetal bovine serum (FBS), bovine serum albumin (BSA) and the lipid-enriched BSA (AlbuMax® II, ALB); and co-culture with the Monkey Kidney Epithelial Cell line (LLC-MK2) as a feeder layer...
May 2, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Miao He, Hainan Zhang, Yuju Li, Guangshun Wang, Beisha Tang, Jeffrey Zhao, Yunlong Huang, Jialin Zheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a neurotrophic flavivirus that is able to infect pregnant women and cause fetal brain abnormalities. Although there is a significant effort in identifying anti-ZIKV strategies, currently no vaccines or specific therapies are available to treat ZIKV infection. Antimicrobial peptides, which are potent host defense molecules in nearly all forms of life, have been found to be effective against several types of viruses such as HIV-1 and influenza A. However, they have not been tested in ZIKV infection...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Julie A Hicks, Dongwan Yoo, Hsiao-Ching Liu
BACKGROUND: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is characterized by abortions in pregnant sows and respiratory disease, particularly in young pigs. The causative agent is porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), a member of the arterivirus family. GP5 and M are the major envelope proteins encoded by PRRSV. To further characterize these two viral proteins, a yeast two-hybrid approach was utilized to identify interacting partners of PRRSV GP5 and M proteins...
April 2, 2018: Virus Research
Marjorie A Peraza, Karen E Rule, Michael H I Shiue, Gregory L Finch, Stéphane Thibault, Paul R Brown, David W Clarke, Michael W Leach
Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), is approved for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer, nonsquamous non-small-cell lung cancer, metastatic kidney cancer, and glioblastoma. To support clinical development of the potential bevacizumab biosimilar PF-06439535, nonclinical studies evaluated structural, functional, toxicological, and toxicokinetic similarity to bevacizumab sourced from the European Union (bevacizumab-EU) and United States (bevacizumab-US)...
June 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Cynthia Chapel, Nathalie Rocher-Hélion, Nathalie Mantel, Sandy Imbert, Eric Deshaies, Véronique Barban, Alain Sabouraud, Jean-Philippe Barbe, Laurent Mallet
Absence of 'live' residual poliovirus in Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV) is routinely checked using Primary Monkey Kidney Cells (PMKC). However, the increasing demand for IPV and the ethical, technical and safety issues associated with the use of non-human primates in research and quality control, has made the replacement of primary cells with an established cell line a priority, in line with the principles of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement in animal testing). As an alternative to PMKC, we evaluated the L20B cell line; a mouse cell-line genetically engineered to express human poliovirus receptor, CD155...
June 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
Andreas Kling, Katja Jantos, Helmut Mack, Wilfried Hornberger, Gisela Backfisch, Yanbin Lao, Marjoleen Nijsen, Beatrice Rendenbach-Mueller, Achim Moeller
Dysregulation of calpains 1 and 2 has been implicated in a variety of pathological disorders including ischemia/reperfusion injuries, kidney diseases, cataract formation, and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). 2-(3-Phenyl-1 H )-pyrazol-1-yl)nicotinamides represent a series of novel and potent calpain inhibitors with high selectivity and in vivo efficacy. However, carbonyl reduction leading to the formation of the inactive hydroxyamide was identified as major metabolic liability in monkey and human, a pathway not reflected by routine absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) assays...
March 8, 2018: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Yixiao Shen, Haiyan Sun, Haiying Zeng, Witoon Prinyawiwatukul, Wenqing Xu, Zhimin Xu
Phenolic, fatty acid, and phytosterol contents in sweet potato (SP) fermented by Lactobacillus acidophilus were evaluated and compared with those of raw and boiled SPs. The differences in the profiles and levels of phenolics between the raw and boiled SPs were not as significant as the differences between those and the fermented SP. The levels of caffeic acid and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid in fermented SP were more than 4 times higher than those in raw and boiled SPs. Two phenolics, p-coumaric acid and ferulic acid, which were not detected in either raw or boiled SP, were found in fermented SP...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Takuma Iguchi, Ken Sakurai, Satoshi Tamai, Kazuhiko Mori
Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) can potentially be used as sensitive and specific biomarkers for tissue injury. However, the usefulness of circulating miRNAs as safety biomarkers in nonclinical toxicological studies using nonhuman primates is debatable owing to the limited information on organ-specific miRNAs. Therefore, a systematic investigation was performed to address this point. We identified organ-specific miRNAs from cynomolgus monkeys by next-generation sequencing analysis, which revealed that miR-122 was only abundant in the liver, whereas miR-192 was abundant in the liver, stomach, intestines, and kidney...
January 2018: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
Zuhal Dincer, Virginie Piccicuto, Ursula Junker Walker, Andreas Mahl, Sean McKeag
Arteritis/polyarteritis occurs spontaneously in many species used in preclinical toxicology studies. In Göttingen minipigs, arteritis/polyarteritis is an occasionally observed background change. In the minipig, this finding differs in frequency and nature from age-related polyarteritis nodosa in rats or monkeys, and Beagle pain syndrome in dogs. In minipigs, it can be present in a single small- or medium-sized artery of an organ or a few organs and is most commonly recorded in the cardiac and extracardiac blood vessels, vagina, oviduct, rectum, epididymis, spinal cord, pancreas, urinary bladder, kidneys, and stomach...
February 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
Martijn van Griensven, Daniel Ricklin, Stephanie Denk, Rebecca Halbgebauer, Christian K Braun, Anke Schultze, Felix Hönes, Sofia Koutsogiannaki, Alexandra Primikyri, Edimara Reis, David Messerer, Sebastian Hafner, Peter Radermacher, Ali-Reza Biglarnia, Ranillo R G Resuello, Joel V Tuplano, Benjamin Mayer, Kristina Nilsson, Bo Nilsson, John D Lambris, Markus Huber-Lang
Trauma-induced hemorrhagic shock (HS) plays a decisive role in the development of immune, coagulation, and organ dysfunction often resulting in a poor clinical outcome. Imbalanced complement activation is intricately associated with the molecular danger response and organ damage after HS. Thus, inhibition of the central complement component C3 as turnstile of both inflammation and coagulation is hypothesized as a rational strategy to improve the clinical course after HS.Applying intensive care conditions, anaesthetized, monitored, and protectively ventilated non-human primates (NHP; cynomolgus monkeys) received a pressure-controlled severe HS (60 min at MAP 30 mmHg) with subsequent volume resuscitation...
February 14, 2018: Shock
Kuo-Ming Yu, Johnson Yiu-Nam Lau, Manson Fok, Yuk-Keung Yeung, Siu-Ping Fok, Suxing Zhang, Peizhen Ye, Kezhi Zhang, Xiaobo Li, Juan Li, Qin Xu, Wing-Tak Wong, Qui-Lim Choo
The mono-PEGylated recombinant human interleukin-11 (rhIL-11) was evaluated for its pharmacology and toxicology profile in non-human primates. This PEGylated IL-11 (PEG-IL11) showed a much prolonged circulating half-life of 67h in cynomolgus monkeys as compared to its un-PEGylated counterpart (~3h) through subcutaneous administration, implicating that a single injection of the recommended dose will effectively enhance thrombopoiesis in humans for a much longer period of time compared to rhIL-11 in humans (t1/2 =6...
March 1, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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