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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190821/outbreak-of-pasteurellosis-in-captive-bolivian-squirrel-monkeys-saimiri-boliviensis
#1
Mizuki Yoshino, Jun Sasaki, Konomi Kuramochi, Mitsutaka Ikezawa, Natsuko Mukaizawa, Masanobu Goryo
In September 2012, five Bolivian squirrel monkeys housed in a zoological park died within sequential several days without obvious clinical signs. In a necrospy, one monkey presented swelling of the kidney with multifocal white nodules in the parenchyma, and other two had pulmonary congestion. Histopathologically, multifocal bacterial colonies of gram-negative coccobacillus were found in the sinusoid of the liver in all monkeys examined (Nos.1-4). Additionally, purulent pyelonephritis, pneumonia and disseminated small bacterial colonies in blood vessels were observed...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168856/biophysical-characterization-and-structural-determination-of-the-potent-cytotoxic-psathyrella-asperospora-lectin
#2
João P Ribeiro, Mohamed Ali Abol Hassan, Razina Rouf, Evelin Tiralongo, Tom W May, Christopher J Day, Anne Imberty, Joe Tiralongo, Annabelle Varrot
A lectin with strong cytotoxic effect on human colon cancer HT29 and monkey kidney VERO cells was recently identified from the Australian indigenous mushroom Psathyrella asperospora and named PAL. We herein present its biochemical and structural analysis using a multidisciplinary approach. Glycan arrays revealed binding preference towards N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and, to a lesser extent, towards sialic acid (Neu5Ac). Submicromolar and millimolar affinity was measured by surface plasmon resonance for GlcNAc and NeuAc, respectively...
February 7, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150811/size-dependent-cellular-uptake-mechanism-and-cytotoxicity-toward-calcium-oxalate-on-vero-cells
#3
Xin-Yuan Sun, Qiong-Zhi Gan, Jian-Ming Ouyang
Urinary crystals with various sizes are present in healthy individuals and patients with kidney stone; however, the cellular uptake mechanism of calcium oxalate of various sizes has not been elucidated. This study aims to compare the internalization of nano-/micron-sized (50 nm, 100 nm, and 1 μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The internalization and adhesion of COM and COD crystals to Vero cells were enhanced with decreasing crystal size...
February 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137817/pharmacokinetics-of-the-novel-echinocandin-cd101-in-multiple-animal-species
#4
Voon Ong, Kenneth D James, Steven Smith, B Radha Krishnan
CD101 is a novel semi-synthetic echinocandin with antifungal activity against Candida and Aspergillus spp. The PK of CD101 administered intravenously to mice, rats, dogs, cynomolgus monkeys, and chimpanzees are presented. CD101 consistently exhibited very low clearance, modest volume of distribution, and long half-life across all species tested. In mouse, rat, dog, cynomolgus monkey, and chimpanzee, CD101 clearance [mL/min/kg] was 0.10, 0.47, 0.30, 0.41, and 0.06; Vss [mL/kg] was 206, 1390, not determined, 597, and 400; and t1/2 [h] was 25, 39, 53, 40, and 81, respectively...
January 30, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071653/prophylactic-orthosteric-inhibition-of-leukocyte-integrin-cd11b-cd18-prevents-long-term-fibrotic-kidney-failure-in-cynomolgus-monkeys
#5
Abbas Dehnadi, A Benedict Cosimi, Rex Neal Smith, Xiangen Li, José L Alonso, Terry K Means, M Amin Arnaout
Ischaemic acute kidney injury (AKI), an inflammatory disease process, often progresses to chronic kidney disease (CKD), with no available effective prophylaxis. This is in part due to lack of clinically relevant CKD models in non-human primates. Here we demonstrate that inhibition of the archetypal innate immune receptor CD11b/CD18 prevents progression of AKI to CKD in cynomolgus monkeys. Severe ischaemia-reperfusion injury of the right kidney, with subsequent periods of the left ureter ligation, causes irreversible right kidney failure 3, 6 or 9 months after AKI...
January 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068513/nrf2-dependent-induction-of-innate-host-defense-via-heme-oxygenase-1-inhibits-zika-virus-replication
#6
Hanxia Huang, Barry Falgout, Kazuyo Takeda, Kenneth M Yamada, Subhash Dhawan
We identified primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as vulnerable target cells for Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. We demonstrate dramatic effects of hemin, the natural inducer of the heme catabolic enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), in the reduction of ZIKV replication in vitro. Both LLC-MK2 monkey kidney cells and primary MDM exhibited hemin-induced HO-1 expression with major reductions of >90% in ZIKV replication, with little toxicity to infected cells. Silencing expression of HO-1 or its upstream regulatory gene, nuclear factor erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf2), attenuated hemin-induced suppression of ZIKV infection, suggesting an important role for induction of these intracellular mediators in retarding ZIKV replication...
January 6, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056568/in-vitro-metabolite-formation-in-human-hepatocytes-and-cardiomyocytes-and-metabolism-and-tissue-distribution-in-monkeys-of-the-2-c-methylguanosine-prodrug-bms-986094
#7
Wenying Li, Kevin J Trouba, Li Ma, Jae Kwagh, Christopher Storck, Yongxin Zhu, Oliver Flint, William G Humphreys, Jian Wang, Ang Liu, Bonnie Wang, Michael J Graziano, Marc H Davies, Thomas P Sanderson
BMS-986094, a 2'-C-methylguanosine prodrug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection, was withdrawn from phase 2 clinical trials because of unexpected cardiac and renal toxicities. To better understand these toxicities, the in vitro metabolism of BMS-986094 in human hepatocytes (HHs) and human cardiomyocytes (HCMs) and the measurement of BMS-986094 and selected metabolites in monkey plasma and tissues were assessed. BMS-986094 was extensively metabolized by HHs and HCMs, resulting in more efficient formation and accumulation of the active triphosphorylated metabolite, INX-09114, and less efficient efflux of metabolites in HCMs...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051359/electron-microscopy-of-alkhumra-hemorrhagic-fever-virus
#8
Tariq A Madani, El-Tayb M E Abuelzein, Sawsan M Jalalah, Huda Abu-Araki, Esam I Azhar, Ahmed M Hassan, Hussein M S Al-Bar
Alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (AHFV) is a newly described zoonotic flavivirus that was first isolated during 1994-1995 from the Alkhumra district south of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Subsequently, the virus was also isolated from Makkah city (2001-2003) and Najran (2008-2009), Saudi Arabia. The virus causes acute febrile illness with hepatitis, hemorrhagic manifestations, and encephalitis. A case fatality rate of 25% was reported among hospitalized patients. Although several biological and molecular characteristics of the virus have been published, no data are available on electron microscopic features of the virus...
January 4, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051352/antisense-oligonucleotides-targeting-raf-1-block-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Li Zhang, Qingjun Li, Xiaoran Ding, Bo Zhang, Qiling Zhang, Xinyan Qu, Yujia Huo, Jing Yang, Shengqi Wang
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infections represent a major health concern in Southeast Asia since no effective treatments are available. Recently, several reports have demonstrated that inhibition of certain host cell proteins prevents viral infection. Raf-1 kinase is a central component of many signaling pathways involved in normal cell growth and oncogenic transformation, and Ras/Raf/ERK signaling activation has been observed during viral infections (including JEV infection). In this study, Raf-1 was confirmed to be upregulated by JEV infection, which suggested that Raf-1 might be important for JEV infection and might be a target for novel anti-JEV drugs...
January 4, 2017: Nucleic Acid Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033565/isolation-molecular-characterization-and-in-vitro-schizogonic-development-of-sarcocystis-sp-ex-accipiter-cooperii-from-a-naturally-infected-cooper-s-hawk-accipiter-cooperii
#10
David S Lindsay, Shiv K Verma, David Scott, Jitender P Dubey, Alexa R von Dohlen
Raptors serve as the definitive host for several Sarcocystis species. The complete life cycles of only a few of these Sarcocystis species that use birds of prey as definitive hosts have been described. In the present study, Sarcocystis species sporocysts were obtained from the intestine of a Cooper's hawk (Accipiter cooperii) and were used to infect cell cultures of African green monkey kidney cells to isolate a continuous culture and describe asexual stages of the parasite. Two clones of the parasite were obtained by limiting dilution...
April 2017: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998279/mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infections-in-cynomolgus-monkey-transplant-recipients-and-institution-of-a-screening-program-for-the-prevention-and-control-of-tuberculosis
#11
Eun Wha Choi, Kyo Won Lee, Tae Min Kim, Hyojun Park, Mi Ri Jeon, Chan Woo Cho, Jae Berm Park, Sungjoo Kim
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis is a major health concern in not only humans, but also in non-human primates. In this paper, we report recent cases of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in cynomolgus monkeys from Cambodia used in transplantation research in a Korean facility and describe a program instituted to prevent and control subsequent infections. CASE PRESENTATION: All monkeys were antibody negative for tuberculosis during quarantine; however, suspected tuberculosis gross lesions were observed in two cynomolgus monkeys who underwent allograft kidney transplantation...
December 20, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968712/high-resolution-laser-ablation-inductively-coupled-plasma-mass-spectrometry-imaging-of-cisplatin-induced-nephrotoxic-side-effects
#12
Thibaut Van Acker, Stijn J M Van Malderen, Marjolein Van Heerden, James Eric McDuffie, Filip Cuyckens, Frank Vanhaecke
Two-dimensional elemental mapping (bioimaging) via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was performed on 5 μm thick formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney tissue sections from Cynomolgus monkeys administered with increasing pharmacological doses of cisplatin. Laterally resolved pixels of 1 μm were achieved, enabling elemental analysis on a (sub-)cellular level. Zones of high Pt response were observed in the renal cortex, where proximal tubules are present, the epithelium of which is responsible for partial reabsorption of cisplatin...
November 16, 2016: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936282/metabolomic-data-suggest-regulation-of-black-howler-monkey-alouatta-pigra-diet-composition-at-the-molecular-level
#13
Katherine R Amato, Alexander Ulanov, Kou-San Ju, Paul A Garber
In addition to macronutrients, foods consist of a complex set of chemical compounds that can influence dietary selectivity and consumer physiology. Metabolomics allow us to describe this complexity by quantifying all small molecules, or metabolites, in a food item. In this study we use GC-MS based metabolomics to describe the metabolite profiles of foods consumed by one population of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) over a 10-month period. Our data indicate that each food exhibited a distinct metabolite profile, and the average weekly intake of metabolites such as neochlorogenic acid and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) was correlated with the consumption of certain plant parts...
December 9, 2016: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928516/antioxidant-and-antiproliferative-activities-of-purslane-seed-oil
#14
Gai Guo, Li Yue, Shaoli Fan, Siqun Jing, Liang-Jun Yan
The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of PSO in vitro and its application in horse oil storage. We determined the reducing power of PSO and its scavenging effects on hydroxyl (•OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) and tested its stabilizing effects on horse oil storage. The results showed that PSO had remarkable, dose-dependent antioxidant activities, and it effectively prevented horse oil lipid oxidation. We treated cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophageal cancer Eca-109 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells with PSO using non-neoplastic monkey kidney Vero cells as controls...
June 2016: Journal of Hypertension: Open Access
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864544/investigative-nonclinical-cardiovascular-safety-and-toxicology-studies-with-bms-986094-an-ns5b-rna-dependent-rna-polymerase-inhibitor
#15
M Gill, K Horn, J Hennan, R White, D Bounous, S Clark, J R Megill, E Janovitz, M Davies, T Sanderson, M Graziano
BMS-986094, a 2'-C-methylguanosine prodrug that was in development for treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection was withdrawn from Phase 2 clinical trials because of unexpected cardiac and renal adverse events. Investigative nonclinical studies were conducted to extend the understanding of these findings using more comprehensive endpoints. BMS-986094 was given orally to female CD-1 mice (25 and 150 mg/kg/d) for 2 weeks (53/group) and to cynomolgus monkeys (15 and 30 mg/kg/d) for up to 6 weeks (2-3/sex/group for cardiovascular safety, and 5/sex/group for toxicology)...
November 17, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855358/phytosynthesized-gold-nanoparticles-from-c-roxburghii-dc-leaf-and-their-toxic-effects-on-normal-and-cancer-cell-lines
#16
Pannerselvam Balashanmugam, Prabhu Durai, Manickam Dakshinamoorthi Balakumaran, Pudupalayam Thangavelu Kalaichelvan
Gold nanoparticles are considered of great importance compared to other noble metal nanoparticles and its wide range of applications like pharmaceutics, therapeutics and diagnostics etc. During the past decade, phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are more focused in in vitro and in vivo study. The present study was focused on the gold chloride and phytosynthesized gold nanoparticles from aqueous leaf extract of Cassia roxburghii and their toxic effects on African green monkey normal kidney Vero cell line and three different cancer cell lines such as HepG2, MCF7 and HeLa...
December 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846155/effect-of-ex-vivo-expanded-recipient-regulatory-t-cells-on-hematopoietic-chimerism-and-kidney-allograft-tolerance-across-mhc-barriers-in-cynomolgus-macaques
#17
Raimon Duran-Struuck, Hugo P Sondermeijer, Leo Bühler, Paula Alonso-Guallart, Jonah Zitsman, Yojiro Kato, Anette Wu, Alicia N McMurchy, David Woodland, Adam Griesemer, Mercedes Martinez, Svetlan Boskovic, Tatsuo Kawai, A Benedict Cosimi, Cheng-Shie Wuu, Andrea Slate, Markus Y Mapara, Sam Baker, Rafal Tokarz, Vivette DʼAgati, Scott Hammer, Marcus Pereira, W Ian Lipkin, Thomas Wekerle, Megan K Levings, Megan Sykes
BACKGROUND: Infusion of recipient regulatory T (Treg) cells promotes durable mixed hematopoietic chimerism and allograft tolerance in mice receiving allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) with minimal conditioning. We applied this strategy in a Cynomolgus macaque model. METHODS: CD4 CD25 Treg cells that were polyclonally expanded in culture were highly suppressive in vitro and maintained high expression of FoxP3. Eight monkeys underwent nonmyeloablative conditioning and major histocompatibility complex mismatched BMT with or without Treg cell infusion...
February 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816641/development-and-evaluation-of-topotecan-loaded-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-a-study-in-cervical-cancer-cell-lines
#18
Zhao-Jie Chen, Zhen Zhang, Bei-Bei Xie, Hai-Yan Zhang
The study aims at statistical development of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) loaded with topotecan hydrochloride for avoiding the drawbacks of conventional drug therapies used in cervical cancer. Twenty SLN batches were prepared using organic solvent evaporation method to provide response surface curves. Thereafter, optimized SLNs were obtained using numeric method based on desirability functions providing maximum drug loading and appropriate particle size. Physical characterization of optimized TPH loaded SLNs was performed in terms of particle size, zeta potential, transmission and scanning electron microscopic evaluation...
December 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795414/identification-of-novel-kaposi-s-sarcoma-associated-herpesvirus-orf50-transcripts-discovery-of-new-rta-isoforms-with-variable-transactivation-potential
#19
Brian S Wakeman, Yoshihiro Izumiya, Samuel H Speck
: Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus that has been associated with primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman's disease, as well as its namesake Kaposi's sarcoma. As a gammaherpesvirus, KSHV is able to acutely replicate, enter latency, and reactivate from this latent state. A key protein involved in both acute replication and reactivation from latency is the replication and transcriptional activator (RTA) encoded by the gene Orf50 RTA is a known transactivator of multiple viral genes, allowing it to control the switch between latency and virus replication...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764180/biodistribution-of-idursulfase-formulated-for-intrathecal-use-idursulfase-it-in-cynomolgus-monkeys-after-intrathecal-lumbar-administration
#20
Jou-Ku Chung, Eilish Brown, Bob Crooker, Kathleen J Palmieri, Thomas G McCauley
Enzyme replacement therapy with intravenous idursulfase (recombinant iduronate-2-sulfatase) is approved for the treatment of Hunter syndrome. Intravenous administration does not, however, treat the neurological manifestations, due to its low central nervous system bioavailability. Using intrathecal-lumbar administration, iduronate-2-sulfatase is delivered directly to the central nervous system. This study investigates the central nervous system biodistribution of intrathecal-lumbar administered iduronate-2-sulfatase in cynomolgus monkeys...
2016: PloS One
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