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Dog kidney ultrasonography

Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Cyndi Mangano, Michela Pugliese, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Nicola M Iannelli, Vito Angileri, Simona Morabito, Massimo De Majo
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography allowed the accurate quantification of liver, splenic and kidney vascularization in healthy dogs and the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic, renal, and splenic nodules in dogs and cats based on perfusion patterns. The utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in other applications is still under study. The aim of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 8 client-owned adult dogs affected by urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma with definitive diagnosis made by cytopathologic evaluation after suction biopsy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Brittani Jones, Allyson C Berent, Chick W Weisse, Robert Hart, Leilani Alvarez, Anthony Fischetti, B David Horn, Douglas Canning
CASE DESCRIPTION A 14-week-old 7.7-kg (16.9-lb) sexually intact female Golden Retriever was evaluated because of urine dripping from the caudoventral aspect of the abdomen. CLINICAL FINDINGS Ultrasonography, radiography, excretory CT urography, and vaginocystourethroscopy were performed. Results indicated eversion of the bladder through the ventral abdominal wall with exposure of the ureterovesicular junctions, pubic diastasis, and an open vulva and clitoral fossa. Clinical findings were suggestive of bladder exstrophy, a rare congenital anomaly...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Nathália Bragato, Naida Cristina Borges, Maria Clorinda Soares Fioravanti
Ultrasound is the imaging test of choice for renal evaluation, because it provides information about the position, size, shape, internal architecture and hemodynamics of the kidneys without harming the patient. In chronic kidney disease, the main findings observed in B-mode ultrasound images are increased cortical echogenicity, loss of corticomedullary differentiation, reduced renal volume and irregular renal contour, and when these changes are associated, they are indicative of end-stage renal disease. However, the cause of kidney disease cannot be determined by ultrasonography, but must be confirmed by means of biopsy, although the presence of ultrasonographic changes indicative of the end-stage of the disease may contraindicate this procedure...
December 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
Dinesh Dehmiwal, S M Behl, Prem Singh, Rishi Tayal, Madan Pal, R K Chandolia
AIM: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the kidney in different disease conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 11 clinical cases of different age groups of dogs suffering from kidney diseases were diagnosed by 2D and 3D ultrasonography at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having four-dimensional (4D) volumetric probe...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Pollyana Irene Baltazar, Laecio Da Silva Moura, Gerson Tavares Pessoa, Renan Paraguassu De Sá Rodrigues, Marina Pinto Sanches, Anaemilia Das Neves Diniz, Francisco Das Chagas Araújo Sousa, Porfírio Candanedo Guerra, Willams Costa Neves, Robson Fortes Giglio, Jacyara De Jesus Rosa Pereira Alves, Francisco De Assis Leite Souza, Juliana Fortes Vilarinho Braga, Flávio Ribeiro Alves
Morphological parameters and renal flow were assessed and measured in six clinically healthy dogs with negative serological and parasitological examinations for canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) and six dogs with CVL-positive serological and parasitological tests and asymptomatic condition of the disease. Kidney length and diameter were measured and compared with the aorta/kidney ratio. Alterations in flow were measured using the flow velocity (cm/s) and resistance index (RI). Renal function was assessed by serum biochemical examination (urea, creatine, total proteins, albumin, and globulin) and urinalysis...
July 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
Seyed Masoud Zolhavarieh, Alireza Norian, Morteza Yavari
Dioctophyma renale infection is found in a wide range of mammalian species, typically in temperate areas of the world. Here, we report for the first time, the parasitism of a domestic dog by D. renale in Hamedan, Iran, a mountainous cold region, lacking significant amounts of rainfall, high humidity and temperature. A 2.5 yr old male mixed breed dog was presented with a two months history of progressive hematuria and muscle weakness. Complete blood count and serum biochemistry were performed with results indicating impaired renal function...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
R M Heilmann
Minimally invasive interventional techniques are advancing fast in small animal medicine. These techniques utilize state-of-the-art diagnostic methods, including fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Minimally invasive procedures are particularly attractive in the field of small animal urology because, in the past, treatment options for diseases of the urogenital tract were rather limited or associated with a high rate of complications. Most endourological interventions have a steep learning curve...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Jongsu Lim, Youngmin Yoon, Dongin Jung, Seongchan Yeon, Heechun Lee
A 16-month-old intact female Maltese dog was referred for examination of depression and vomiting. Ultrasonography revealed dilated right renal pelvis containing echogenic fluid with free gas. A hyperechoic material suspected of urolith was identified in the right ureter. Computed tomography revealed emphysematous change of the right kidney associated with ureteral obstruction and extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EHPSS). Ureteronephrectomy and surgical correction were performed for the EHPSS. Escherichia coli was isolated from pus from the right kidney...
May 3, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Gian Marco Gerboni, Giulia Capra, Silvia Ferro, Claudio Bellino, Manuela Perego, Stefania Zanet, Antonio D'Angelo, Paola Gianella
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) for the detection of active renal hemorrhage in a dog with spontaneous kidney rupture resulting in hemoperitoneum. CASE SUMMARY: A 9-month-old, sexually intact male Boxer dog presented for acute collapse, abdominal pain, and tachycardia. Physical examination findings were consistent with hypovolemia and acute abdomen. B-mode ultrasonography revealed peritoneal effusion and a right kidney mass...
November 2015: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Soo-Young Choi, Woo-Chang Jeong, Young-Won Lee, Ho-Jung Choi
Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to evaluate tissue perfusion in the kidney. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia may be required in uncooperative or panting patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the normal kidney perfusion patterns in conscious and anesthetized dogs using CEUS. Eight healthy beagles were used in this study. Scanning was performed in conscious dogs using manual restraint (conscious group), or under general anesthesia using tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine (TZM group) or medetomidine (M group)...
February 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Ross C Elliott, Robert M Kirberger
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes, using computed tomography (CT), in position of the urogenital system before and after CO2 abdominal insufflation for the most commonly used body positions to determine the optimal laparoscopic approach. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. ANIMALS: Healthy intact female Beagles (n = 6) of similar age, weight, and body condition score. METHODS: Dogs had urinalysis, peripheral blood smear, and abdominal ultrasonography...
July 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Sunghoon Jeon, Gahyun Lee, Sang-Kwon Lee, Hyunwoo Kim, Dohyeon Yu, Jihye Choi
Standard ultrasonography is often insensitive for distinguishing normal vs. diseased states for canine abdominal organs. Ultrasonographic elastography is a new technique that is becoming increasingly available and may help to improve sensitivity. This study evaluated the feasibility, repeatability, and reproducibility of strain elastography of the liver, spleen, kidneys, and prostate in healthy dogs and described the elasticity of each organ using strain values and strain ratios. The reproducibility of strain elastography was excellent, and intraobserver repeatability was moderate to excellent...
July 2015: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Andrew Holdsworth, Kate Bradley, Sally Birch, William J Browne, Virginie Barberet
Elastography is a simple, expedient and noninvasive technique that may be used to assess the elasticity or stiffness of a tissue, in conjunction with traditional B-mode ultrasonography. Quantitative assessment of tissue stiffness can be made which involves measurement of the shear wave velocity within the tissue of interest. The goal of this study was to assess the feasibility of elastography for clinical use in the abdomen of conscious small animals and to investigate factors that affect shear wave velocity measurement...
November 2014: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Seungjun Lee, Nohwon Park, Jaehwan Kim, Ki-Dong Eom
OBJECTIVE: To determine renal arterial resistive index (RI) and pulsatility index (PI) and clinical signs of overhydration induced by IV administration of saline (0.9% NaCl) solution and to assess RI and PI as variables for monitoring of dogs to detect overhydration. ANIMALS: 10 clinically normal Beagles. PROCEDURES: Each dog received saline solution at a maintenance rate (2.5 mL/kg/h) and a rate 3 times that of the maintenance rate (overhydration rate; 7...
April 2014: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Guoming Zhang, Lei Dong, Yanhong Tai, Yuanyuan Sun, Ping Liang, Xiaohong Liu, Hui Wang, Yan Zhang, Hong Shen, Na Sun
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to show the contrast-enhanced sonographic features of various levels of renal artery rupture and to validate the therapeutic effects of percutaneous 915-MHz microwave ablation compared to hemostatic drug injection (batroxobin) using an in vivo canine renal artery injury model. METHODS: Three renal artery hemorrhage models (A, diameter <1 mm, subcapsular artery; B, diameter 1-2 mm, interlobar artery; and C, diameter 2-3 mm, segmental artery) were created in 24 canines for this study...
April 2014: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
Sheila C Rahal, Maria J Mamprim, Hugo S Oliveira, Luciane R Mesquita, Luis G Faria, Regina K Takahira, Lídia M Matsubara, Felipe S Agostinho
OBJECTIVE--To compare ultrasonographic, CT, and surgical findings in dogs infested with giant kidney worms (Dioctophyme renale). DESIGN--Case series. ANIMALS--15 crossbred dogs infected with D renale. PROCEDURES--Immediately after ultrasonography was performed with dogs in dorsal recumbency, sequential transverse images of the abdomen were acquired with a helical CT scanner. After plain CT, contrast CT was performed with a nonionic iodinated contrast agent. Subsequently, exploratory celiotomy was performed...
March 1, 2014: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Rachel Moon, David S Biller, Nicole M Smee
Emphysematous cystitis (EC) and emphysematous pyelonephritis (EPN) are the result of infection of the urinary bladder and kidneys by gas-producing microorganisms. Those infections are most often reported in diabetic patients and rarely occur concurrently. This article describes two cases of concurrent EC and EPN, one in a nondiabetic dog and the other in a diabetic cat. The use of diagnostic imaging is necessary in the diagnosis of emphysematous infections. Both radiography and ultrasonography were used in the diagnosis of EC and EPN in the patients described in this report...
March 2014: Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Seung Uk Jeong, Hassanuddin Aizan, Tae Jun Song, Dong Wan Seo, Su-Hui Kim, Do Hyun Park, Sang Soo Lee, Sung Koo Lee, Myung-Hwan Kim
AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of diagnostic and therapeutic transgastric (TG) peritoneoscopic interventions with a forward-viewing endoscopic ultrasound (FV-EUS). METHODS: This prospective endoscopic experimental study used an animal model. Combined TG peritoneoscopic interventions and EUS examination of the intra-abdominal organs were performed using an FV-EUS on 10 animal models (1 porcine and 9 canine). The procedures carried out include EUS evaluation and endoscopic biopsy of intraperitoneal organs, EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA), EUS-guided radiofrequency ablation (EUS-RFA), and argon plasma coagulation (APC) for hemostatic control...
November 7, 2013: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Yi Dong, Wenping Wang, Jiaying Cao, Peili Fan, Xiyuan Lin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this feasibility study was to prospectively explore in a dog model of chronic ischemic renal disease (CIRD) the hypothesis that real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can quantitatively evaluate the early perfusion changes of renal cortex. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this animal care and use committee-approved study, the model of CIRD was carried out in healthy dogs (10.0~12.0 kg, n=5), by placing the Ameroid ring constrictors on the distal portion of right renal artery through operation...
2013: PloS One
Flavia Restitutti, Merja R Laitinen, Marja R Raekallio, Mari Vainionpää, Robert T O'Brien, Erja Kuusela, Outi M Vainio
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the dexmedetomidine-induced reduction in organ blood flow with quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) method and to observe the influence of MK-467 on such reduction. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized cross-over study. ANIMALS: Six adult purpose-bred laboratory beagle dogs (mean body weight 15.3 ± 1.9 kg). METHODS: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound was performed on six conscious healthy laboratory beagles...
November 2013: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
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