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Veterinary kidney ultrasonography

Emmelie Stock, Katrien Vanderperren, Tim Bosmans, André Dobbeleir, Luc Duchateau, Myriam Hesta, Lien Lybaert, Kathelijne Peremans, Eva Vandermeulen, Jimmy Saunders
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an emerging technique to evaluate tissue perfusion. Promising results have been obtained in the evaluation of renal perfusion in health and disease, both in human and veterinary medicine. Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is another non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate renal perfusion. However, no data are available on the ability of CEUS or 99mTc- MAG3 scintigraphy to detect small changes in renal perfusion in cats. Therefore, both techniques were applied in a normal feline population to evaluate detection possibilities of perfusion changes by angiotensin II (AT II)...
2016: PloS One
Dinesh Dehmiwal, S M Behl, Prem Singh, Rishi Tayal, Madan Pal, R K Chandolia
AIM: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the kidney in different disease conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 11 clinical cases of different age groups of dogs suffering from kidney diseases were diagnosed by 2D and 3D ultrasonography at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having four-dimensional (4D) volumetric probe...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Laura Vilalta, Elisabet Dominguez, Raul Altuzarra, Neus Sibera, Yvonne Espada, Rosa Novellas, Jaime Martorell
An 8-month-old neutered male ferret was presented for vaccination and preventive treatment for adrenal gland disease. Abdominal ultrasound revealed severe bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Excretory urography and negative contrast cystography showed bilateral ureterovesical junction stenosis. Positive retrograde cystography demonstrated right ureteral reflux. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass was placed in the left kidney; however, it had to be removed 3 months later due to an obstruction and persistent urinary tract infection...
August 4, 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
R M Heilmann
Minimally invasive interventional techniques are advancing fast in small animal medicine. These techniques utilize state-of-the-art diagnostic methods, including fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Minimally invasive procedures are particularly attractive in the field of small animal urology because, in the past, treatment options for diseases of the urogenital tract were rather limited or associated with a high rate of complications. Most endourological interventions have a steep learning curve...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Phil Scott
Modern portable ultrasound scan machines provide the veterinary clinician with an inexpensive and noninvasive method to further examine sheep on farms, which should take no more than 5 minutes with the results available immediately. Repeat examinations allow monitoring of the disease process and assessment of therapy. 5 MHz linear array scanners can be used for most organs except the heart and right kidney. Transthoracic ultrasonography is particularly useful for critical evaluation of lung and pleural pathologies...
March 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Soo-Young Choi, Woo-Chang Jeong, Young-Won Lee, Ho-Jung Choi
Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to evaluate tissue perfusion in the kidney. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia may be required in uncooperative or panting patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the normal kidney perfusion patterns in conscious and anesthetized dogs using CEUS. Eight healthy beagles were used in this study. Scanning was performed in conscious dogs using manual restraint (conscious group), or under general anesthesia using tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine (TZM group) or medetomidine (M group)...
February 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Anne-Sophie Bua, Marilyn E Dunn, Pascaline Pey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the respective associations between ureteral obstruction and renomegaly, urine specific gravity (USG), and serum creatinine concentration and to assess the reliability of abdominal palpation for detection of renomegaly in cats. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 89 client-owned cats with (n = 29) or without ureteral obstruction and with (30) or without (30) kidney disease. PROCEDURES: Medical records of cats that underwent abdominal ultrasonography at a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2006 through April 2013 were reviewed...
September 1, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Barbara Contiero, Andrea Martin, Sema Balikçi, Alessandro Zotti
OBJECTIVE: To determine ultrasonographic features and reference values of the anatomy of the abdomen of common rats (Rattus norvegicus). ANIMALS: 20 adult male and 20 adult female rats. PROCEDURES: A complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed with the rats sedated. The cadavers of 4 rats were used for anatomic comparisons. Two cadavers were dissected and 2 cadavers were frozen and then cross-sectioned by use of an electric bandsaw...
January 2014: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Rejane G Ribeiro, Ana Paula A Costa, Nathália Bragato, Angela M Fonseca, Juan C M Duque, Tales D Prado, Andrea C R Silva, Naida C Borges
BACKGROUND: The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. RESULTS: The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections...
June 23, 2013: BMC Veterinary Research
Ryosuke Kobayashi, Yayoi Ohsaki, Kyohei Yasuno, Kikumi Ogihara, Tomoko Kasai, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Sanae Saegusa, Junichi Kamiie, Kinji Shirota
In the current study, a case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma with systemic metastases in a cat is described. A 12-year-old male neutered Japanese domestic cat was brought to a veterinary hospital for dysorexia, coughing, vomiting, and diarrhea. Ultrasonography revealed a mass adjacent to the right atrium. The animal died of respiratory failure 1 month after the first visit to the hospital. At necropsy, an oval-shaped white mass 1.5 cm in diameter was observed within the right auricle. Diffusely, the right ventricle was infiltrated and thickened by the neoplastic lesion...
March 2012: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sheila J Wills, Esther L Barrett, Frances J Barr, Kate J Bradley, Chris R Helps, Martha J Cannon, Timothy J Gruffydd-Jones
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease in cats with Persian and Persian-related breeds predominantly affected. Diagnosis of PKD relied on ultrasound scanning until the recent development of the PKD gene test. However, gene testing has limitations as it will only identify the autosomal dominant form of PKD and not other forms of cystic kidney disease. Ultrasound scanning also has the advantage of being able to assess the severity and progression of disease in PKD affected cats...
December 2009: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Erin L Brinkman-Ferguson, David S Biller
When performing an abdominal ultrasound examination in dogs, a right lateral intercostal approach often is indicated. This approach allows for a complete examination of the abdomen, especially in large deep-chested dogs, dogs with microhepatica, or dogs with a large volume of intestinal gas or peritoneal effusion. The right lateral intercostal approach provides an acoustic window for the evaluation of the right side of the liver, porta hepatis, right limb and body of the pancreas, duodenum, right kidney, right adrenal gland, and hepatic lymph nodes...
July 2009: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Moon-Jung Goo, Bruce H Williams, Il-Hwa Hong, Jin-Kyu Park, Hai-Jie Yang, Dong-Wei Yuan, Hye-Rim Lee, Kyung-Sook Hong, Mi-Ran Ki, Kyu-Shik Jeong
A 1.5-year-old female Persian cat was presented for inappetence and azotemia. Ultrasonography and urography revealed multiple abnormalities involving the genitourinary tract, including agenesis of the right kidney and ureter. Gross examination of the abnormal uterus revealed segmental aplasia of right caudal uterine horn causing cranial distension with fluid, a normal left uterine horn, and both normal ovaries. Microscopically, endometrial glands of the right uterine horn were markedly decreased in number. The right uterine horn was hemorrhagic suggesting estrus...
February 2009: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Chad W Schmiedt, Fern A Delaney, Jonathan F McAnulty
Ultrasonographic examination is a commonly employed technique for postoperative renal allograft evaluation after transplantation. Allograft size and resistive index (RI) are two objective ultrasonographic measures that may help establish a diagnosis and direct postoperative management for grafts with suboptimal function but their diagnostic efficacy has not been evaluated in clinical veterinary patients. Results of 69 feline renal transplant ultrasonographic examinations and RI determinations were studied. Based on clinical parameters at the time of the ultrasonographic examination, patients were grouped into six clinical/functional categories including evaluations of clinically normal grafts, delayed graft function, ureteral obstruction, uroabdomen, graft thrombosis, and rejection...
January 2008: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Aleksandra Domanjko-Petric, David Cernec, Marko Cotman
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal kidney disease which is most commonly identified in Persian and Persian related cats. Positive cats have multiple cysts of various sizes that occur in the renal cortex and medulla and occasionally in other abdominal organs. PKD often leads to renal failure which occurs from mid to late in life. Renal cysts can be diagnosed ultrasonographically after 7 weeks of age by an experienced ultrasonographer and a high resolution machine. However, ultrasonography is now being replaced by genetic screening...
April 2008: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Mattia Bonazzi, Antonella Volta, Giacomo Gnudi, Ezio Bottarelli, Margherita Gazzola, Giorgio Bertoni
The ultrasonographic findings of kidneys, liver and urinary bladder of 288 Persian and 44 Exotic Shorthair clinically normal cats that underwent screening for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) between July 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Cats were divided into two groups, one including cats aged <9 months (group 1) and one cats aged >/=9 months (group 2). Cats were classified as PKD-positive when at least one renal cyst was found. One hundred and thirty-six cats (41.0%) had more than one cyst in at least one kidney...
October 2007: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Stefanie Ohlerth, Robert T O'Brien
The concept of contrast enhancement has significantly extended the usefulness of ultrasound imaging in human medicine and medical research over the past decade. The persistence and efficacy of ultrasound contrast agents has been improved and specific imaging sequences have been developed. Contrast ultrasound provides Doppler and grey-scale enhancement. Doppler examinations are improved when studying deep or small vessels and vessels with low flow velocities. Specific contrast imaging sequences allow detection of tissue enhancement with grey-scale ultrasound which enables assessment of tissue perfusion...
November 2007: Veterinary Journal
S Simova-Curd, D Nitzl, J Mayer, J-M Hatt
Renal neoplasia in budgerigars (Melopsittacus undulatus) is seen regularly in general practice and is of interest to many practicing veterinary surgeons. This review article provides an overview of the current knowledge and the most recent reports in avian literature regarding renal tumours in budgerigars, with the emphasis on clinical diagnosis and treatment. The high prevalence of renal neoplasia in budgerigar is discussed, with notes on the most commonly diagnosed tumours, possibility of metastases, sex and age predisposition...
September 2006: Journal of Small Animal Practice
Georgea Bignardi Jarretta, Pedro Primo Bombonato, Marcelo Alcindo de Barros Vaz Guimarães
Ultrasonography is currently used in veterinary medicine to examine the anatomy and physiology of internal organs and to establish normal standards for exotic animal species. Specifically, the kidneys may be evaluated and measured in length, width, and height. The kidneys in 33 oncilla (Leopardus tigrinus), including 20 males and 13 females, were opportunistically located, characterized, and measured by ultrasound using a 7.5-MHz linear transducer at two different zoologic facilities in São Paulo, Brazil. Renal volume was calculated from these linear measurements...
September 2004: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
F J McEvoy, J Koch, K M Pedersen, D H Nielsen, P Mantis
Anechoic, spherical cystic lesions are important findings on ultrasound examination. In polycystic renal disease of cats, they may be the only ultrasonographic sign of disease. This study assesses the accuracy of ultrasound, as used in a veterinary setting, for the detection of cysts. Using a spherical lesion ultrasound imaging phantom and 7.5- to 8-MHz linear array transducers, images of cysts of 2- and 4-mm diameter were created at various imaging depths from 0 to 6 cm. These were digitized and given to a panel of readers for interpretation...
July 2003: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
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