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Veterinary kidney ultrasonography

Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro, Cyndi Mangano, Michela Pugliese, Giuseppe Mazzullo, Nicola M Iannelli, Vito Angileri, Simona Morabito, Massimo De Majo
BACKGROUND: In veterinary medicine, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography allowed the accurate quantification of liver, splenic and kidney vascularization in healthy dogs and the differentiation between malignant and benign hepatic, renal, and splenic nodules in dogs and cats based on perfusion patterns. The utility of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in other applications is still under study. The aim of this study was to develop diagnostic criteria by contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in 8 client-owned adult dogs affected by urinary bladder transitional cell carcinoma with definitive diagnosis made by cytopathologic evaluation after suction biopsy...
March 12, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Emmelie Stock, Luc Duchateau, Jimmy H Saunders, Veerle Volckaert, Ingeborgh Polis, Katrien Vanderperren
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used to image and quantify tissue perfusion. It holds great potential for the use in the diagnosis of various diffuse renal diseases in both human and veterinary medicine. Nevertheless, the technique is known to have an inherent relatively high variability, related to various factors associated with the patient, the contrast agent and machine settings. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess week-to-week intra- and inter-cat variation of several perfusion parameters obtained with CEUS of both kidneys of 12 healthy cats...
February 2018: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
Jonathan P Samuelson, Kate O Echeverria, Jonathan H Foreman, Richard L Fredrickson, Deborah Sauberli, Herbert E Whiteley
A 22-y-old Quarter Horse gelding was presented to the University of Illinois Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of increased heart rate and mild colic signs. Rectal examination revealed a large left perirenal mass. Abdominal ultrasonography further confirmed this finding. Thoracic ultrasonography indicated multifocal irregularities on the pleural surface suggestive of consolidation and possibly masses in the lungs. The animal was euthanized. Autopsy findings included a large, firm, expansile, gelatinous retroperitoneal mass that surrounded both kidneys, as well as nodules with similar morphology in the lungs, liver, intestinal mesentery, cecum, and caudal mesenteric artery...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Maura E Duffy, Andrew J Specht, Ahmira R Torres, May-Li Cuypers
CASE DESCRIPTION A 3-year-old spayed female Bengal cat was evaluated because of a history of bilateral pleural effusion and hydronephrosis of the right kidney. CLINICAL FINDINGS Cytologic analysis of a pleural fluid sample revealed characteristics of a pure transudate with a high percentage of lymphocytes. Results of fluid biochemical testing were not consistent with urine or chyle. Serum biochemical analysis and echocardiography yielded no evidence of hypoalbuminemia or high hydrostatic pressure secondary to cardiac disease...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Emmelie Stock, Katrien Vanderperren, Tim Bosmans, André Dobbeleir, Luc Duchateau, Myriam Hesta, Lien Lybaert, Kathelijne Peremans, Eva Vandermeulen, Jimmy Saunders
Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is an emerging technique to evaluate tissue perfusion. Promising results have been obtained in the evaluation of renal perfusion in health and disease, both in human and veterinary medicine. Renal scintigraphy using 99mTc-Mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) is another non-invasive technique that can be used to evaluate renal perfusion. However, no data are available on the ability of CEUS or 99mTc- MAG3 scintigraphy to detect small changes in renal perfusion in cats. Therefore, both techniques were applied in a normal feline population to evaluate detection possibilities of perfusion changes by angiotensin II (AT II)...
2016: PloS One
Dinesh Dehmiwal, S M Behl, Prem Singh, Rishi Tayal, Madan Pal, R K Chandolia
AIM: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of the kidney in different disease conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 11 clinical cases of different age groups of dogs suffering from kidney diseases were diagnosed by 2D and 3D ultrasonography at Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar. The ultrasound (US) machine used for this study was 3D US machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having four-dimensional (4D) volumetric probe...
July 2016: Veterinary World
Laura Vilalta, Elisabet Dominguez, Raul Altuzarra, Neus Sibera, Yvonne Espada, Rosa Novellas, Jaime Martorell
An 8-month-old neutered male ferret was presented for vaccination and preventive treatment for adrenal gland disease. Abdominal ultrasound revealed severe bilateral hydronephrosis and hydroureter. Excretory urography and negative contrast cystography showed bilateral ureterovesical junction stenosis. Positive retrograde cystography demonstrated right ureteral reflux. A subcutaneous ureteral bypass was placed in the left kidney; however, it had to be removed 3 months later due to an obstruction and persistent urinary tract infection...
May 2017: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
R M Heilmann
Minimally invasive interventional techniques are advancing fast in small animal medicine. These techniques utilize state-of-the-art diagnostic methods, including fluoroscopy, ultrasonography, endoscopy, and laparoscopy. Minimally invasive procedures are particularly attractive in the field of small animal urology because, in the past, treatment options for diseases of the urogenital tract were rather limited or associated with a high rate of complications. Most endourological interventions have a steep learning curve...
2016: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Phil Scott
Modern portable ultrasound scan machines provide the veterinary clinician with an inexpensive and noninvasive method to further examine sheep on farms, which should take no more than 5 minutes with the results available immediately. Repeat examinations allow monitoring of the disease process and assessment of therapy. 5 MHz linear array scanners can be used for most organs except the heart and right kidney. Transthoracic ultrasonography is particularly useful for critical evaluation of lung and pleural pathologies...
March 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
Soo-Young Choi, Woo-Chang Jeong, Young-Won Lee, Ho-Jung Choi
Contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is useful to evaluate tissue perfusion in the kidney. In veterinary medicine, sedation or anesthesia may be required in uncooperative or panting patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the normal kidney perfusion patterns in conscious and anesthetized dogs using CEUS. Eight healthy beagles were used in this study. Scanning was performed in conscious dogs using manual restraint (conscious group), or under general anesthesia using tiletamine-zolazepam and medetomidine (TZM group) or medetomidine (M group)...
February 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Anne-Sophie Bua, Marilyn E Dunn, Pascaline Pey
OBJECTIVE: To determine the respective associations between ureteral obstruction and renomegaly, urine specific gravity (USG), and serum creatinine concentration and to assess the reliability of abdominal palpation for detection of renomegaly in cats. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. ANIMALS: 89 client-owned cats with (n = 29) or without ureteral obstruction and with (30) or without (30) kidney disease. PROCEDURES: Medical records of cats that underwent abdominal ultrasonography at a veterinary teaching hospital from January 2006 through April 2013 were reviewed...
September 1, 2015: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
Tommaso Banzato, Luca Bellini, Barbara Contiero, Andrea Martin, Sema Balikçi, Alessandro Zotti
OBJECTIVE: To determine ultrasonographic features and reference values of the anatomy of the abdomen of common rats (Rattus norvegicus). ANIMALS: 20 adult male and 20 adult female rats. PROCEDURES: A complete abdominal ultrasonographic examination was performed with the rats sedated. The cadavers of 4 rats were used for anatomic comparisons. Two cadavers were dissected and 2 cadavers were frozen and then cross-sectioned by use of an electric bandsaw...
January 2014: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Rejane G Ribeiro, Ana Paula A Costa, Nathália Bragato, Angela M Fonseca, Juan C M Duque, Tales D Prado, Andrea C R Silva, Naida C Borges
BACKGROUND: The use of ultrasound in veterinary medicine is widespread as a diagnostic supplement in the clinical routine of small animals, but there are few reports in wild animals. The objective of this study was to describe the anatomy, topography and abdominal sonographic features of coatis. RESULTS: The urinary bladder wall measured 0.11 ± 0.03 cm. The symmetrical kidneys were in the left and right cranial quadrant of the abdomen and the cortical, medullary and renal pelvis regions were recognized and in all sections...
June 23, 2013: BMC Veterinary Research
Ryosuke Kobayashi, Yayoi Ohsaki, Kyohei Yasuno, Kikumi Ogihara, Tomoko Kasai, James Kenn Chambers, Kazuyuki Uchida, Sanae Saegusa, Junichi Kamiie, Kinji Shirota
In the current study, a case of a cardiac ganglioneuroma with systemic metastases in a cat is described. A 12-year-old male neutered Japanese domestic cat was brought to a veterinary hospital for dysorexia, coughing, vomiting, and diarrhea. Ultrasonography revealed a mass adjacent to the right atrium. The animal died of respiratory failure 1 month after the first visit to the hospital. At necropsy, an oval-shaped white mass 1.5 cm in diameter was observed within the right auricle. Diffusely, the right ventricle was infiltrated and thickened by the neoplastic lesion...
March 2012: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Sheila J Wills, Esther L Barrett, Frances J Barr, Kate J Bradley, Chris R Helps, Martha J Cannon, Timothy J Gruffydd-Jones
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is the most prevalent inherited genetic disease in cats with Persian and Persian-related breeds predominantly affected. Diagnosis of PKD relied on ultrasound scanning until the recent development of the PKD gene test. However, gene testing has limitations as it will only identify the autosomal dominant form of PKD and not other forms of cystic kidney disease. Ultrasound scanning also has the advantage of being able to assess the severity and progression of disease in PKD affected cats...
December 2009: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Erin L Brinkman-Ferguson, David S Biller
When performing an abdominal ultrasound examination in dogs, a right lateral intercostal approach often is indicated. This approach allows for a complete examination of the abdomen, especially in large deep-chested dogs, dogs with microhepatica, or dogs with a large volume of intestinal gas or peritoneal effusion. The right lateral intercostal approach provides an acoustic window for the evaluation of the right side of the liver, porta hepatis, right limb and body of the pancreas, duodenum, right kidney, right adrenal gland, and hepatic lymph nodes...
July 2009: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Moon-Jung Goo, Bruce H Williams, Il-Hwa Hong, Jin-Kyu Park, Hai-Jie Yang, Dong-Wei Yuan, Hye-Rim Lee, Kyung-Sook Hong, Mi-Ran Ki, Kyu-Shik Jeong
A 1.5-year-old female Persian cat was presented for inappetence and azotemia. Ultrasonography and urography revealed multiple abnormalities involving the genitourinary tract, including agenesis of the right kidney and ureter. Gross examination of the abnormal uterus revealed segmental aplasia of right caudal uterine horn causing cranial distension with fluid, a normal left uterine horn, and both normal ovaries. Microscopically, endometrial glands of the right uterine horn were markedly decreased in number. The right uterine horn was hemorrhagic suggesting estrus...
February 2009: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Chad W Schmiedt, Fern A Delaney, Jonathan F McAnulty
Ultrasonographic examination is a commonly employed technique for postoperative renal allograft evaluation after transplantation. Allograft size and resistive index (RI) are two objective ultrasonographic measures that may help establish a diagnosis and direct postoperative management for grafts with suboptimal function but their diagnostic efficacy has not been evaluated in clinical veterinary patients. Results of 69 feline renal transplant ultrasonographic examinations and RI determinations were studied. Based on clinical parameters at the time of the ultrasonographic examination, patients were grouped into six clinical/functional categories including evaluations of clinically normal grafts, delayed graft function, ureteral obstruction, uroabdomen, graft thrombosis, and rejection...
January 2008: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Aleksandra Domanjko-Petric, David Cernec, Marko Cotman
Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is an inherited autosomal kidney disease which is most commonly identified in Persian and Persian related cats. Positive cats have multiple cysts of various sizes that occur in the renal cortex and medulla and occasionally in other abdominal organs. PKD often leads to renal failure which occurs from mid to late in life. Renal cysts can be diagnosed ultrasonographically after 7 weeks of age by an experienced ultrasonographer and a high resolution machine. However, ultrasonography is now being replaced by genetic screening...
April 2008: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
Mattia Bonazzi, Antonella Volta, Giacomo Gnudi, Ezio Bottarelli, Margherita Gazzola, Giorgio Bertoni
The ultrasonographic findings of kidneys, liver and urinary bladder of 288 Persian and 44 Exotic Shorthair clinically normal cats that underwent screening for polycystic kidney disease (PKD) between July 2003 and December 2005 were reviewed. Cats were divided into two groups, one including cats aged <9 months (group 1) and one cats aged >/=9 months (group 2). Cats were classified as PKD-positive when at least one renal cyst was found. One hundred and thirty-six cats (41.0%) had more than one cyst in at least one kidney...
October 2007: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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