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"lung stem cell"

Sonia Navarro, Barbara Driscoll
Natural lung aging is marked by molecular changes that occur during development, maturation, and late-life decline. At the cellular and whole organ level, degenerative changes that are a hallmark of natural aging (shorter telomeres, increased expression of cellular senescence markers, increased DNA damage, oxidative stress, and apoptosis, accompanied by diminished elasticity) reach pathological levels in aging humans in the form of chronic respiratory disease. Aging strongly correlates with the development and incidence of chronic respiratory diseases, including cancer and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, but is most strongly linked with development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease...
November 9, 2016: Gerontology
Jinwook Choi, Elhadi Iich, Joo-Hyeon Lee
The remarkable regenerative capacity of the lung suggests that stem cells could be of therapeutic importance in diverse lung diseases; however, the successful exploitation of lung stem cell biology has long been hampered by our inability to maintain and expand adult lung stem cells while retaining their multi-lineage potential in vitro. Recently, advances in our understanding of stem cell niches and the role of key signalling modulators in controlling stem cell maintenance and differentiation have fuelled the development of new in vitro three-dimensional (3D) culture technologies that sustain the stem cell-driven formation of near-physiological, self-organizing structures called organoids...
December 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
Jiurong Liang, Yanli Zhang, Ting Xie, Ningshan Liu, Huaiyong Chen, Yan Geng, Adrianne Kurkciyan, Jessica Monterrosa Mena, Barry R Stripp, Dianhua Jiang, Paul W Noble
Successful recovery from lung injury requires the repair and regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells to restore the integrity of gas-exchanging regions within the lung and preserve organ function. Improper regeneration of the alveolar epithelium is often associated with severe pulmonary fibrosis, the latter of which involves the recruitment and activation of fibroblasts, as well as matrix accumulation. Type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) are stem cells in the adult lung that contribute to the lung repair process...
November 2016: Nature Medicine
Felicia Chen, Alan Fine
In this review, we summarize the recent literature on the biology of endogenous stem cells in adult lung injury repair. We focus on in vivo studies in mice with an emphasis on data generated using cell-specific Cre-dependent lineage-tracing systems. These studies provide new information on the identification of lung stem cells, their hierarchical relationships, the plasticity of their behavior in different types of injury, and the molecular signals that control their fates. Although most of this work has been on epithelial hierarchies, we expect that further development of robust genetic tools will foster meaningful investigations into how nonepithelial cell populations are controlled during lung injury repair in adults...
October 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Jennifer Quantius, Carole Schmoldt, Ana I Vazquez-Armendariz, Christin Becker, Elie El Agha, Jochen Wilhelm, Rory E Morty, István Vadász, Konstantin Mayer, Stefan Gattenloehner, Ludger Fink, Mikhail Matrosovich, Xiaokun Li, Werner Seeger, Juergen Lohmeyer, Saverio Bellusci, Susanne Herold
Influenza Virus (IV) pneumonia is associated with severe damage of the lung epithelium and respiratory failure. Apart from efficient host defense, structural repair of the injured epithelium is crucial for survival of severe pneumonia. The molecular mechanisms underlying stem/progenitor cell mediated regenerative responses are not well characterized. In particular, the impact of IV infection on lung stem cells and their regenerative responses remains elusive. Our study demonstrates that a highly pathogenic IV infects various cell populations in the murine lung, but displays a strong tropism to an epithelial cell subset with high proliferative capacity, defined by the signature EpCamhighCD24lowintegrin(α6)high...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Anna Guinot, Feride Oeztuerk-Winder, Juan-Jose Ventura
Defining the molecular and cellular roots of lung cancer relapse after initial treatment remains an imperative to improve survival. Here we report that the lung stem cell marker Lgr6 becomes enriched in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells during malignant progression. Lgr6(+) NSCLC cells displayed self-renewal and differentiation properties along with a higher tumorigenic potential. Mechanistic investigations suggested that a defective repression of the miR-17-92 gene cluster was responsible for evolution of a selection for outgrowth of Lgr6(+) NSCLC cells...
July 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Kim A A Schilders, Evelien Eenjes, Sander van Riet, André A Poot, Dimitrios Stamatialis, Roman Truckenmüller, Pieter S Hiemstra, Robbert J Rottier
Inspired by the increasing burden of lung associated diseases in society and an growing demand to accommodate patients, great efforts by the scientific community produce an increasing stream of data that are focused on delineating the basic principles of lung development and growth, as well as understanding the biomechanical properties to build artificial lung devices. In addition, the continuing efforts to better define the disease origin, progression and pathology by basic scientists and clinicians contributes to insights in the basic principles of lung biology...
April 23, 2016: Respiratory Research
Ulrika Blank Savukinas, Sara Rolandsson Enes, Annika Andersson Sjöland, Gunilla Westergren-Thorsson
Mesenchymal stem or stromal cells (MSCs), a heterogeneous subset of adult stem/progenitor cells, have surfaced as potential therapeutic units with significant clinical benefit for a wide spectrum of disease conditions, including those affecting the lung. Although MSCs carry both self-renewal and multilineage differentiation abilities, current dogma holds that MSCs mainly contribute to tissue regeneration and repair by modulating the host tissue via secreted cues. Thus, the therapeutic benefit of MSCs is thought to derive from so called bystander effects...
June 2016: Stem Cells
Min Yee, Robert Gelein, Thomas J Mariani, B Paige Lawrence, Michael A O'Reilly
Alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC2) maintain pulmonary homeostasis by producing surfactant, expressing innate immune molecules, and functioning as adult progenitor cells for themselves and alveolar epithelial type I cells (AEC1). How the proper number of alveolar epithelial cells is determined in the adult lung is not well understood. Here, BrdU labeling, genetic lineage tracing, and targeted expression of the anti-oxidant extracellular superoxide dismutase in AEC2s are used to show how the oxygen environment at birth influences postnatal expansion of AEC2s and AEC1s in mice...
May 2016: Stem Cells
Ce Yang, Jianxin Jiang, Xuetao Yang, Haiyan Wang, Juan Du
The repair of organs and tissues has stepped into a prospective era of regenerative medicine. However, basic research and clinical practice in the lung regeneration remains crawling. Owing to the complicated three dimensional structures and above 40 types of pulmonary cells, the regeneration of lung tissues becomes a great challenge. Compelling evidence has showed that distinct populations of intrapulmonary and extrapulmonary stem/progenitor cells can regenerate epithelia as well as endothelia in various parts of the respiratory tract...
February 11, 2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Rohan R Nadkarni, Soumeya Abed, Jonathan S Draper
The lung is a complex organ comprising multiple cell types that perform a variety of vital processes, including immune defense and gas exchange. Diseases of the lung, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer, together represent one of the largest causes of patient suffering and mortality. Logistical barriers that hamper access to embryonic, normal adult or diseased lung tissue currently hinder the study of lung disease. In vitro lung modeling represents an attractive and accessible avenue for investigating lung development, function and disease pathology, but accurately modeling the lung in vitro requires a system that recapitulates the structural features of the native lung...
May 6, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hong-mei Liu, Li-jun Ma, Ji-zhen Wu, Yu-guang Li
Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation could repair injury tissue, but no study confirms whether MSCs can promote the proliferation of endogenous lung stem cells to repair alveolar epithelial cells of mice with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to investigate the effect of MSCs on the proliferation of endogenous lung stem cells in COPD mice to confirm the repair mechanism of MSCs. The mice were divided into control group, COPD group, and COPD+MSCs group...
December 2015: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
Huijing Yin, Jiong Deng
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are emerging as a hot topic for cancer research. Lung CSCs share many characteristics with normal lung stem cells (SCs), including self-renewal and multi-potency for differentiation. Many molecular markers expressed in various types of CSCs were also found in lung CSCs, such as CD133, CD44, aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and ATP-binding cassette sub-family G member 2 (ABCG2). Similarly, proliferation and expansion of lung CSCs are regulated not only by signal transduction pathways functioning in normal lung SCs, such as Notch, Hedgehog and Wnt pathways, but also by those acting in tumor cells, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K) pathways...
October 20, 2015: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
Eric Henry, Jhon Cores, M Taylor Hensley, Shirena Anthony, Adam Vandergriff, James B M de Andrade, Tyler Allen, Thomas G Caranasos, Leonard J Lobo, Ke Cheng
UNLABELLED: Lung diseases are devastating conditions and ranked as one of the top five causes of mortality worldwide according to the World Health Organization. Stem cell therapy is a promising strategy for lung regeneration. Previous animal and clinical studies have focused on the use of mesenchymal stem cells (from other parts of the body) for lung regenerative therapies. We report a rapid and robust method to generate therapeutic resident lung progenitors from adult lung tissues. Outgrowth cells from healthy lung tissue explants are self-aggregated into three-dimensional lung spheroids in a suspension culture...
November 2015: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Marta Ortega-Martínez, Laura E Rodríguez-Flores, Carlos de-la-Garza-González, Jesús Ancer-Rodríguez, Gilberto Jaramillo-Rangel
Regeneration of the lung airway epithelium after injury has been extensively studied. In contrast, analysis of its turnover in healthy adulthood has received little attention. In the classical view, this epithelium is maintained in the steady-state by the infrequent proliferation of basal or Clara cells. The intermediate filament protein nestin was initially identified as a marker for neural stem cells, but its expression has also been detected in other stem cells. Lungs from CD1 mice at the age of 2, 6, 12, 18 or 24 months were fixed in neutral-buffered formalin and paraffin-embedded...
November 2015: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Ahmed E Hegab, Daisuke Arai, Jingtao Gao, Aoi Kuroda, Hiroyuki Yasuda, Makoto Ishii, Katsuhiko Naoki, Kenzo Soejima, Tomoko Betsuyaku
The niche surrounding stem cells regulate their fate during homeostasis and after injury or infection. The 3D organoid assay has been widely used to study stem cells behavior based on its capacity to evaluate self-renewal, differentiation and the effect of various medium supplements, drugs and co-culture with supportive cells. We established an assay to study both lung and trachea stem cells in vitro. We characterized their proliferation and differentiation spectrum at baseline then evaluated the effect of co-culturing with fibroblasts and endothelial cells and/or treating with several biologically relevant substances as possible contributors to their niche...
July 2015: Stem Cell Research
Daniel Trăilă, Ovidiu Fira Mlădinescu, Cristian Oancea, Voicu Tudorache
Pulmonary fibrosis has been linked molecularly and pathophysiologically by abnormal telomere maintenance. Short telomere lengths are commonly found in both the familial and sporadic forms, telomerase mutations being the most common identifiable genetic cause of the disease. Telomeres are repeated nucleotide sequences that cap the ends of chromosomes and protect them from damage. Telomeres are eroded with cell division and shorten with age. Telomere integrity is mediated by the telomerase complex, a specialized polymerase that adds sequences to the ends of chromosomes...
January 2015: Pneumologia: Revista Societății Române de Pneumologie
Ena Ray Banerjee
This discourse contains three perspectives on various aspects of Stem Cell Biology and tools available to study and translate into Regenerative Medicine. The lung incessantly faces onslaught of the environment, constantly undergoes oxidative stress, and is an important organ of detoxification. In degenerative diseases and inflammation, the lung undergoes irreversible remodeling that is difficult to therapeutically address and/or transplant a dying tissue. The other difficulty is to study its development and regenerative aspects to best address the aforementioned problems...
2014: Translational Respiratory Medicine
Takanori Teshima
In this issue of Blood, Varelias and colleagues demonstrate a central role of interleukin (IL)-6 in idiopathic pneumonia syndrome (IPS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) in both mice and humans.
April 9, 2015: Blood
Gianni Carraro, Barry R Stripp
Homeostasis and repair of different lung compartments require the selective activation of specific progenitor/stem cells and their regulated differentiation to yield cell types that fulfill specialized regional functions. In this issue of Cell Stem Cell, Pardo-Saganta et al. (2015) identify Notch signaling as a determinant of basal cell heterogeneity and fate decisions in pseudostratified airways.
February 5, 2015: Cell Stem Cell
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