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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650992/galectin-8-as-an-immunosuppressor-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-a-target-of-human-early-prognostic-antibodies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#1
Evelyn Pardo, Claudia Cárcamo, Reinaldo Uribe-San Martín, Ethel Ciampi, Fabián Segovia-Miranda, Cristobal Curkovic-Peña, Fabián Montecino, Christopher Holmes, Juan Enrique Tichauer, Eric Acuña, Francisco Osorio-Barrios, Marjorie Castro, Priscilla Cortes, Claudia Oyanadel, David M Valenzuela, Rodrigo Pacheco, Rodrigo Naves, Andrea Soza, Alfonso González
Galectin-8 (Gal-8) is a member of a glycan-binding protein family that regulates the immune system, among other functions, and is a target of antibodies in autoimmune disorders. However, its role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS), remains unknown. We study the consequences of Gal-8 silencing on lymphocyte subpopulations and the development of experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), to then assess the presence and clinical meaning of anti-Gal-8 antibodies in MS patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650601/multiple-sclerosis-in-an-acupuncture-practice
#2
(no author information available yet)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a severe autoimmune demyelinating disease that affects nervous system, has high morbidity and mortality and no effective targeted therapies are available. We present a case of 66-year-old female patient who has been treated by both conventional and Chinese traditional medicine after diagnosis was confirmed in 2008 as MS and antiphospholipid syndrome associated with CNS vasculitis. After diagnosis with clinical image confirmed with CT and MRI scan, where demyelinating zones were present, she started pharmacological therapy without major improvement...
May 26, 2017: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650583/von-hippel-lindau-development-in-children-and-adolescents
#3
Karoline Launbjerg, Iben Bache, Michael Galanakis, Marie Luise Bisgaard, Marie Louise M Binderup
The autosomal dominant von Hippel-Lindau disease (vHL) is associated with a lifelong risk of tumor development, especially retinal and CNS hemangioblastomas, pheochromocytoma, and renal cell carcinoma. Knowledge of paediatric vHL development is limited, and current surveillance guidelines are based on expert opinions. We aimed to describe the course of vHL development in children and adolescents, focusing on age at first manifestation, manifestation frequencies, and types. The prevalence of vHL diagnosis as well as manifestations in childhood were evaluated based on 99 patients, who had started surveillance before 18 years: 37 Danish patients from the national vHL research database and 62 international patients reported in 15 articles...
June 26, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649769/higher-rate-of-central-nervous-system-involvement-by-flow-cytometry-than-morphology-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#4
J Dass, A Dayama, P C Mishra, M Mahapatra, T Seth, S Tyagi, H P Pati, R Saxena
INTRODUCTION: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is diagnosed traditionally by cytopathology (CP) of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Role of flow cytometry (FC) to diagnose CNS involvement has not been extensively investigated. METHODS: We aimed to detect CNS involvement in 42 ALL patients (33 B-ALL, nine T-ALL) at diagnosis by FC and comparing it with CP and to correlate it with known risk factors for CNS disease like Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)...
June 25, 2017: International Journal of Laboratory Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649663/addictive-neurons
#5
Sodikdjon A Kodirov
Since the reward center is considered to be the area tegmentalis ventralis of the hypothalamus, logically its neurons could mainly be responsible for addiction. However, the literature asserts that almost any neurons of CNS can respond to one or another addictive compound. Obviously not only addictive nicotine, but also alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, cocaine, heroin and morphine may influence dopaminergic cells alone in VTA. Moreover, paradoxically some of these drugs ameliorate symptoms, counterbalance syndromes, cure diseases and improve health, not only those related to the CNS and in adults, but also almost all other organs and in children, e...
2017: Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648946/end-of-therapy-minimal-residual-disease-mrd-measurement-in-children-with-all-does-not-predict-relapse
#6
Tahani Hani Sarrawi, Ismael Zayyat, Fareed Barakat, Maha Rezeq, Salam Abu Jmaian, Faris Madanat
Minimal residual disease (MRD) monitoring opened a new era for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and is widely used for risk adapted therapy in the major study groups (Borowitz et al. 2015; Eckert et al., 2015; Peregud-Pogorzelsk et al., 2003). MRD is measured either by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or flow cytometry (FCM) (Campana, 2009). Most studies have concentrated on measuring MRD during or at end of induction, and after consolidation therapy, to stratify patients and to predict relapse (Sutton et al...
June 17, 2017: Hematology/oncology and Stem Cell Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647558/durable-chimerism-and-long-term-survival-following-unrelated-umbilical-cord-blood-transplantation-for-pediatric-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-a-single-center-experience
#7
Sachit A Patel, Heather A Allewelt, Jesse D Troy, Paul L Martin, Timothy A Driscoll, Vinod K Prasad, Joanne Kurtzberg, Kristin M Page, Suhag H Parikh
Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disorder of immune dysregulation characterized by fever, hepatosplenomegaly, cytopenias, CNS disease, increased inflammatory markers and hemophagocytosis. Currently, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is the only curative approach for patients with HLH with reported survival ranging from 50-70% with myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens. However, donor availability and transplant related mortality associated with conventional MAC are major barriers to success...
June 21, 2017: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647491/emerging-pharmacological-approaches-to-promote-neurogenesis-from-endogenous-glial-cells
#8
REVIEW
Enrica Boda, Giulia Nato, Annalisa Buffo
Neurodegenerative disorders are emerging as leading contributors to the global disease burden. While some drug-based approaches have been designed to limit or prevent neuronal loss following acute damage or chronic neurodegeneration, regeneration of functional neurons in the adult Central Nervous System (CNS)still remains an unmet need. In this context, theexploitation of endogenous cellsources has recently gained an unprecedented attention, thanks to the demonstration that, in some CNS regions or under specific circumstances, glial cells can activate spontaneous neurogenesis or can be instructed to produceneurons in the adult mammalian CNS parenchyma...
June 21, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647082/targeting-neuronal-function-for-cns-drug-discovery
#9
REVIEW
Chris M Hempel, Christopher A Werley, Graham T Dempsey, David J Gerber
There is a pressing need for new and more effective treatments for central nervous system (CNS) disorders. A large body of evidence now suggests that alterations in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability represent underlying factors for many neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, it has been challenging to target these complex functional domains for therapeutic discovery using traditional neuronal assay methods. Here we review advances in neuronal screening technologies and cellular model systems that enable phenotypic screening of neuronal function as a basis for novel CNS drug discovery approaches...
March 2017: Drug Discovery Today. Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646771/efficacy-of-alectinib-in-central-nervous-system-metastases-in-crizotinib-resistant-alk-positive-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-comparison-of-recist-1-1-and-rano-hgg-criteria
#10
Leena Gandhi, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Alice T Shaw, Fabrice Barlesi, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dong-Wan Kim, D Ross Camidge, Brett G M Hughes, James C-H Yang, Javier de Castro, Lucio Crino, Hervé Léna, Pascal Do, Sophie Golding, Walter Bordogna, Ali Zeaiter, Ahmed Kotb, Shirish Gadgeel
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) progression is common in patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive (ALK+) non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) receiving crizotinib. Next-generation ALK inhibitors have shown activity against CNS metastases, but accurate assessment of response and progression is vital. Data from two phase II studies in crizotinib-refractory ALK+ NSCLC were pooled to examine the CNS efficacy of alectinib, a CNS-active ALK inhibitor, using Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST version 1...
June 21, 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646573/interferon-%C3%AE-regulates-dendritic-cell-activation-and-migration-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#11
Leesa M Pennell, Eleanor N Fish
CD11c+ dendritic cells (DCs) exert a critical role as antigen-presenting cells in regulating pathogenic T cells in multiple sclerosis (MS). To determine whether the therapeutic benefit of interferon (IFN)-β treatment for MS is in part influenced by IFN regulation of DC function, we examined the immunophenotype of DCs derived from IFN-β(+/+) and IFN-β(-/-) mice using a myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide-induced mouse model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our earlier work identified that IFN-β(-/-) mice exhibit earlier onset and more rapid progression of neurologic impairment compared with IFN-β(+/+) mice...
June 24, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646409/neuroprotective-effects-of-g-csf-administration-in-microglia-mediated-reactive-t-cell-activation-in-vitro
#12
Wei Peng
G-CSF is a growth factor that has known neuroprotective effects in a variety of experimental brain injury models. As both antigen-presenting microglia and reactive T cells are key components in the development and progression of EAE, the aim of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of recombinant human G-CSF, as administered in microglia-mediated reactive T cell assay in vitro. Our results indicate that G-CSF treatment has no apparent effect for the resting un-activated microglia. G-CSF pre-protection of microglia increased protective cytokine IL-4 production and effectively inhibited the productions of NO and other inflammatory mediators (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-17, and chemokine MCP-1) after LPS stimulation...
June 23, 2017: Immunologic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644853/the-novel-phospholipid-mimetic-kpc34-is-highly-active-against-preclinical-models-of-philadelphia-chromosome-positive-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#13
Peter M Alexander, David L Caudell, Gregory L Kucera, Kristin M Pladna, Timothy S Pardee
Philadelphia chromosome positive B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL) is an aggressive cancer of the bone marrow. The addition of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) has improved outcomes but many patients still suffer relapse and novel therapeutic agents are needed. KPC34 is an orally available, novel phospholipid conjugate of gemcitabine, rationally designed to overcome multiple mechanisms of resistance, inhibit the classical and novel isoforms of protein kinase C, is able to cross the blood brain barrier and is orally bioavailable...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644490/potentiating-role-of-copper-on-spatial-memory-deficit-induced-by-beta-amyloid-and-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-function-markers-in-the-hippocampus-of-rats
#14
Ladan Behzadfar, Mohammad Abdollahi, Omid Sabzevari, Rohollah Hosseini, Ahmad Salimi, Parvaneh Naserzadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Jalal Pourahmad
Mounting evidence suggests that copper, a crucial element in normal brain function, plays an important role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, which is known as a neurodegenerative mitochondrial disorder. However, the precise mechanisms of its effects on cognitive and mitochondrial functions through the CNS have not been thoroughly recognized yet. In this study, we aimed to investigate the long-term (3-week) effects of copper sulfate (50, 100 and 200 mg kg(-1) day(-1)) exposure on learning and memory as well as on mitochondrial function in the hippocampus of rats in the presence and absence of beta amyloid (1 μg μl(-1) per side) intrahippocampally (IH)...
June 23, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643358/maximizing-functional-axon-repair-in-the-injured-cns-lessons-from-neuronal-development
#15
Andrew Kaplan, Mardja Bueno, Luyang Hua, Alyson E Fournier
The failure of damaged axons to regrow underlies disability in central nervous system injury and disease. Therapies that stimulate axon repair will be critical to restore function. Extensive axon regeneration can be induced by manipulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors, however it has been difficult to translate this into functional recovery in models of spinal cord injury. The current challenge is to maximize the functional integration of regenerating axons to recover motor and sensory behaviours. Insights into axonal growth and wiring during nervous system development are helping guide new approaches to boost regeneration and functional connectivity after injury in the mature nervous system...
June 23, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642887/dynamic-regulation-of-serum-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-agonists-in-ms
#16
Veit Rothhammer, Davis M Borucki, Maria Isabel Garcia Sanchez, Maria Antonietta Mazzola, Christopher C Hemond, Keren Regev, Anu Paul, Pia Kivisäkk, Rohit Bakshi, Guillermo Izquierdo, Howard L Weiner, Francisco J Quintana
OBJECTIVE: Several factors influence the clinical course of autoimmune inflammatory diseases such as MS and inflammatory bowel disease. Only recently, the complex interaction between the gut microbiome, dietary factors, and metabolism has started to be appreciated with regard to its potential to modulate acute and chronic inflammation. One of the molecular sensors that mediates the effects of these environmental signals on the immune response is the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a ligand-activated transcription factor with key functions in immune cells...
July 2017: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642128/immunomodulation-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-mucuna-pruriens-mp
#17
REVIEW
Sachchida Nand Rai, Hareram Birla, Walia Zahra, Saumitra Sen Singh, Surya Pratap Singh
Immune control is associated with nigrostriatal neuroprotection for Parkinson's disease (PD); though its direct cause and effect relationships have not yet been realized and modulating the immune system for therapeutic gain has been openly discussed. While the pathobiology of PD remains in study, neuroinflammation is thought to speed nigrostriatal degeneration. The neuroinflammatory cascade associated with PD begins with aggregation of misfolded or post-translationally modified α-synuclein (α-syn). Such aggregation results in neuronal cell death and the presence of chronically activated glia (microglia and astroglia), leading to the production of proinflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and enzymes such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642092/chemokine-ccl17-is-expressed-by-dendritic-cells-in-the-cns-during-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-promotes-pathogenesis-of-disease
#18
Christina Ruland, Hannes Renken, Ivan Kuzmanov, Arezoo Fattahi Mehr, Kathrin Schwarte, Manuela Cerina, Alexander Herrmann, David-Marian Otte, Andreas Zimmer, Nicholas Schwab, Sven G Meuth, Volker Arolt, Luisa Klotz, Irmgard Förster, Stefanie Scheu, Judith Alferink
The CC chemokine ligand 17 (CCL17) and its cognate CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) are known to control leukocyte migration, maintenance of TH17 cells, and regulatory T cell (Treg) expansion in vivo. In this study we characterized the expression and functional role of CCL17 in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Using a CCL17/EGFP reporter mouse model, we could show that CCL17 expression in the CNS can be found in a subset of classical dendritic cells (DCs) that immigrate into the CNS during the effector phase of MOG-induced EAE...
June 19, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641926/targeting-the-gm-csf-receptor-for-the-treatment-of-cns-autoimmunity
#19
Igal Ifergan, Todd S Davidson, Hania Kebir, Dan Xu, Daphne Palacios-Macapagal, Jennifer Cann, Jane M Rodgers, Zoe N Hunter, Camille L Pittet, Sara Beddow, Clare A Jones, Alexandre Prat, Matthew A Sleeman, Stephen D Miller
In multiple sclerosis (MS), there is a growing interest in inhibiting the pro-inflammatory effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). We sought to evaluate the therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms of GM-CSF receptor alpha (Rα) blockade in animal models of MS. We show that GM-CSF signaling inhibition at peak of chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) results in amelioration of disease progression. Similarly, GM-CSF Rα blockade in relapsing-remitting (RR)-EAE model prevented disease relapses and inhibited T cell responses specific for both the inducing and spread myelin peptides, while reducing activation of mDCs and inflammatory monocytes...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641623/-analysis-of-clinical-characteristics-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-61-adult-patients-with-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia
#20
Xiao-Ping Zhang, Bao-An Chen, Zheng Ge, Ran Liu, Xiao-Yan Ma, Chong Gao
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical characteristics and curative effect in 61 adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: The clinical data of 61 patients (≥15 years old) with ALL enrolled from January 2010 to December 2014 were studied retrospectively. The relationship between clinical characteristics and curative effect was analyzed. The univariate and multivariate analyses related with the overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) were conducted by using the method of COX regression analysis...
June 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
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