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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149532/exploitation-of-micrornas-by-japanese-encephalitis-virus-in-human-microglial-cells
#1
Meghana Rastogi, Neha Srivastava, Sunit K Singh
JEV infection in CNS leads to the JE neuroinflammation. Children and old age individual have been reported to be more prone to JEV infection. MicroRNAs are endogenous, small non-coding RNAs, which regulate the gene expression. These are ∼22 nucleotide long, conserved RNA sequence that binds at the 3'UTR of a target mRNA and regulate the post-transcriptional gene expression. The role of microRNAs has been reported in several diseases like cancer, viral infection, neuro-degeneration, diabetes etc. In the present study, the human microglial cells were infected with JEV (JaOAr strain)...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149104/cumulative-incidence-rates-for-cns-and-non-cns-progression-in-two-phase-ii-studies-of-alectinib-in-alk-positive-nsclc
#2
Shirish Gadgeel, Alice T Shaw, Fabrice Barlesi, Lucio Crinò, James Chih-Hsin Yang, Anne-Marie C Dingemans, Dong-Wan Kim, Filippo de Marinis, Mathias Schulz, Shiyao Liu, Ravindra Gupta, Ahmed Kotb, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou
BACKGROUND: We evaluated the cumulative incidence rate (CIR) of central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS progression in alectinib-treated patients with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) to determine the extent to which alectinib may treat or control CNS disease. METHODS: Patients with crizotinib-pretreated locally advanced or metastatic disease received alectinib 600 mg orally twice daily in two phase II trials. All patients underwent baseline imaging and regular centrally reviewed scans...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149058/neurotrophic-and-neuroregenerative-effects-of-gh-igf1
#3
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi, Vittorio Locatelli, Laura Rizzi
INTRODUCTION: Human neurodegenerative diseases increase progressively with age and present a high social and economic burden. Growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are both growth factors exerting trophic effects on neuronal regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS). GH and IGF-1 stimulate protein synthesis in neurons, glia, oligodendrocytes, and Schwann cells, and favor neuronal survival, inhibiting apoptosis. This study aims to evaluate the effect of GH and IGF-1 on neurons, and their possible therapeutic clinical applications on neuron regeneration in human subjects...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148267/detection-of-teschovirus-type-13-from-two-swine-herds-exhibiting-nervous-clinical-signs-in-growing-pigs
#4
J Carnero, C Prieto, L Polledo, F J Martínez-Lobo
Recently, the number of clinical reports of growing pigs showing neurological signs possibly related to viral infections has increased. The objective of this report was to describe two outbreaks of an atypical condition observed in 6- to 7-week-old pigs with a morbidity of 20% and a fatality rate of 60% in two unrelated farms of the same company. During the acute phase of the disease, fever, sudden death, neurological signs, ear necrosis and occasional corneal opacity were observed. Histopathological examination revealed interstitial pneumonia, lymphoid depletion and lymphocytic vasculitis in different organs and mild polioencephalomyelitis suggesting a potential viral infection...
November 16, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146953/achievements-and-obstacles-of-remyelinating-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis
#5
REVIEW
Martin Stangel, Tanja Kuhlmann, Paul M Matthews, Trevor J Kilpatrick
Remyelination in the CNS is the natural process of damage repair in demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). However, remyelination becomes inadequate in many people with MS, which results in axonal degeneration and clinical disability. Enhancement of remyelination is a logical therapeutic goal; nevertheless, all currently licensed therapies for MS are immunomodulatory and do not support remyelination directly. Several molecular pathways have been identified as potential therapeutic targets to induce remyelination, and some of these have now been assessed in proof-of-concept clinical trials...
November 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146406/central-nervous-involvement-by-chronic-lymphocytic-leukaemia
#6
Dariusz Szczepanek, Ewa Wąsik-Szczepanek, Agnieszka Szymczyk, Małgorzata Wach, Maria Cioch, Monika Podhorecka, Ewelina Grywalska, Marek Hus
Inclusion of the central nervous system (CNS) in the course of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is rare. At the moment no risk factors or proven treatment methods are known. The disease is described both in its early phase and during its acceleration period, thus it has been suggested that there might be independent mechanisms influencing the development of this condition. As there are no unified diagnostic procedure algorithms each patient needs to be assessed individually. CLL can manifest mostly in elderly people, for whom a possibility of development of neurological disorders with their aetiology different from leukaemia, should also be taken into consideration...
November 1, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145972/cancer-immunotherapy-getting-brainy-visualizing-the-distinctive-cns-metastatic-niche-to-illuminate-therapeutic-resistance
#7
Mark Owyong, Niloufar Hosseini-Nassab, Gizem Efe, Alexander Honkala, Renske J E van den Bijgaart, Vicki Plaks, Bryan Ronain Smith
The advent of cancer immunotherapy (CIT) and its success in treating primary and metastatic cancer may offer substantially improved outcomes for patients. Despite recent advancements, many malignancies remain resistant to CIT, among which are brain metastases, a particularly virulent disease with no apparent cure. The immunologically unique niche of the brain has prompted compelling new questions in immuno-oncology such as the effects of tissue-specific differences in immune response, heterogeneity between primary tumors and distant metastases, and the role of spatiotemporal dynamics in shaping an effective anti-tumor immune response...
November 2017: Drug Resistance Updates: Reviews and Commentaries in Antimicrobial and Anticancer Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143062/-intracranial-cystic-lesions
#8
REVIEW
F Ahlhelm, K Shariat, S Götschi, S Ulmer
CLINICAL PROBLEM: Intracerebral cysts are common findings in imaging of the neurocranium and are not always clinically significant. The pathological spectrum of intracerebral cysts is, however, very broad and in addition to incidental findings includes developmental disorders, malformation tumors, primary and secondary neoplasms and infectious etiologies, such as cerebral abscess formation, cysticercosis or residuals after congenital cytomegalovirus infections. Intracerebral cystic defects may be caused by inflammatory central nervous system (CNS) diseases, such as multiple sclerosis as well as by mitochondriopathies, leukodystrophy, electrolyte disturbances or osmotic demyelination syndrome or brain infarctions, e...
November 15, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142416/protective-effect-of-pluchea-lanceolata-against-aluminum-chloride-induced-neurotoxicity-in-swiss-albino-mice
#9
Ravi Mundugaru, Senthilkumar Sivanesan, Padmaja Udaykumar, Niranjan Rao, Naveen Chandra
Background: Aluminum chloride (AlCl3) is a known potent environmental neurotoxin causing progressive neurodegenerative changes in the brain. The herb Pluchea lanceolata is commonly known as "Rasana" and used as a nerve tonic in neuroinflammatory conditions in Indian system of medicine. Objective: To evaluate the neuroprotective activity of hydroalcoholic extract of P. lanceolata in chronic AlCl3-induced neurotoxicity in Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: Albino mice were categorized into four different groups; Group 1served as vehicle control, Group 2 mice were administered with AlCl3, 40 mg/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route for 45 consecutive days...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142295/regenerating-cns-myelin-from-mechanisms-to-experimental-medicines
#10
REVIEW
Robin J M Franklin, Charles Ffrench-Constant
Although the core concept of remyelination - based on the activation, migration, proliferation and differentiation of CNS progenitors - has not changed over the past 20 years, our understanding of the detailed mechanisms that underlie this process has developed considerably. We can now decorate the central events of remyelination with a host of pathways, molecules, mediators and cells, revealing a complex and precisely orchestrated process. These advances have led to recent drug-based and cell-based clinical trials for myelin diseases and have opened up hitherto unrecognized opportunities for drug-based approaches to therapeutically enhance remyelination...
November 16, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142083/evidence-of-cns-%C3%AE-amyloid-deposition-in-nasu-hakola-disease-due-to-the-trem2-q33x-mutation
#11
Laura Ghezzi, Tiziana Carandini, Andrea Arighi, Chiara Fenoglio, Marina Arcaro, Milena De Riz, Anna M Pietroboni, Giorgio G Fumagalli, Paola Basilico, Alberto Calvi, Marta Scarioni, Annalisa Colombi, Maria Serpente, Giorgio Marotta, Riccardo Benti, Elio Scarpini, Daniela Galimberti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 15, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142080/human-parechovirus-an-increasingly-recognized-cause-of-sepsis-like-illness-in-young-infants
#12
REVIEW
Laudi Olijve, Lance Jennings, Tony Walls
Human parechovirus (HPeV) is increasingly being recognized as a potentially severe viral infection in neonates and young infants. HPeV belongs to the family Picornaviridae and is currently divided into 19 genotypes. HPeV-1 is the most prevalent genotype and most commonly causes gastrointestinal and respiratory disease. HPeV-3 is clinically the most important genotype due to its association with severe disease in younger infants, which may partly be explained by its distinct virological properties. In young infants, the typical clinical presentation includes fever, severe irritability, and rash, often leading to descriptions of "hot, red, angry babies...
January 2018: Clinical Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141825/radiculopathy-in-neuromyelitis-optica-how-does-anti-aqp4-ab-involve-pns
#13
Seungyeon Kim, Joonghyun Park, Bum Sun Kwon, Jin-Woo Park, Ho Jun Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Kiyeun Nam
BACKGROUND: Until recently, the peripheral nervous system (PNS) had been known to be spared in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). However, some studies of late have reported PNS damage in demyelination diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) such as MS and NMOSD. Although multiple studies have reported characteristics reminiscent of peripheral neuropathy in MS, there have been limited reports in NMOSD. To investigate the incidence and pathology of peripheral neuropathy in NMOSD, we reviewed articles describing such cases including our own case...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141819/autoimmune-aquaporin-4-induced-damage-beyond-the-central-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Dian He, Anni Zhang, Ya Li, Gang Cai, Yuan Li, Shipeng Guo
Initially, it was believed that Aquaporin-4 (AQP4)- immunoglobulin G (IgG) only affected the central nervous system (CNS), and peripheral AQP4-expressing organs were usually spared. However, in recent years, increasing evidence has demonstrated that AQP4-IgG causes damage to peripheral organs beyond the CNS such as skeletal muscle, vestibulocochlear nerves, gastrointestinal tract, blood system, kidney, lung and placenta. Recently, the term "autoimmune aquaporin-4 channelopathy" has been proposed to incorporate a wide range of diseases associated with AQP4-IgG, including neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders and AQP4-IgG-induced peripheral nerves system damage...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141813/the-neutrophil-to-lymphocyte-ratio-as-disease-actvity-marker-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-optic-neuritis
#15
A K Bisgaard, G Pihl-Jensen, J L Frederiksen
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been identified as a disease activity marker in several diseases. We aim to evaluate the significance of the NLR in the different subtypes of MS, optic neuritis (ON) and in relation to disease activity and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS). METHODS: We included 378 patients and 813 healthy controls (HC) from The Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000 (NORIP)...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141799/the-4259a-c-polymorphism-of-tim-3-but-not-1637c-t-polymorphism-of-tim-1-is-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-in-isfahan-population
#16
Masoumeh Pouladian, Mazdak Ganjalikhani-Hakemi, Fereshteh Alsahebfosul, Vida Homayouni, Sharifeh Khosravi, Masoud Etemadifar, Fariba Mazrouei, Rasoul Salehi
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which initiated and mediated by autoreactive T helper1 cells directed against myelin antigens. One of T cell surface receptors is T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM) family which its importance in immunology is recently discovered. These molecules have important immunological function by regulation of T effector cells. METHODS: In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of +4259A>C polymorphism in TIM-3 and -1637C>T polymorphism in TIM-1 gene in MS patients and healthy controls using restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141790/cerebral-toxoplasmosis-in-an-ms-patient-receiving-fingolimod
#17
Alejandro Enriquez-Marulanda, Jaime Valderrama-Chaparro, Laura Parrado, Juan Diego Vélez, Ana Maria Granados, Jorge Luis Orozco, Jairo Quiñones
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease in which lymphocytes target putative myelin antigens in the CNS, causing inflammation and neurodegeneration. Fingolimod (FTY720) is an immunosuppressive drug used as a second line therapy for relapsing forms of MS due to its safety profile and good response to treatment. Despite its safety, there are still concerns about the possibility of Fingolimod being linked to the development of opportunistic infections like disseminated varicella zoster infections and herpes simplex encephalitis...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141788/interleukin-1-receptor-antagonist-and-2-5-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like-molecules-as-novel-biomarkers-for-multiple-sclerosis-patients-in-bahrain
#18
Moudi Al-Nashmi, Safa Taha, Isa Alsharoqi, Moiz Bakhiet
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multi-factorial disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS) affecting young adults leading to significant disabilities over time. MS is now believed to be prevalent in Arabian Gulf area with high incidence due to environmental factors and unknown genetic variations. The objectives of this study was to detect up-regulated potential genes that might be involved in neuroinflammatory process in MS patients in Bahrain and to measure the protein levels of the expressed genes...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141208/crispr-transcriptional-activation-analysis-unmasks-an-occult-%C3%AE-secretase-processivity-defect-in-familial-alzheimer-s-disease-skin-fibroblasts
#19
Keiichi Inoue, Luis M A Oliveira, Asa Abeliovich
Mutations in presenilin (PSEN) 1 and 2, which encode components of the γ-secretase (GS) complex, cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). It is hypothesized that altered GS-mediated processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to the Aβ42 fragment, which is accumulated in diseased brain, may be pathogenic. Here, we describe an in vitro model system that enables the facile analysis of neuronal disease mechanisms in non-neuronal patient cells using CRISPR gene activation of endogenous disease-relevant genes...
November 14, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140302/danger-high-voltage-the-role-of-voltage-gated-calcium-channels-in-central-nervous-system-pathology
#20
REVIEW
Andrea Schampel, Stefanie Kuerten
Voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are widely distributed within the central nervous system (CNS) and presumed to play an important role in the pathophysiology of a broad spectrum of CNS disorders including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease as well as multiple sclerosis. Several calcium channel blockers have been in clinical practice for many years so that their toxicity and side effects are well studied. However, these drugs are primarily used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and most if not all effects on brain functions are secondary to peripheral effects on blood pressure and circulation...
November 15, 2017: Cells
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