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Cortical connectivity

Chia-Wei Lin, Hsiang-Yuan Lin, Yu-Chun Lo, Yu-Jen Chen, Yung-Chin Hsu, Yi-Lung Chen, Wen-Yih Isaac Tseng, Susan Shur-Fen Gau
BACKGROUND: Altered inter-regional structural connectivity related to higher cognitive functions has been commonly reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, whether these alterations similarly involve cortico-cerebellar motor circuitries remains largely elusive. METHODS: Using a cross-modality approach accounting for in-scanner motion levels, we investigated white matter (WM) properties in motor circuits of 55 boys with ASD (aged 8-18 years) and 68 age-matched typically developing boys...
November 16, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
Grant Hartung, Claudia Vesel, Ryan Morley, Ali Alaraj, John Sled, David Kleinfeld, Andreas Linninger
Recent advances in modeling oxygen supply to cortical brain tissue have begun to elucidate the functional mechanisms of neurovascular coupling. While the principal mechanisms of blood flow regulation after neuronal firing are generally known, mechanistic hemodynamic simulations cannot yet pinpoint the exact spatial and temporal coordination between the network of arteries, arterioles, capillaries and veins for the entire brain. Because of the potential significance of blood flow and oxygen supply simulations for illuminating spatiotemporal regulation inside the cortical microanatomy, there is a need to create mathematical models of the entire cerebral circulation with realistic anatomical detail...
November 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Yun Wang, Min Ye, Xiuli Kuang, Yaoyao Li, Shisi Hu
The majority of neurons in the neocortex are excitatory pyramidal cells (PCs). Many systematic classification schemes have been proposed based the neuronal morphology, the chemical composition, and the synaptic connectivity, etc . Recently, a cortical column of primary somatosensory cortex (SSC) has been reconstruction and functionally simulated (Markram et al., 2015). Putting forward from this study, here we proposed a simplified classification scheme for PCs in all layers of the SSC by mainly identifying apical dendritic morphology based on a large data set of 3D neuron reconstructions...
December 2018: IBRO Reports
Islem Rekik, Gang Li, Weili Lin, Dinggang Shen
In vivo brain connectomics have heavily relied on using functional and diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) modalities to examine functional and structural relationships between pairs of anatomical regions in the brain. However, research work on brain morphological (i.e., shape-to-shape) connections, which can be derived from T1-w and T2-w MR images, in both typical and atypical development or ageing is very scarce. Furthermore, the brain cannot be only regarded as a static shape, since it is a dynamic complex system that changes at functional, structural and morphological levels...
April 2018: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
Elizabeth A Olson, Roselinde H Kaiser, Diego A Pizzagalli, Scott L Rauch, Isabelle M Rosso
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal subregions, including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (PFC), dorsomedial PFC, and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC), are differentially implicated in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), though few existing studies have examined subregional differences in resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC). We hypothesized that PTSD would involve weaker positive rsFC between ventromedial PFC, dorsomedial PFC, and other default mode network regions and increased negative rsFC between DLPFC and posterior default mode network regions...
October 4, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Akihiro Nishiguchi, Catherine Gilmore, Aman Sood, Michiya Matsusaki, Gavin Collett, Dionne Tannetta, Ian L Sargent, Jennifer McGarvey, Nagaraj D Halemani, Jon Hanley, Fiona Day, Simon Grant, Catherine Murdoch-Davis, Helena Kemp, Paul Verkade, John D Aplin, Mitsuru Akashi, C Patrick Case
Fetal development may be compromised by adverse events at the placental interface between mother and fetus. However, it is still unclear how the communication between mother and fetus occurs through the placenta. In vitro - models of the human placental barrier, which could help our understanding and which recreate three-dimensional (3D) structures with biological functionalities and vasculatures, have not been reported yet. Here we present a 3D-vascularized human primary placental barrier model which can be constructed in 1 day...
August 25, 2018: Biomaterials
Sajjad Muhammad, Mika Niemelä, Martin Lehecka
Resection of brain arteriovenous malformation is challenging particularly if the feeder arteries and draining vein are not directly visible on the surface. Indocyanine green video angiography can assist detection of the connecting point of the draining vein with the superficial vein and can thus localise the cortical entry point for AVM resection. Here, we present a case of a 27-year-old man with headache. CT scan showed right occipital atypical bleeding. CTA and DSA confirmed the cortical AVM fed by the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) branches...
November 15, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jennifer Saunders, Helen L Carlson, Filomeno Cortese, Bradley G Goodyear, Adam Kirton
Perinatal stroke causes lifelong disability, particularly hemiparetic cerebral palsy. Arterial ischemic strokes (AIS) are large, cortical, and subcortical injuries acquired near birth due to acute occlusion of the middle cerebral artery. Periventricular venous infarctions (PVI) are smaller, subcortical strokes acquired prior to 34 weeks gestation involving injury to the periventricular white matter. Both stroke types can damage motor pathways, thus, we investigated resulting alterations in functional motor networks and probed function...
November 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Molly S Hermiller, Stephen VanHaerents, Tommi Raij, Joel L Voss
Episodic memory is thought to rely on interactions of the hippocampus with other regions of the distributed hippocampal-cortical network (HCN) via interregional activity synchrony in the theta frequency band. We sought to causally test this hypothesis using network-targeted transcranial magnetic stimulation. Healthy humans participants completed four experimental sessions, each involving a different stimulation pattern delivered to the same individualized parietal cortex location of the HCN for all sessions...
November 17, 2018: Hippocampus
Jun-Sang Sunwoo, Kwang Su Cha, Jung-Ick Byun, Tae-Joon Kim, Jin-Sun Jun, Jung-Ah Lim, Soon-Tae Lee, Keun-Hwa Jung, Kyung-Il Park, Kon Chu, Han-Joon Kim, Manho Kim, Sang Kun Lee, Kyung Hwan Kim, Carlos H Schenck, Ki-Young Jung
Study Objectives: We investigated EEG power spectral density and functional connectivity during phasic and tonic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and examined any differences between patients with idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and controls. Methods: EEG data from 13 iRBD patients (mean age, 66.3 years; men, 84.6%) and 10 controls (mean age, 62.3 years; men, 70%) were analyzed. We selected thirty 3-s mini-epochs of both tonic and phasic REM sleep. We estimated relative power for six frequency bands...
November 16, 2018: Sleep
Shota Miyaguchi, Naofumi Otsuru, Sho Kojima, Hirotake Yokota, Kei Saito, Yasuto Inukai, Hideaki Onishi
Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) modulates neural connectivity in the cortical area under the electrodes. Although gamma tACS over the M1 and the cerebellar hemisphere has been shown to improve motor performance, the details of this effect remain unclear. This study aimed to clarify whether the effect of gamma tACS over the M1 and the cerebellar hemisphere is a phase-specific. We applied tACS at 70 Hz over the left M1 and the right cerebellar hemisphere to 20 healthy adults while they performed a visuomotor control task using their right index finger for 30 s...
November 13, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maura T Weber, John D Arena, Rui Xiao, John A Wolf, Victoria E Johnson
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is an important consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI). At the moment of trauma, axons rarely disconnect, but undergo cytoskeletal disruption and transport interruption leading to protein accumulation within swellings. The amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulates rapidly and the standard histological evaluation of axonal pathology relies upon its detection. APP+ swellings first appear as varicosities along intact axons, which can ultimately undergo secondary disconnection to leave a terminal "axon bulb" at the disconnected, proximal end...
November 16, 2018: Brain Pathology
James C Dooley, Leah A Krubitzer
Early loss of vision produces dramatic changes in the functional organization and connectivity of the neocortex in cortical areas that normally process visual inputs, such as the primary and second visual area. This loss also results in alterations in the size, functional organization and neural response properties of the primary somatosensory area, S1. However, the anatomical substrate for these functional changes in S1 have never been described. In the present investigation, we quantified the cortical and subcortical connections of S1 in animals that were bilaterally enucleated very early in development, prior to the formation of retino-geniculate and thalamocortical pathways...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Elisenda Bueichekú, César Ávila, Anna Miró-Padilla, Jorge Sepulcre
Brain plasticity occurs over the course of the human lifetime. Learning and training modify our neuronal synapses and adapt our brain activity, from priming effects in modal areas to higher-order changes in the association cortex. The current state of the art suggests that learning and training effects might induce large-scale brain connectivity changes. Here, we used task-fMRI data and graph-based approaches to study the immediate brain changes in functional connections associated with training on a visual search task, and the individual differences in learning were studied by means of brain-behavior correlations...
November 15, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Hideaki Yamamoto, Satoshi Moriya, Katsuya Ide, Takeshi Hayakawa, Hisanao Akima, Shigeo Sato, Shigeru Kubota, Takashi Tanii, Michio Niwano, Sara Teller, Jordi Soriano, Ayumi Hirano-Iwata
As in many naturally formed networks, the brain exhibits an inherent modular architecture that is the basis of its rich operability, robustness, and integration-segregation capacity. However, the mechanisms that allow spatially segregated neuronal assemblies to swiftly change from localized to global activity remain unclear. Here, we integrate microfabrication technology with in vitro cortical networks to investigate the dynamical repertoire and functional traits of four interconnected neuronal modules. We show that the coupling among modules is central...
November 2018: Science Advances
Danhong Wang, Meiling Li, Meiyun Wang, Franziska Schoeppe, Jianxun Ren, Huafu Chen, Dost Öngür, Justin T Baker, Hesheng Liu
Neuroimaging studies of psychotic disorders have demonstrated abnormalities in structural and functional connectivity involving widespread brain networks. However, these group-level observations have failed to yield any biomarkers that can provide confirmatory evidence of a patient's current symptoms, predict future symptoms, or predict a treatment response. Lack of precision in both neuroanatomical and clinical boundaries have likely contributed to the inability of even well-powered studies to resolve these key relationships...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Azadeh Yazdan-Shahmorad, Daniel B Silversmith, Philip N Sabes
Optogenetics is a powerful tool that enables millisecond-level control of the activity of specific groups of neurons. Furthermore, it has the great advantage of artifact free recordings. These characteristics make this technique ideal for relating brain function to behavior in animals with great behavioral capabilities such as non-human primates (NHPs). We recently introduced a practical, stable interface for optogenetic stimulation and recording of large-scale cortical circuits in NHPs. Here we present the various potentials of this interface for studying circuits and connectivity at a large-scale and for relating it to behavior...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
Soha Saleh, Brian M Sandroff, Oyindamola Owoeye, Tyler Vitiello, Armand Hoxha, Guang Yue, John DeLuca
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases that damage the nervous system and inflicts cognitive and motor deficits. In motor domain, MS mainly causes slower gait resulting in challenges in activities of daily living. Premotor cortices are affected by MS, where several imaging studies have reported re-organization in the activity and connectivity of these regions. Recent advancements in mobile imaging technologies and signal processing techniques have made it possible to study supraspinal modulation of walking in able-bodied individuals and persons with injuries or neurological disorders...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
A Averna, D Guggenmos, V Pasquale, M Semprini, R Nudo, M Chiappalone
Intracortical microstimulation can be successfully used to manipulate neuronal activity and connectivity, thus representing a potentially powerful tool to steer neuroplasticity occurring after brain injury. Activity-dependent stimulation (ADS), in which the spikes recorded from a single neuron are used to trigger stimulation at another cortical location, is able to potentiate cortical connections between distant brain areas. Here, we developed an experimental procedure and a computational pipeline aimed at investigating the ability of ADS to induce changes in intra-cortical activity of healthy anesthetized rats...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
M H Black, T Almabruk, M A Albrecht, N T Chen, O V Lipp, T Tan, S Bolte, S Girdler
Difficulties in Facial Emotion Recognition (FER) are commonly associated with individuals diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, the mechanisms underlying these impairments remain inconclusive. While atypical cortical connectivity has been observed in autistic individuals, there is a paucity of investigation during cognitive tasks such as FER. It is possible that atypical cortical connectivity may underlie FER impairments in this population. Electroencephalography (EEG) Imaginary Coherence was examined in 22 autistic adults and 23 typically developing (TD) matched controls during a complex, dynamic FER task...
July 2018: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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