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Cortical connectivity

Matthew Ainsworth, Helen Browncross, Daniel J Mitchell, Anna S Mitchell, Richard E Passingham, Mark J Buckley, John Duncan, Andrew H Bell
Damage following traumatic brain injury or stroke can often extend beyond the boundaries of the initial insult and can lead to maladaptive cortical reorganisation. On the other hand, beneficial cortical reorganisation leading to recovery of function can also occur. We used resting state FMRI to investigate how cortical networks in the macaque brain change across time in response to lesions to the prefrontal cortex, and how this reorganisation correlated with changes in behavioural performance in cognitive tasks...
September 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Dana M Otzel, Christine F Conover, Fan Ye, Ean G Phillips, Taylor Bassett, Russell D Wnek, Micah Flores, Andrea Catter, Payal Ghosh, Alexander Balaez, Jason Petusevsky, Cong Chen, Yongxin Gao, Yi Zhang, Jessica M Jiron, Prodip K Bose, Stephen E Borst, Thomas J Wronski, J Ignacio Aguirre, Joshua F Yarrow
To elucidate mechanisms of bone loss after spinal cord injury (SCI), we evaluated the time-course of cancellous and cortical bone microarchitectural deterioration via microcomputed tomography, measured histomorphometric and circulating bone turnover indices, and characterized the development of whole bone mechanical deficits in a clinically relevant experimental SCI model. 16-weeks-old male Sprague-Dawley rats received T9 laminectomy (SHAM, n = 50) or moderate-severe contusion SCI (n = 52). Outcomes were assessed at 2-weeks, 1-month, 2-months, and 3-months post-surgery...
September 14, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
Catherine Ding, Colin J Palmer, Jakob Hohwy, George J Youssef, Bryan Paton, Naotsugu Tsuchiya, Julie C Stout, Dominic Thyagarajan
Parkinson's disease (PD) alters cortico-basal ganglia-thalamic circuitry and susceptibility to an illusion of bodily awareness, the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI). Bodily awareness is thought to result from multisensory integration in a predominantly cortical network; the role of subcortical connections is unknown. We studied the effect of modulating cortico-subcortical circuitry on multisensory integration for bodily awareness in 24 PD patients treated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS), in comparison to 21 healthy volunteers, using the RHI experiment...
September 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Leo Ai, Priya Bansal, Jerel K Mueller, Wynn Legon
BACKGROUND: Transcranial focused ultrasound (tFUS) is a new non-invasive neuromodulation technique that uses mechanical energy to modulate neuronal excitability with high spatial precision. tFUS has been shown to be capable of modulating EEG brain activity in humans that is spatially restricted, and here, we use 7T MRI to extend these findings. We test the effect of tFUS on 7T BOLD fMRI signals from individual finger representations in the human primary motor cortex (M1) and connected cortical motor regions...
September 14, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Ana S Neto, José M F Ferreira
Bone is a vascularized and connective tissue. The cortical bone is the main part responsible for the support and protection of the remaining systems and organs of the body. The trabecular spongy bone serves as the storage of ions and bone marrow. As a dynamic tissue, bone is in a constant remodelling process to adapt to the mechanical demands and to repair small lesions that may occur. Nevertheless, due to the increased incidence of bone disorders, the need for bone grafts has been growing over the past decades and the development of an ideal bone graft with optimal properties remains a clinical challenge...
September 13, 2018: Materials
Yoram Baram
Experimental constraints have traditionally implied separate studies of different cortical functions, such as memory and sensory-motor control. Yet certain cortical modalities, while repeatedly observed and reported, have not been clearly identified with one cortical function or another. Specifically, while neuronal membrane and synapse polarities with respect to a certain potential value have been attracting considerable interest in recent years, the purposes of such polarities have largely remained a subject for speculation and debate...
September 14, 2018: Neural Computation
Matteo di Volo, Ekaterina O Morozova, Christopher C Lapish, Alexey Kuznetsov, Boris Gutkin
A large body of data has identified numerous molecular targets through which ethanol (EtOH) acts on brain circuits. Yet how these multiple mechanisms interact to result in dysregulated dopamine (DA) release under the influence of alcohol in vivo remains unclear. In this manuscript, we delineate potential circuit-level mechanisms responsible for EtOH-dependent dysregulation of DA release from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) into its projection areas. For this purpose, we constructed a circuit model of the VTA that integrates realistic Glutamatergic (Glu) inputs and reproduces DA release observed experimentally...
September 14, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Maria Angelique Di Biase, Vanessa L Cropley, Luca Cocchi, Alexander Fornito, Fernando Calamante, Eleni P Ganella, Christos Pantelis, Andrew Zalesky
Schizophrenia is associated with cortical thickness (CT) deficits and breakdown in white matter microstructure. Whether these pathological processes are related remains unclear. We used multimodal neuroimaging to investigate the relationship between regional cortical thinning and breakdown in adjacent infracortical white matter as a function of age and illness duration. Structural magnetic resonance and diffusion images were acquired in 218 schizophrenia patients and 167 age-matched healthy controls to map CT and fractional anisotropy in regionally adjacent infracortical white matter at various cortical depths...
September 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Marcelo G Mattar, Sharon L Thompson-Schill, Danielle S Bassett
Value guides behavior. With knowledge of stimulus values and action consequences, behaviors that maximize expected reward can be selected. Prior work has identified several brain structures critical for representing both stimuli and their values. Yet, it remains unclear how these structures interact with one another and with other regions of the brain to support the dynamic acquisition of value-related knowledge. Here, we use a network neuroscience approach to examine how BOLD functional networks change as 20 healthy human subjects learn the values of novel visual stimuli over the course of four consecutive days...
2018: Network neuroscience
Kevin A Bolding, Kevin M Franks
Animals rely on olfaction to find food, attract mates, and avoid predators. To support these behaviors, they must be able to identify odors across different odorant concentrations. The neural circuit operations that implement this concentration invariance remain unclear. We found that despite concentration-dependence in the olfactory bulb (OB), representations of odor identity were preserved downstream, in the piriform cortex (PCx). The OB cells responding earliest after inhalation drove robust responses in sparse subsets of PCx neurons...
September 14, 2018: Science
Federico Battiston, Jeremy Guillon, Mario Chavez, Vito Latora, Fabrizio De Vico Fallani
What is the core of the human brain is a fundamental question that has been mainly addressed by studying the anatomical connections between differently specialized areas, thus neglecting the possible contributions from their functional interactions. While many methods are available to identify the core of a network when connections between nodes are all of the same type, a principled approach to define the core when multiple types of connectivity are allowed is still lacking. Here, we introduce a general framework to define and extract the core-periphery structure of multi-layer networks by explicitly taking into account the connectivity patterns at each layer...
September 12, 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Simon Zhornitsky, Jaime Ide, Wuyi Wang, Herta Chao, Sheng Zhang, Sien Hu, John Krystal, Chiang-Shan Ray Li
Alcohol misuse is associated with thalamic dysfunction. The thalamus comprises subnuclei that relay and integrate information between cortical and subcortical structures. However, it is unclear how the subnuclei contribute to thalamic dysfunctions in problem drinking. We investigated resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) of thalamic subregions in 107 nondependent drinkers (57 women), using masks delineated by white matter tractography. Thalamus was parcelled into motor, somatosensory, visual, premotor, frontal association, parietal association, and temporal association subregions...
September 10, 2018: Brain Connectivity
Colin Hawco, Aristotle N Voineskos, Jennifer K E Steeves, Erin W Dickie, Joseph D Viviano, Jonathan Downar, Daniel M Blumberger, Zafiris J Daskalakis
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates activity at local and regions distal to the site of simulation. TMS has also been found to modulate brain networks, and it has been hypothesized that functional connectivity may predict the neuronal changes at local and distal sites in response to a TMS pulse. However, a direct relationship between resting connectivity and change in TMS-induced brain activation has yet to be demonstrated. Concurrent TMS-fMRI is a technique to directly measure this spread activity following TMS in real time...
July 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Karri Lamsa, Petrina Lau
Formation of a cell assembly, a group of cortical neurons that function co-operatively to sustain an active memory trace, arises from changes in the connections between neurons. Establishment of memory traces is thought to rely on long-term plasticity in excitatory glutamatergic synapses interconnecting principal cells. In addition, recent studies in the hippocampus in vivo indicate that reconfiguration of GABAergic inhibitory interneuron activity also occurs during long-term memory encoding. Recent experiments in anesthetized, as well as in freely moving animals, demonstrate that learning-related hippocampal activities are associated with persistent changes in GABAergic interneuron firing rates and alterations in protein expression levels regulating GABA release...
September 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Gustavo Sudre, Aman Mangalmurti, Philip Shaw
We consider developmental and cognitive models to explain why some children 'grow out' of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by adulthood. The first model views remission as a convergence towards more typical brain function and structure. In support, some studies find that adult remitters are indistinguishable from those who were never affected in the neural substrates of 'top-down' mechanisms of cognitive control, some 'bottom-up' processes of vigilance/response preparation, prefrontal cortical morphology and intrinsic functional connectivity...
September 5, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Francesca Fiori, Emilio Chiappini, Alessio Avenanti
Skillful goal-directed manual actions such as grasping and manipulating objects are supported by a large sensorimotor network. Within this network, the ventral premotor cortex (PMv) transforms visual information about objects into motor commands that are conveyed to the primary motor cortex (M1), allowing fine control of finger movements. However, it is unknown whether transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of this PMv-to-M1 hierarchical pathway improves action performance. To fill in this gap, here, we used cortico-cortical paired associative stimulation (ccPAS) with the aim of manipulating synaptic efficacy in the human PMv-to-M1 pathway...
September 4, 2018: NeuroImage
Heather E Acuff, Amelia Versace, Michele A Bertocci, Cecile D Ladouceur, Lindsay C Hanford, Anna Manelis, Kelly Monk, Lisa Bonar, Alicia McCaffrey, Benjamin I Goldstein, Tina R Goldstein, Dara Sakolsky, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher, Mary L Phillips
Importance: Bipolar disorder (BD) is difficult to distinguish from other psychiatric disorders. Neuroimaging studies can identify objective markers of BD risk. Objective: To identify neuroimaging measures in emotion processing and regulation neural circuitries and their associations with symptoms specific to youth at risk for BD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional (August 1, 2011, to July 31, 2017) and longitudinal (February 1, 2013, to November 30, 2017) neuroimaging study performed at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center compared a sample of 31 offspring of parents with BD (OBP) with 28 offspring of comparison parents with non-BD psychopathologies (OCP) and 21 offspring of healthy parents (OHP); OBP, OCP, and OHP were recruited from the Bipolar Offspring Study and the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms Study...
September 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Jasmeer P Chhatwal, Aaron P Schultz, Trey Hedden, Brendon P Boot, Sarah Wigman, Dorene Rentz, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Disrupted cholinergic neurotransmission plays a central role in Alzheimer's disease, medication-induced memory impairment, and delirium. At the systems level, this suggests anticholinergic drugs may alter the activity and interplay of anatomically distributed neural networks critical for memory function. Using a network-sensitive imaging technique (functional connectivity MRI) and a double-blind, crossover design, we examined the consequences of anticholinergic drug administration on episodic memory and functional network architecture in a group of clinically normal elderly...
September 6, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Basilis Zikopoulos, Xuefeng Liu, Justin Tepe, Iris Trutzer, Yohan J John, Helen Barbas
Autism has been linked with the changes in brain connectivity that disrupt neural communication, especially involving frontal networks. Pathological changes in white matter are evident in adults with autism, particularly affecting axons below the anterior cingulate cortices (ACC). It is still unknown whether axon pathology appears early or late in development and whether it changes or not from childhood through adulthood. To address these questions, we examined typical and pathological development of about 1 million axons in post-mortem brains of children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism (ages 3-67 years)...
September 6, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Giuseppe Vinci, Valérie Ventura, Matthew A Smith, Robert E Kass
It is now common to record dozens to hundreds or more neurons simultaneously, and to ask how the network activity changes across experimental conditions. A natural framework for addressing questions of functional connectivity is to apply Gaussian graphical modeling to neural data, where each edge in the graph corresponds to a non-zero partial correlation between neurons. Because the number of possible edges is large, one strategy for estimating the graph has been to apply methods that aim to identify large sparse effects using an [Formula: see text] penalty...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
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