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Cortical connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944298/hippocampal-diencephalic-cingulate-networks-for-memory-and-emotion-an-anatomical-guide
#1
Emma J Bubb, Lisa Kinnavane, John P Aggleton
This review brings together current knowledge from tract tracing studies to update and reconsider those limbic connections initially highlighted by Papez (1937) for their presumed role in emotion. These connections link hippocampal and parahippocampal regions with the mammillary bodies, the anterior thalamic nuclei, and the cingulate gyrus, all structures now strongly implicated in memory functions. An additional goal of this review is to describe the routes taken by the various connections within this network...
August 4, 2017: Brain and neuroscience advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943848/multimodal-discrimination-of-schizophrenia-using-hybrid-weighted-feature-concatenation-of-brain-functional-connectivity-and-anatomical-features-with-an-extreme-learning-machine
#2
Muhammad Naveed Iqbal Qureshi, Jooyoung Oh, Dongrae Cho, Hang Joon Jo, Boreom Lee
Multimodal features of structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the human brain can assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We performed a classification study on age, sex, and handedness-matched subjects. The dataset we used is publicly available from the Center for Biomedical Research Excellence (COBRE) and it consists of two groups: patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We performed an independent component analysis and calculated global averaged functional connectivity-based features from the resting-state functional MRI data for all the cortical and subcortical anatomical parcellation...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942925/deconstruction-of-corticospinal-circuits-for-goal-directed-motor-skills
#3
Xuhua Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Xinjian Li, Zicong Zhang, Hengfu Yang, Yu Zhang, Philip R Williams, Noaf S A Alwahab, Kush Kapur, Bin Yu, Yiming Zhang, Mengying Chen, Haixia Ding, Charles R Gerfen, Kuan Hong Wang, Zhigang He
Corticospinal neurons (CSNs) represent the direct cortical outputs to the spinal cord and play important roles in motor control across different species. However, their organizational principle remains unclear. By using a retrograde labeling system, we defined the requirement of CSNs in the execution of a skilled forelimb food-pellet retrieval task in mice. In vivo imaging of CSN activity during performance revealed the sequential activation of topographically ordered functional ensembles with moderate local mixing...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942923/transcriptional-architecture-of-synaptic-communication-delineates-gabaergic-neuron-identity
#4
Anirban Paul, Megan Crow, Ricardo Raudales, Miao He, Jesse Gillis, Z Josh Huang
Understanding the organizational logic of neural circuits requires deciphering the biological basis of neuronal diversity and identity, but there is no consensus on how neuron types should be defined. We analyzed single-cell transcriptomes of a set of anatomically and physiologically characterized cortical GABAergic neurons and conducted a computational genomic screen for transcriptional profiles that distinguish them from one another. We discovered that cardinal GABAergic neuron types are delineated by a transcriptional architecture that encodes their synaptic communication patterns...
September 20, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941531/disentangling-how-the-brain-is-wired-in-cortical-cerebral-visual-impairment
#5
Lotfi B Merabet, D Luisa Mayer, Corinna M Bauer, Darick Wright, Barry S Kran
Cortical (cerebral) visual impairment (CVI) results from perinatal injury to visual processing structures and pathways of the brain and is the most common cause of severe visual impairment or blindness in children in developed countries. Children with CVI display a wide range of visual deficits including decreased visual acuity, impaired visual field function, as well as impairments in higher-order visual processing and attention. Together, these visual impairments can dramatically influence a child's development and well-being...
May 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940312/increased-thalamic-resting-state-connectivity-as-a-core-driver-of-lsd-induced-hallucinations
#6
F Müller, C Lenz, P Dolder, U Lang, A Schmidt, M Liechti, S Borgwardt
OBJECTIVE: It has been proposed that the thalamocortical system is an important site of action of hallucinogenic drugs and an essential component of the neural correlates of consciousness. Hallucinogenic drugs such as LSD can be used to induce profoundly altered states of consciousness, and it is thus of interest to test the effects of these drugs on this system. METHOD: 100 μg LSD was administrated orally to 20 healthy participants prior to fMRI assessment. Whole brain thalamic functional connectivity was measured using ROI-to-ROI and ROI-to-voxel approaches...
September 21, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940055/cortical-and-thalamic-connectivity-to-the-second-auditory-cortex-of-the-cat-is-resilient-to-the-onset-of-deafness
#7
Blake E Butler, Alexandra de la Rua, Taylor Ward-Able, Stephen G Lomber
It has been well established that following sensory loss, cortical areas that would normally be involved in perceiving stimuli in the absent modality are recruited to subserve the remaining senses. Despite this compensatory functional reorganization, there is little evidence to date for any substantial change in the patterns of anatomical connectivity between sensory cortices. However, while many auditory areas are contracted in the deaf, the second auditory cortex (A2) of the cat undergoes a volumetric expansion following hearing loss, suggesting this cortical area may demonstrate a region-specific pattern of structural reorganization...
September 22, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939859/cortical-up-states-induce-the-selective-weakening-of-subthreshold-synaptic-inputs
#8
Julian Bartram, Martin C Kahn, Simon Tuohy, Ole Paulsen, Tony Wilson, Edward O Mann
Slow-wave sleep is thought to be important for retuning cortical synapses, but the cellular mechanisms remain unresolved. During slow-wave activity, cortical neurons display synchronized transitions between depolarized Up states and hyperpolarized Down states. Here, using recordings from LIII pyramidal neurons from acute slices of mouse medial entorhinal cortex, we find that subthreshold inputs arriving during the Up state undergo synaptic weakening. This does not reflect a process of global synaptic downscaling, as it is dependent on presynaptic spiking, with network state encoded in the synaptically evoked spine Ca(2+) responses...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939804/separate-neural-representations-of-depression-anxiety-and-apathy-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Rotem Dan, Filip Růžička, Ondrej Bezdicek, Evžen Růžička, Jan Roth, Josef Vymazal, Gadi Goelman, Robert Jech
Depression, anxiety and apathy are distinct neuropsychiatric symptoms that highly overlap in Parkinson's disease (PD). It remains unknown whether each symptom is uniquely associated with a functional network dysfunction. Here, we examined whether individual differences in each neuropsychiatric symptom predict functional connectivity patterns in PD patients while controlling for all other symptoms and motor function. Resting-state functional connectivity MRI were acquired from 27 PD patients and 29 healthy controls...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939165/decrease-in-nmda-receptor-signalling-activity-in-the-anterior-cingulate-cortex-diminishes-defensive-behaviour-and-unconditioned-fear-induced-antinociception-elicited-by-gabaergic-tonic-inhibition-impairment-in-the-posterior-hypothalamus
#10
Luiz Luciano Falconi-Sobrinho, Tayllon Dos Anjos-Garcia, Ricardo de Oliveira, Norberto Cysne Coimbra
Acute γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) disinhibition in the posterior hypothalamus (PH) elicits defensive reactions that are considered anxiety- and panic attack-like behaviour, and these defensive reactions are followed by antinociception. Evidence indicates that the PH connects with the medial prefrontal cortex, particularly the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which seems to regulate these unconditioned fear-induced defensive responses. However, few studies have shown the participation of cortical regions in the control of behavioural and antinociceptive responses organised by diencephalic structures...
September 19, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938855/eeg-resting-state-networks-microstates-source-localization
#11
Anna Custo, Dimitri van der Ville, William M Wells, Ioana M Tomescu, Christoph Michel
Using EEG to elucidate the spontaneous activation of brain resting state networks is non trivial as the signal of interest is of low amplitude and it is difficult to distinguish the underlying neural sources. Using the principles of electric field topographical analysis, it is possible to estimate the meta-stable states of the brain (i.e., the resting state topographies, so-called microstates). We estimated seven resting state topographies explaining the EEG dataset with k-means clustering (N=164, 256 electrodes)...
September 22, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938143/contribution-of-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-to-assessment-of-brain-connectivity-and-networks
#12
REVIEW
Mark Hallett, Riccardo Di Iorio, Paolo Maria Rossini, Jung E Park, Robert Chen, Pablo Celnik, Antonio P Strafella, Hideyuki Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The goal of this review is to show how transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques can make a contribution to the study of brain networks. Brain networks are fundamental in understanding how the brain operates. Effects on remote areas can be directly observed or identified after a period of stimulation, and each section of this review will discuss one method. EEG analyzed following TMS is called TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). A conditioning TMS can influence the effect of a test TMS given over the motor cortex...
September 5, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937691/toward-a-conceptual-framework-for-early-brain-and-behavior-development-in-autism
#13
J Piven, J T Elison, M J Zylka
Studies of infant siblings of older autistic probands, who are at elevated risk for autism, have demonstrated that the defining features of autism are not present in the first year of life but emerge late in the first and into the second year. A recent longitudinal neuroimaging study of high-risk siblings revealed a specific pattern of brain development in infants later diagnosed with autism, characterized by cortical surface area hyper-expansion in the first year followed by brain volume overgrowth in the second year that is associated with the emergence of autistic social deficits...
October 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936280/enhancing-diffusion-mri-measures-by-integrating-grey-and-white-matter-morphometry-with-hyperbolic-wasserstein-distance
#14
Wen Zhang, Jie Shi, Jun Yu, Liang Zhan, Paul M Thompson, Yalin Wang
In order to improve the preclinical diagnose of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a great deal of interest in analyzing the AD related brain structural changes with magnetic resonance image (MRI) analyses. As the major features, variation of the structural connectivity and the cortical surface morphometry provide different views of structural changes to determine whether AD is present on presymptomatic patients. However, the large scale tensor-valued information and relatively low imaging resolution in diffusion MRI (dMRI) have created huge challenges for analysis...
2017: Proceedings of the IEEE International Symposium on Biomedical Imaging: from Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934529/traveling-slow-oscillations-during-sleep-a-marker-of-brain-connectivity-in-childhood
#15
Salome Kurth, Brady A Riedner, Douglas C Dean, Jonathan O'Muircheartaigh, Reto Huber, Oskar G Jenni, Sean C L Deoni, Monique K LeBourgeois
Slow oscillations, a defining characteristic of the nonrapid eye movement sleep electroencephalogram (EEG), proliferate across the scalp in highly reproducible patterns. In adults, the propagation of slow oscillations is a recognized fingerprint of brain connectivity and excitability. In this study, we (1) describe for the first time maturational features of sleep slow oscillation propagation in children (n = 23; 2-13 years) using high-density (hd) EEG and (2) examine associations between sleep slow oscillatory propagation characteristics (ie, distance, traveling speed, cortical involvement) and white matter myelin microstructure as measured with multicomponent Driven Equilibrium Single Pulse Observation of T1 and T2-magnetic resonance imaging (mcDESPOT-MRI)...
September 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934300/synchronizing-the-transcranial-magnetic-pulse-with-electroencephalographic-recordings-effectively-reduces-inter-trial-variability-of-the-pulse-artefact
#16
Leo Tomasevic, Mitsuaki Takemi, Hartwig Roman Siebner
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) can capture the cortical response evoked by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). The TMS pulse provokes a large artefact, which obscures the cortical response in the first milliseconds after TMS. Removing this artefact remains a challenge. METHODS: We delivered monophasic and biphasic TMS to a melon as head phantom and to four healthy participants and recorded the pulse artefact at 5 kHz with a TMS-compatible EEG system...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933765/potential-role-of-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-in-neurodevelopmental-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Sara Anna Bonini, Andrea Mastinu, Giulia Ferrari-Toninelli, Maurizio Memo
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are characterized by neuroanatomical abnormalities indicative of corticogenesis disturbances. At the basis of NDDs cortical abnormalities, the principal developmental processes involved are cellular proliferation, migration and differentiation. NDDs are also considered "synaptic disorders" since accumulating evidence suggests that NDDs are developmental brain misconnection syndromes characterized by altered connectivity in local circuits and between brain regions. Microtubules and microtubule-associated proteins play a fundamental role in the regulation of basic neurodevelopmental processes, such as neuronal polarization and migration, neuronal branching and synaptogenesis...
July 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933314/effectiveness-of-a-low-support-remotely-accessible-cognitive-remediation-training-programme-for-chronic-psychosis-cognitive-functional-and-cortical-outcomes-from-a-single-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
G Donohoe, R Dillon, A Hargreaves, O Mothersill, M Castorina, E Furey, A J Fagan, J F Meaney, B Fitzmaurice, B Hallahan, C McDonald, T Wykes, A Corvin, I H Robertson
BACKGROUND: Cognitive remediation (CR) training has emerged as a promising approach to improving cognitive deficits in schizophrenia and related psychosis. The limited availability of psychological services for psychosis is a major barrier to accessing this intervention however. This study investigated the effectiveness of a low support, remotely accessible, computerised working memory (WM) training programme in patients with psychosis. METHODS: Ninety patients were enrolled into a single blind randomised controlled trial of CR...
September 21, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931610/the-coupling-of-synaptic-inputs-to-local-cortical-activity-differs-among-neurons-and-adapts-following-stimulus-onset
#19
Nathaniel Caleb Wright, Mahmood Sayed Hoseini, Tansel Baran Yasar, Ralf Wessel
Cortical activity contributes significantly to the high variability of sensory responses of interconnected pyramidal neurons, which has crucial implications for sensory coding. Yet, largely because of technical limitations of in vivo intracellular recordings, the coupling of a pyramidal neuron's synaptic inputs to the local cortical activity has evaded full understanding. Here, we obtained excitatory synaptic conductance (g) measurements from putative pyramidal neurons and local field potential (LFP) recordings from adjacent cortical circuits during visual processing in the turtle whole-brain ex vivo preparation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931334/repeated-exposure-to-experimental-pain-differentiates-combat-tbi-with-and-without-ptsd
#20
Irina A Strigo, Andrea D Spadoni, Sabra S Inslicht, Alan N Simmons
Mild traumatic brain injury(mTBI) and posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD) are highly comorbid conditions that often co-occur with chronic pain. We have shown that women with PTSD following intimate partner violence show attenuated brain response to repeated experimental pain that was related to symptoms of avoidance. The aim of this study was to extend our prior findings to males with combat trauma and to examine brain response to experimental pain in men with and without PTSD who sustained mTBI during combat...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
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