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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914126/effects-of-platelet-rich-plasma-on-kidney-regeneration-in-gentamicin-induced-nephrotoxicity
#1
Abbas Moghadam, Tahereh Talaei Khozani, Afsaneh Mafi, Mohammad Reza Namavar, Farzaneh Dehghani
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as a source of growth factors may induce tissue repairing and improve fibrosis. This study aimed to assess the effects of PRP on kidney regeneration and fibrosis in gentamicin (GM)-induced nephrotoxicity rat model by stereological study. Thirty-two male rats were selected. Nephrotoxicity was induced in animals by administration of GM (80 mg/kg/daily, intraperitoneally [IP], 8 day) and animals were treated by PRP (100 μL, intra-cortical injection using surgical microscopy, single dose)...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913627/aberrant-interhemispheric-homotopic-functional-and-structural-connectivity-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#2
Jiuquan Zhang, Bing Ji, Jun Hu, Chaoyang Zhou, Longchuan Li, Zhihao Li, Xuequan Huang, Xiaoping Hu
OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an idiopathic and fatal neurodegenerative disease of the human motor system. While microstructural alterations in corpus callosum (CC) have been identified as a consistent feature of ALS, studies directly examining interhemispheric neural connectivity are still lacking. To shed more light on the pathophysiology of ALS, the present study aims to examine alterations of interhemispheric structural and functional connectivity in individuals with ALS...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913430/cortical-circuit-for-binding-object-identity-and-location-during-multiple-object-tracking
#3
Lauri Nummenmaa, Lauri Oksama, Erico Glerean, Jukka Hyönä
Sustained multifocal attention for moving targets requires binding object identities with their locations. The brain mechanisms of identity-location binding during attentive tracking have remained unresolved. In 2 functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments, we measured participants' hemodynamic activity during attentive tracking of multiple objects with equivalent (multiple-object tracking) versus distinct (multiple identity tracking, MIT) identities. Task load was manipulated parametrically. Both tasks activated large frontoparietal circuits...
December 1, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913211/sgrasp-a-graph-based-method-for-the-derivation-of-subject-specific-functional-parcellations-of-the-brain
#4
N Honnorat, T D Satterthwaite, R E Gur, R C Gur, C Davatzikos
BACKGROUND: Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) has emerged as a prominent tool for the study of functional connectivity. The identification of the regions associated with the different brain functions has received significant interest. However, most of the studies conducted so far have focused on the definition of a common set of regions, valid for an entire population. The variation of the functional regions within a population has rarely been accounted for. New Method: In this paper, we propose sGraSP, a graph-based approach for the derivation of subject-specific functional parcellations...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912755/establishment-of-high-reciprocal-connectivity-between-clonal-cortical-neurons-is-regulated-by-the-dnmt3b-dna-methyltransferase-and-clustered-protocadherins
#5
Etsuko Tarusawa, Makoto Sanbo, Atsushi Okayama, Toshio Miyashita, Takashi Kitsukawa, Teruyoshi Hirayama, Takahiro Hirabayashi, Sonoko Hasegawa, Ryosuke Kaneko, Shunsuke Toyoda, Toshihiro Kobayashi, Megumi Kato-Itoh, Hiromitsu Nakauchi, Masumi Hirabayashi, Takeshi Yagi, Yumiko Yoshimura
BACKGROUND: The specificity of synaptic connections is fundamental for proper neural circuit function. Specific neuronal connections that underlie information processing in the sensory cortex are initially established without sensory experiences to a considerable extent, and then the connections are individually refined through sensory experiences. Excitatory neurons arising from the same single progenitor cell are preferentially connected in the postnatal cortex, suggesting that cell lineage contributes to the initial wiring of neurons...
December 2, 2016: BMC Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911752/frontosubthalamic-circuits-for-control-of-action-and-cognition
#6
Adam R Aron, Damian M Herz, Peter Brown, Birte U Forstmann, Kareem Zaghloul
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) of the basal ganglia appears to have a potent role in action and cognition. Anatomical and imaging studies show that different frontal cortical areas directly project to the STN via so-called hyperdirect pathways. This review reports some of the latest findings about such circuits, including simultaneous recordings from cortex and the STN in humans, single-unit recordings in humans, high-resolution fMRI, and neurocomputational modeling. We argue that a major function of the STN is to broadly pause behavior and cognition when stop signals, conflict signals, or surprise signals occur, and that the fronto-STN circuits for doing this, at least for stopping and conflict, are dissociable anatomically and in terms of their spectral reactivity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911366/a-multimodal-imaging-and-stimulation-based-method-of-evaluating-connectivity-related-brain-excitability-in-patients-with-epilepsy
#7
Mouhsin M Shafi, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Catherine J Chu, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Bernard S Chang
Resting-state functional connectivity MRI (rs-fcMRI) is a technique that identifies connectivity between different brain regions based on correlations over time in the blood-oxygenation level dependent signal. rs-fcMRI has been applied extensively to identify abnormalities in brain connectivity in different neurologic and psychiatric diseases. However, the relationship among rs-fcMRI connectivity abnormalities, brain electrophysiology and disease state is unknown, in part because the causal significance of alterations in functional connectivity in disease pathophysiology has not been established...
November 13, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911020/changes-in-resting-state-connectivity-in-musicians-with-embouchure-dystonia
#8
Bernhard Haslinger, Jonas Noé, Eckart Altenmüller, Valentin Riedl, Claus Zimmer, Tobias Mantel, Christian Dresel
OBJECTIVE: Embouchure dystonia is a highly disabling task-specific dystonia in professional brass musicians leading to spasms of perioral muscles while playing the instrument. As they are asymptomatic at rest, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in these patients can reveal changes in functional connectivity within and between brain networks independent from dystonic symptoms. METHODS: We therefore compared embouchure dystonia patients to healthy musicians with resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in combination with independent component analyses...
December 2, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910247/auditory-processing-in-noise-is-associated-with-complex-patterns-of-disrupted-functional-connectivity-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#9
Fahimeh Mamashli, Sheraz Khan, Hari Bharadwaj, Konstantinos Michmizos, Santosh Ganesan, Keri-Lee A Garel, Javeria Ali Hashmi, Martha R Herbert, Matti Hämäläinen, Tal Kenet
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulty in processing speech in a noisy background, but the neural mechanisms that underlie this deficit have not been mapped. To address this question, we used magnetoencephalography to compare the cortical responses between ASD and typically developing (TD) individuals to a passive mismatch paradigm. We repeated the paradigm twice, once in a quiet background, and once in the presence of background noise. We focused on both the evoked mismatch field (MMF) response in temporal and frontal cortical locations, and functional connectivity with spectral specificity between those locations...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909100/lhx2-interacts-with-the-nurd-complex-and-regulates-cortical-neuron-subtype-determinants-fezf2-and-sox11
#10
Bhavana Muralidharan, Zeba Khatri, Upasana Maheshwari, Ritika Gupta, Basabdatta Roy, Saurabh J Pradhan, Krishanpal Karmodiya, Hari Padmanabhan, Ashwin Shetty, Chinthapalli Balaji, Ullas Kolthur-Seetharam, Jeffrey D Macklis, Sanjeev Galande, Shubha Tole
: In the developing cerebral cortex, sequential transcriptional programs take neuroepithelial cells from proliferating progenitors to differentiated neurons with unique molecular identities. The regulatory changes that occur in the chromatin of the progenitors are not well understood. During deep layer neurogenesis, we show that transcription factor Lhx2 binds to distal regulatory elements of Fezf2 and Sox11, critical determinants of neuron subtype identity in the mouse neocortex. We demonstrate that Lhx2 binds to the NuRD histone remodeling complex subunits LSD1, HDAC2, and RBBP4, which are proximal regulators of the epigenetic state of chromatin...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908787/fractionating-the-anterior-temporal-lobe-mvpa-reveals-differential-responses-to-input-and-conceptual-modality
#11
Charlotte Murphy, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, David Watson, Theodoros Karapanagiotidis, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Words activate cortical regions in accordance with their modality of presentation (i.e., written vs. spoken), yet there is a long-standing debate about whether patterns of activity in any specific brain region capture modality-invariant conceptual information. Deficits in patients with semantic dementia highlight the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as an amodal store of semantic knowledge but these studies do not permit precise localisation of this function. The current investigation used multiple imaging methods in healthy participants to examine functional dissociations within ATL...
November 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906973/detecting-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-using-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-connectivity
#12
Vasily A Vakorin, Sam M Doesburg, Leodante da Costa, Rakesh Jetly, Elizabeth W Pang, Margot J Taylor
Accurate means to detect mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) using objective and quantitative measures remain elusive. Conventional imaging typically detects no abnormalities despite post-concussive symptoms. In the present study, we recorded resting state magnetoencephalograms (MEG) from adults with mTBI and controls. Atlas-guided reconstruction of resting state activity was performed for 90 cortical and subcortical regions, and calculation of inter-regional oscillatory phase synchrony at various frequencies was performed...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903734/deviations-from-critical-dynamics-in-interictal-epileptiform-activity
#13
Oshrit Arviv, Mordekhay Medvedovsky, Liron Sheintuch, Abraham Goldstein, Oren Shriki
: The framework of criticality provides a unifying perspective on neuronal dynamics from in vitro cortical cultures to functioning human brains. Recent findings suggest that a healthy cortex displays critical dynamics, giving rise to scale-free spatiotemporal cascades of activity, termed neuronal avalanches. Pharmacological manipulations of the excitation-inhibition balance (EIB) in cortical cultures were previously shown to result in deviations from criticality and from the power law scaling of avalanche size distribution...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903707/formation-of-long-term-locomotor-memories-is-associated-with-functional-connectivity-changes-in-the-cerebellar-thalamic-cortical-network
#14
Firas Mawase, Simona Bar-Haim, Lior Shmuelof
: Although motor adaptation is typically rapid, accumulating evidence shows that it is also associated with long-lasting behavioural and neuronal changes. Two processes were suggested to explain the formation of long-term motor memories: recall -- reflecting a retrieval of previous motor actions, and faster relearning -- reflecting an increased sensitivity to errors. While these manifestations of motor memories were initially demonstrated in the context of adaptation experiments in reaching, indications of long-term motor memories were also recently demonstrated in other kinds of adaptation, such as in locomotor adaptation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903705/organization-of-the-claustrum-to-entorhinal-cortical-connection-in-mice
#15
Takuma Kitanishi, Naoki Matsuo
: The claustrum, a subcortical structure situated between the insular cortex and striatum, is reciprocally connected with almost all neocortical regions. Based on this connectivity, the claustrum has been postulated to integrate multisensory information and, in turn, coordinate widespread cortical activity. While studies have identified how sensory information is mapped onto the claustrum, the function of individual topographically-arranged claustro-cortical pathways has been little explored...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902865/small-world-properties-changes-in-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#16
Yongxia Zhou
PURPOSE: To investigate local and global efficiency changes characterized by small-world properties based on resting-state functional MRI, such as centrality and clustering coefficient, in mild traumatic brain injury (MTBI) patients; and to associate these findings with axonal injury as measured by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) as well as with post-concussive symptom (PCS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty patients (mean age 35 ± 13 years) with clinically defined MTBI and 45 age-matched healthy controls (mean age 37 ± 10 years) participated in the experiments...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900344/neurovascular-coupling-develops-alongside-neural-circuits-in-the-postnatal-brain
#17
COMMENT
Mariel G Kozberg, Elizabeth M C Hillman
In the adult brain, increases in local neural activity are accompanied by increases in regional blood flow. This relationship between neural activity and hemodynamics is termed neurovascular coupling and provides the blood flow-dependent contrast detected in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neurovascular coupling is commonly assumed to be consistent and reliable from birth; however, numerous studies have demonstrated markedly different hemodynamics in the early postnatal brain. Our recent study in J...
2016: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897678/a-tale-of-two-temporal-coding-strategies-common-and-dissociable-brain-regions-involved-in-recency-versus-associative-temporal-order-retrieval-strategies
#18
Jennifer S Lieberman, Colin T Kyle, Amber Schedlbauer, Jared Stokes, Arne D Ekstrom
Numerous studies indicate the importance of the hippocampus to temporal order retrieval. However, behavioral studies suggest that there are different ways to retrieve temporal order information from encoded sequences, one involving an associative strategy (retrieving associations using neighboring items in a list) and another involving a recency strategy (determining which of two items came first). It remains unresolved, however, whether both strategies recruit the hippocampus or only associative strategies, consistent with the hippocampus's role in relational processing...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897244/neural-oscillations-in-the-temporal-pole-for-a-temporally-congruent-audio-visual-speech-detection-task
#19
Takefumi Ohki, Atsuko Gunji, Yuichi Takei, Hidetoshi Takahashi, Yuu Kaneko, Yosuke Kita, Naruhito Hironaga, Shozo Tobimatsu, Yoko Kamio, Takashi Hanakawa, Masumi Inagaki, Kazuo Hiraki
Though recent studies have elucidated the earliest mechanisms of processing in multisensory integration, our understanding of how multisensory integration of more sustained and complicated stimuli is implemented in higher-level association cortices is lacking. In this study, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine how neural oscillations alter local and global connectivity during multisensory integration processing. We acquired MEG data from 15 healthy volunteers performing an audio-visual speech matching task...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897179/parvalbumin-and-vasoactive-intestinal-polypeptide-expressing-neocortical-interneurons-impose-differential-inhibition-on-martinotti-cells
#20
F Walker, M Möck, M Feyerabend, J Guy, R J Wagener, D Schubert, J F Staiger, M Witte
Disinhibition of cortical excitatory cell gate information flow through and between cortical columns. The major contribution of Martinotti cells (MC) is providing dendritic inhibition to excitatory neurons and therefore they are a main component of disinhibitory connections. Here we show by means of optogenetics that MC in layers II/III of the mouse primary somatosensory cortex are inhibited by both parvalbumin (PV)- and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP)-expressing cells. Paired recordings revealed stronger synaptic input onto MC from PV cells than from VIP cells...
November 29, 2016: Nature Communications
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