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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346766/cell-type-specificity-of-callosally-evoked-excitation-and-feedforward-inhibition-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Paul G Anastasiades, Joseph J Marlin, Adam G Carter
Excitation and inhibition are highly specific in the cortex, with distinct synaptic connections made onto subtypes of projection neurons. The functional consequences of this selective connectivity depend on both synaptic strength and the intrinsic properties of targeted neurons but remain poorly understood. Here, we examine responses to callosal inputs at cortico-cortical (CC) and cortico-thalamic (CT) neurons in layer 5 of mouse prelimbic prefrontal cortex (PFC). We find callosally evoked excitation and feedforward inhibition are much stronger at CT neurons compared to neighboring CC neurons...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346515/a-brain-based-pain-facilitation-mechanism-contributes-to-painful-diabetic-polyneuropathy
#2
Andrew R Segerdahl, Andreas C Themistocleous, Dean Fido, David L Bennett, Irene Tracey
The descending pain modulatory system represents one of the oldest and most fundamentally important neurophysiological mechanisms relevant to pain. Extensive work in animals and humans has shown how a functional imbalance between the facilitatory and inhibitory components is linked to exacerbation and maintenance of persistent pain states. Forward translation of these findings into clinical populations is needed to verify the relevance of this imbalance. Diabetic polyneuropathy is one of the most common causes of chronic neuropathic pain; however, the reason why ∼25-30% of patients with diabetes develop pain is not known...
January 15, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343732/the-neural-correlates-of-the-unified-percept-of-alcohol-related-craving-a-fmri-and-eeg-study
#3
Yuefeng Huang, Anusha Mohan, Dirk De Ridder, Stefan Sunaert, Sven Vanneste
Alcohol addiction is accompanied by aberrant neural activity. Previously, task-based fMRI and resting-state EEG studies have revealed that craving, a critical component of addiction, is linked to abnormal activity in cortical regions including the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), nucleus accumbens (NAcc), posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC), etc. In this study, we combine these two imaging techniques to investigate a group of alcohol-addicted patients and provide convergent evidence for the neural correlates of craving not only in alcohol but substance abuse in general...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343719/the-significant-role-of-c-abl-kinase-in-barrier-altering-agonists-mediated-cytoskeletal-biomechanics
#4
X Wang, L Wang, J G N Garcia, S M Dudek, G S Shekhawat, V P Dravid
Exploration of human pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) as a prototypical biomechanical system has important pathophysiologic relevance because this cell type plays a key role in the development of a wide variety of clinical conditions. The complex hierarchical organization ranging from the molecular scale up to the cellular level has an intimate and intricate relationship to the barrier function between lung tissue and blood. To understand the innate molecule-cell-tissue relationship across varied length-scales, the functional role of c-Abl kinase in the cytoskeletal nano-biomechanics of ECs in response to barrier-altering agonists was investigated using atomic force microscopy...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343230/the-sybil-aa-real-time-fmri-neurofeedback-study-protocol-of-a-single-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#5
Martin Fungisai Gerchen, Martina Kirsch, Nathalie Bahs, Patrick Halli, Sarah Gerhardt, Axel Schäfer, Wolfgang H Sommer, Falk Kiefer, Peter Kirsch
BACKGROUND: Alcohol Use Disorder is a highly prevalent mental disorder which puts a severe burden on individuals, families, and society. The treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder is challenging and novel and innovative treatment approaches are needed to expand treatment options. A promising neuroscience-based intervention method that allows targeting cortical as well as subcortical brain processes is real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging neurofeedback. However, the efficacy of this technique as an add-on treatment of Alcohol Use Disorder in a clinical setting is hitherto unclear and will be assessed in the Systems Biology of Alcohol Addiction (SyBil-AA) neurofeedback study...
January 17, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341331/the-relationship-between-thalamic-gaba-content-and-resting-cortical-rhythm-in-neuropathic-pain
#6
Flavia Di Pietro, Paul M Macey, Caroline D Rae, Zeynab Alshelh, Vaughan G Macefield, E Russell Vickers, Luke A Henderson
Recurrent thalamocortical connections are integral to the generation of brain rhythms and it is thought that the inhibitory action of the thalamic reticular nucleus is critical in setting these rhythms. Our work and others' has suggested that chronic pain that develops following nerve injury, that is, neuropathic pain, results from altered thalamocortical rhythm, although whether this dysrhythmia is associated with thalamic inhibitory function remains unknown. In this investigation, we used electroencephalography and magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate cortical power and thalamic GABAergic concentration in 20 patients with neuropathic pain and 20 pain-free controls...
January 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341303/cardiorespiratory-fitness-is-associated-with-enhanced-hippocampal-functional-connectivity-in-healthy-young-adults
#7
Chelsea M Stillman, Fatma Uyar, Haiqing Huang, George A Grove, Jennifer C Watt, Mariegold E Wollam, Kirk I Erickson
Consistent associations have been found between higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and indices of enhanced brain health and function, including behavioral measures of cognition as well as neuroimaging indicators such as regional brain volume. Several studies have reported that higher CRF levels are associated with a larger hippocampus, yet associations between volume and memory or functional connectivity metrics with the hippocampus remain poorly understood. Using a multi-modal framework, we hierarchically examine the association between CRF and hippocampal volume and resting state functional connectivity (rsFC) in younger adults (ages 22-38), as well as the relationship between these imaging markers and memory function...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339474/robust-prediction-of-individual-creative-ability-from-brain-functional-connectivity
#8
Roger E Beaty, Yoed N Kenett, Alexander P Christensen, Monica D Rosenberg, Mathias Benedek, Qunlin Chen, Andreas Fink, Jiang Qiu, Thomas R Kwapil, Michael J Kane, Paul J Silvia
People's ability to think creatively is a primary means of technological and cultural progress, yet the neural architecture of the highly creative brain remains largely undefined. Here, we employed a recently developed method in functional brain imaging analysis-connectome-based predictive modeling-to identify a brain network associated with high-creative ability, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data acquired from 163 participants engaged in a classic divergent thinking task. At the behavioral level, we found a strong correlation between creative thinking ability and self-reported creative behavior and accomplishment in the arts and sciences (r = 0...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338838/neuronal-populations-in-the-occipital-cortex-of-the-blind-synchronize-to-the-temporal-dynamics-of-speech
#9
Markus Johannes Van Ackeren, Francesca M Barbero, Stefania Mattioni, Roberto Bottini, Olivier Collignon
The occipital cortex of early blind individuals (EB) activates during speech processing, challenging the notion of a hard-wired neurobiology of language. But, at what stage of speech processing do occipital regions participate in EB? Here we demonstrate that parieto-occipital regions in EB enhance their synchronization to acoustic fluctuations in human speech in the theta-range (corresponding to syllabic rate), irrespective of speech intelligibility. Crucially, enhanced synchronization to the intelligibility of speech was selectively observed in primary visual cortex in EB, suggesting that this region is at the interface between speech perception and comprehension...
January 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338310/therapy-induced-plasticity-in-chronic-aphasia-is-associated-with-behavioral-improvement-and-time-since-stroke
#10
Priya Santhanam, E Susan Duncan, Steven L Small
Cortical reorganization after stroke is thought to underlie functional improvement. Patterns of reorganization may differ depending on the amount of time since the stroke or the degree of improvement. We investigated these issues in a study of brain connectivity changes with aphasia therapy. Twelve individuals with chronic aphasia participated in a 6-week trial of imitation-based speech therapy. We assessed improvement on a repetition test and analyzed effective connectivity during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a speech observation task before and after therapy...
January 16, 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336937/the-combination-of-stereo-eeg-and-radiofrequency-ablation
#11
Hélène Catenoix, Pierre Bourdillon, Marc Guénot, Jean Isnard
SEEG-guided radiofrequency thermocoagulation (SEEG-guided RFTC), a combination of Stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) and radiofrequency thermocoagulation (RFTC), has been performed since 2001 in drug resistant epilepsy. The interest of this procedure is to aim at total or partial destruction of the epileptogenic zone, as tailored in each individual patient by the SEEG exploration. These multiple SEEG-guided RFTC lesions of epileptic foci are produced by using a radiofrequency generator connected to the electrode contacts...
January 9, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335882/clinical-response-to-vim-s-thalamic-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-essential-tremor-is-associated-with-distinctive-functional-connectivity-patterns
#12
Constantin Tuleasca, Elena Najdenovska, Jean Régis, Tatiana Witjas, Nadine Girard, Jérôme Champoudry, Mohamed Faouzi, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Meritxell Bach Cuadra, Marc Levivier, Dimitri Van De Ville
INTRODUCTION: Essential tremor (ET) is the most common movement disorder. Drug-resistant ET can benefit from standard surgical stereotactic procedures (deep brain stimulation, thalamotomy) or minimally invasive high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) or stereotactic radiosurgical thalamotomy (SRS-T). Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) is a non-invasive imaging method acquired in absence of a task. We examined whether rs-fMRI correlates with tremor score on the treated hand (TSTH) improvement 1 year after SRS-T...
January 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335790/echinococcus-multilocularis-cestoda-cyclophyllidea-taeniidae-origin-differentiation-and-functional-ultrastructure-of-the-oncospheral-tegument-and-hook-region-membrane
#13
Zdzisław Świderski, Jordi Miquel, Samira Azzouz-Maache, Anne-Françoise Pétavy
Both the oncospheral tegument and the hook region membrane (HRM) of Echinococcus multilocularis hexacanths originate from a syncytial binucleate complex that appears in the early stage of morphogenesis and organogenesis of the hexacanth larva. The primordium of this binucleate complex forms a binucleate syncytial cap or "calotte" situated beneath the inner envelope at one pole of the developing embryo. During oncospheral differentiation, the binucleate perikaryon of the syncytial cap is sunk progressively deeper into the central part of the embryo, but remains always connected with the distal cytoplasm by a tendrillar cytoplasmic connection or bridge...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335359/recruitment-of-additional-corticospinal-pathways-in-the-human-brain-with-state-dependent-paired-associative-stimulation
#14
Dominic Kraus, Georgios Naros, Robert Guggenberger, Maria Teresa Leão, Ulf Ziemann, Alireza Gharabaghi
Standard brain stimulation protocols modify human motor cortex excitability by modulating the gain of the activated corticospinal pathways. However, the restoration of motor function following lesions of the corticospinal tract requires also the recruitment of additional neurons to increase the net corticospinal output. For this purpose, we investigated a novel protocol based on brain state-dependent paired associative stimulation.Motor imagery (MI)-related electroencephalography was recorded in healthy males and females for brain state-dependent control of both cortical and peripheral stimulation in a brain-machine interface environment...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333488/dopamine-development-in-the-mouse-orbital-prefrontal-cortex-is-protracted-and-sensitive-to-amphetamine-in-adolescence
#15
Daniel Hoops, Lauren M Reynolds, Jose-Maria Restrepo-Lozano, Cecilia Flores
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is divided into subregions, including the medial and orbital prefrontal cortices. Dopamine connectivity in the medial PFC (mPFC) continues to be established throughout adolescence as the result of the continuous growth of axons that innervated the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) prior to adolescence. During this period, dopamine axons remain vulnerable to environmental influences, such as drugs used recreationally by humans. The developmental trajectory of the orbital prefrontal dopamine innervation remains almost completely unstudied...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332256/dopamine-dependent-social-information-processing-in-non-human-primates
#16
Young-A Lee, Sarah Lionnet, Akemi Kato, Yukiori Goto
RATIONALE: Dopamine (DA) is a neurotransmitter whose roles have been suggested in various aspects of brain functions. Recent studies in rodents have reported its roles in social function. However, how DA is involved in social information processing in primates has largely remained unclear. OBJECTIVES: We investigated prefrontal cortical (PFC) activities associated with social vs. nonsocial visual stimulus processing. METHODS: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was applied to Japanese macaques, along with pharmacological manipulations of DA transmission, while they were gazing at social and nonsocial visual stimuli...
January 14, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330480/anti-correlated-cortical-networks-arise-from-spontaneous-neuronal-dynamics-at-slow-timescales
#17
Nathan X Kodama, Tianyi Feng, James J Ullett, Hillel J Chiel, Siddharth S Sivakumar, Roberto F Galán
In the highly interconnected architectures of the cerebral cortex, recurrent intracortical loops disproportionately outnumber thalamo-cortical inputs. These networks are also capable of generating neuronal activity without feedforward sensory drive. It is unknown, however, what spatiotemporal patterns may be solely attributed to intrinsic connections of the local cortical network. Using high-density microelectrode arrays, here we show that in the isolated, primary somatosensory cortex of mice, neuronal firing fluctuates on timescales from milliseconds to tens of seconds...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329401/morphological-and-functional-characterization-of-non-fast-spiking-gabaergic-interneurons-in-layer-4-microcircuitry-of-rat-barrel-cortex
#18
Vishalini Emmenegger, Guanxiao Qi, Haijun Wang, Dirk Feldmeyer
GABAergic interneurons are notorious for their heterogeneity, despite constituting a small fraction of the neuronal population in the neocortex. Classification of interneurons is crucial for understanding their widespread cortical functions as they provide a complex and dynamic network, balancing excitation and inhibition. Here, we investigated different types of non-fast-spiking (nFS) interneurons in Layer 4 (L4) of rat barrel cortex using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings with biocytin-filling. Based on a quantitative analysis on a combination of morphological and electrophysiological parameters, we identified 5 distinct types of L4 nFS interneurons: 1) trans-columnar projecting interneurons,2) locally projecting non-Martinotti-like interneurons, 3) supra-granular projecting Martinotti-like interneurons,4) intra-columnar projecting VIP-like interneurons,and5) locally projecting neurogliaform-like interneurons...
January 10, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329316/electroencephalography-power-and-coherence-changes-with-age-and-motor-skill-development-across-the-first-half-year-of-life
#19
Ran Xiao, Joanne Shida-Tokeshi, Douglas L Vanderbilt, Beth A Smith
Existing research in infants has correlated electroencephalography (EEG) measures of power and coherence to cognitive development and to locomotor experience, but only in infants older than 5 months of age. Our goal was to explore the relationship between EEG measures of power and coherence and motor skill development in younger infants who are developing reaching skill. Twenty-one infants with typical development between 38 and 203 days of age participated. Longitudinal EEG recording sessions were recorded in monthly increments, with 3-5 sessions acquired for 19 participants and 1 session for 2 participants, resulting in 71 sessions in total...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328918/transmembrane-pickets-connect-cyto-and-pericellular-skeletons-forming-barriers-to-receptor-engagement
#20
Spencer A Freeman, Anthony Vega, Magdalena Riedl, Richard F Collins, Phillip P Ostrowski, Elliot C Woods, Carolyn R Bertozzi, Markku I Tammi, Diane S Lidke, Pauline Johnson, Satyajit Mayor, Khuloud Jaqaman, Sergio Grinstein
Phagocytic receptors must diffuse laterally to become activated upon clustering by multivalent targets. Receptor diffusion, however, can be obstructed by transmembrane proteins ("pickets") that are immobilized by interacting with the cortical cytoskeleton. The molecular identity of these pickets and their role in phagocytosis have not been defined. We used single-molecule tracking to study the interaction between Fcγ receptors and CD44, an abundant transmembrane protein capable of indirect association with F-actin, hence likely to serve as a picket...
January 11, 2018: Cell
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