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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231582/radiomics-in-head-and-neck-cancer-extracting-valuable-information-from-data-beyond-recognition
#1
Kathrin Scheckenbach, Lena Colter, Martin Wagenmann
In oncology, biomarkers that describe the characteristics of a malignancy on different levels (clinical, histological, molecular) and the patient's outcome and treatment response are increasingly integrated into the clinical routine. Extensive screening tools, "omics," offer incredible opportunities and vast amounts of data. During the last years, the field of "omics" gained a new promising partner, the "radiomics." Based on radiological imaging, multiple features can be extracted and linked to clinical, genomic, and histopathological data from other sources...
February 24, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231055/the-role-of-extracellular-vesicle-micrornas-in-cancer-biology
#2
Ryou-U Takahashi, Marta Prieto-Vila, Ai Hironaka, Takahiro Ochiya
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute a large family of small, approximately 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that regulate the expression of target genes, mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Multiple studies report that miRNAs are involved in homeostatic maintenance and that aberrant expression of miRNAs is often observed in various types of diseases, including cancer. In cancer biology, miRNAs exert functional roles in tumor initiation, drug resistance, and metastasis. MiRNAs are also secreted through small vesicles called exosomes, which are endosome-derived vesicles derived from various cell types including immune and tumor cells...
February 23, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230825/molecular-markers-of-apoptosis-in-cancer-patients-exposed-to-ionizing-radiation-the-post-chornobyl-view
#3
A A Philchenkov, E K Balcer-Kubiczek
During the past three decades, the deleterious consequences of Chornobyl accident including carcinogenic effects in the people who were accidentally exposed to radiation have been intensively studied. In particular, recent studies provided increased knowledge of the molecular pathogenesis of thyroid tumors in children exposed to Chornobyl fallout. The risk of several forms of leukemia including myelodysplastic syndromes is elevated in Chornobyl liquidators. Furthermore, the upward trends of increases in a variety of other tumors including breast cancer, cancers of central nervous system and renal cancer have been reported in the persons exposed to Chornobyl fallout...
December 2016: Experimental Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230005/current-mechanism-of-acquired-resistance-to-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-and-updated-therapy-strategies-in-human-nonsmall-cell-lung-cancer
#4
REVIEW
Kaixian Zhang, Qianqian Yuan
Lung cancer continues to be a major health problem and the most common cancer-related mortality worldwide with about 80%-85% patients suffering from nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC). More than 80% of NSCLC cases are often diagnosed as advanced stage and harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activating mutation. Although great success in initial response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) are found in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, acquired resistance usually occurs on the continuous treatment...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229253/the-biology-of-uveal-melanoma
#5
Adriana Amaro, Rosaria Gangemi, Francesca Piaggio, Giovanna Angelini, Gaia Barisione, Silvano Ferrini, Ulrich Pfeffer
Uveal melanoma (UM), a rare cancer of the eye, is distinct from cutaneous melanoma by its etiology, the mutation frequency and profile, and its clinical behavior including resistance to targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockers. Primary disease is efficiently controlled by surgery or radiation therapy, but about half of UMs develop distant metastasis mostly to the liver. Survival of patients with metastasis is below 1 year and has not improved in decades. Recent years have brought a deep understanding of UM biology characterized by initiating mutations in the G proteins GNAQ and GNA11...
February 22, 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228558/the-ribosomal-protein-s19-suppresses-antitumor-immune-responses-via-the-complement-c5a-receptor-1
#6
Maciej M Markiewski, Surya Kumari Vadrevu, Sharad K Sharma, Navin Kumar Chintala, Shanawaz Ghouse, Jun-Hung Cho, David P Fairlie, Yvonne Paterson, Aristotelis Astrinidis, Magdalena Karbowniczek
Relatively little is known about factors that initiate immunosuppression in tumors and act at the interface between tumor cells and host cells. In this article, we report novel immunosuppressive properties of the ribosomal protein S19 (RPS19), which is upregulated in human breast and ovarian cancer cells and released from apoptotic tumor cells, whereupon it interacts with the complement C5a receptor 1 expressed on tumor infiltrating myeloid-derived suppressor cells. This interaction promotes tumor growth by facilitating recruitment of these cells to tumors...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228261/context-dependent-effects-of-amplified-mapk-signaling-during-lung-adenocarcinoma-initiation-and-progression
#7
Michelle Cicchini, Elizabeth L Buza, Kyra M Sagal, A Andrea Gudiel, Amy C Durham, David M Feldser
Expression of oncogenic Kras(G12D) initiates lung adenomas in a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal-dependent manner from only a subset of cell types in the adult mouse lung. Amplification of MAPK signaling is associated with progression to malignant adenocarcinomas, but whether this is a cause or a consequence of disease progression is not known. To better understand the effects of MAPK signaling downstream of Kras(G12D) expression, we capitalized on the ability of Braf inhibition to selectively amplify MAPK pathway signaling in Kras(G12D)-expressing epithelial cells...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228260/chemotherapy-induced-ca-2-release-stimulates-breast-cancer-stem-cell-enrichment
#8
Haiquan Lu, Ivan Chen, Larissa A Shimoda, Youngrok Park, Chuanzhao Zhang, Linh Tran, Huimin Zhang, Gregg L Semenza
Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) play a critical role in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Exposure of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy leads to an enrichment of BCSCs. Here, we find that chemotherapy induces the expression of glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1), which is dependent on hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) and HIF-2. Knockdown of GSTO1 expression abrogates carboplatin-induced BCSC enrichment, decreases tumor initiation and metastatic capacity, and delays tumor recurrence after chemotherapy...
February 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228218/-thioridazine-sensitizes-apoptotic-effect-of-trail-in-human-lung-cancer-pc9-cells-through-er-stress-mediated-up-regulation-of-dr5
#9
Juan Li, Yi Wang, Liu Liu, Yuan Yuan, Yangyi Bao
BACKGROUND: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducting ligand (TRAIL) can induce apoptosis of tumor cells, however, various of tumor cells may survive because of resistance to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. This study is to observe the proliferation inhibition effect of TRAIL sensitized by thioridazine on PC9 cells through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated up-regulation of death receptor 5 (DR5) and investigate its mechanism. METHODS: PC9 cells were treated with different concentrations of thioridazine and TRAIL alone or in combination...
February 20, 2017: Zhongguo Fei Ai za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225952/initial-basal-cell-carcinomas-diagnosed-in-the-national-campaign-for-skin-cancer-prevention-are-smaller-than-those-identified-by-the-conventional-medical-referral-system
#10
Thweicyka Pinheiro Wakiyama, Maria Laura Marconi França, Larissa Pierri Carvalho, Mariangela Esther Alencar Marques, Hélio Amante Miot, Juliano Vilaverde Schmitt
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinoma is the malignant tumor most often diagnosed in the National Campaign for Skin Cancer Prevention (NCSCP). Little is known about the profile of these lesions compared to the profile of lesions diagnosed by conventional routes of public dermatological care. OBJECTIVE: To identify if basal cell carcinomas identified in prevention campaigns and referred to surgery are smaller than those routinely removed in a same medical institution...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224616/critical-cholangiocarcinogenesis-control-by-cryptochrome-clock-genes
#11
Ali Mteyrek, Elisabeth Filipski, Catherine Guettier, Malgorzata Oklejewicz, Gijsbertus T J van der Horst, Alper Okyar, Francis Lévi
A coordinated network of molecular circadian clocks in individual cells generates 24-hour rhythms in liver metabolism and proliferation. Circadian disruption through chronic jet lag or Per2 clock gene mutation was shown to accelerate hepatocarcinoma development in mice. Since divergent effects were reported for clock genes Per and Cry regarding xenobiotic toxicity, we questioned the role of Cry1 and Cry2 in liver carcinogenesis. Male WT and Cry1(-/-) Cry2(-/-) mice (C57Bl/6 background) were chronically exposed to diethylnitrosamine (DEN) at ZT11...
February 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223694/combination-of-ruthenium-ii-arene-complex-ru-%C3%AE-6-p-cymene-cl2-pta-rapta-c-and-the-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibitor-erlotinib-results-in-efficient-angiostatic-and-antitumor-activity
#12
Robert H Berndsen, Andrea Weiss, U Kulsoom Abdul, Tse J Wong, Patrick Meraldi, Arjan W Griffioen, Paul J Dyson, Patrycja Nowak-Sliwinska
Ruthenium-based compounds show strong potential as anti-cancer drugs and are being investigated as alternatives to other well-established metal-based chemotherapeutics. The organometallic compound [Ru(η(6)-p-cymene)Cl2(pta)], where pta = 1,3,5-triaza-7-phosphaadamantane (RAPTA-C) exhibits broad acting anti-tumor efficacy with intrinsic angiostatic activity. In the search for an optimal anti-angiogenesis drug combination, we identified synergistic potential between RAPTA-C and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor, erlotinib...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223311/single-tumor-initiating-cells-evade-immune-clearance-by-recruiting-type-ii-macrophages
#13
Xiaocan Guo, Yang Zhao, Huan Yan, Yingcheng Yang, Shuying Shen, Xiaoming Dai, Xinyan Ji, Fubo Ji, Xing-Guo Gong, Li Li, Xueli Bai, Xin-Hua Feng, Tingbo Liang, Junfang Ji, Lei Chen, Hongyang Wang, Bin Zhao
Tumor infiltrated type II (M2) macrophages promote tumorigenesis by suppressing immune clearance, promoting proliferation, and stimulating angiogenesis. Interestingly, macrophages were also found to enrich in small foci of altered hepatocytes containing liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs). However, whether and how TICs specifically recruit macrophages and the function of these macrophages in tumor initiation remain unknown due to technical difficulties. In this study, by generating genetically defined liver TICs, we demonstrate that TICs actively recruit M2 macrophages from as early as the single-cell stage...
February 21, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223235/interleukin-32-inflammation-and-cancer
#14
REVIEW
Jin Tae Hong, Dong Ju Son, Chong Kil Lee, Do-Young Yoon, Dong Hun Lee, Mi Hee Park
Interleukin-32 (IL-32) is a novel cytokine involved in inflammation and cancer development. IL-32 gene consists of eight small exons, and IL-32 mRNA has nine alternative spliced isoforms, and was thought to be secreted because it contains an internal signal sequence and lacks a transmembrane region. IL-32 is initially expressed selectively in activated T cells by mitogen and activated NK cells and their expression is strongly augmented by microbes, mitogens, and other cytokines. The IL-32 is induced mainly by pathogens and pro-inflammatory cytokines, but IL-32 is more prominent in immune cells than in non-immune tissues...
February 13, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222670/microrna-223-3p-inhibits-human-bladder-cancer-cell-migration-and-invasion
#15
Ju Guo, Runfu Cao, Xingwei Yu, Zewen Xiao, Zhiwen Chen
The regulation of initiation and progression during carcinogenesis of bladder carcinoma is not completely elucidated. Dysregulation of microRNAs has been detected to play critical roles in the development of various cancers, including bladder carcinoma, whereas the involvement of miR-223-3p in the tumorigenesis of bladder carcinoma has not been studied. Here, we show that significantly higher levels of nuclear receptor coactivator 1 and significantly lower levels of miR-223-3p were detected in bladder carcinoma tissue, compared to the adjacent non-tumor tissue...
February 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222068/inhibition-of-cdk5-induces-cell-death-of-tumor-initiating-cells
#16
Melanie M Mandl, Siwei Zhang, Melanie Ulrich, Elisa Schmoeckel, Doris Mayr, Angelika M Vollmar, Johanna Liebl
BACKGROUND: Tumour-initiating cells (TICs) account for chemoresistance, tumour recurrence and metastasis, and therefore represent a major problem in tumour therapy. However, strategies to address TICs are limited. Recent studies indicate Cdk5 as a promising target for anti-cancer therapy and Cdk5 has recently been associated with epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, a role of Cdk5 in TICs has not been described yet. METHODS: Expression of Cdk5 in human cancer tissue was analysed by staining of a human tissue microarray (TMA)...
February 21, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219643/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-variants-of-a-cancer-testis-antigen-lemd1-in-colorectal-cancer-stem-like-cells
#17
Rui Takeda, Yoshihiko Hirohashi, Min Shen, Liming Wang, Tadashi Ogawa, Aiko Murai, Eri Yamamoto, Terufumi Kubo, Munehide Nakatsugawa, Takayuki Kanaseki, Tomohide Tsukahara, Toshihiko Nishidate, Kenji Okita, Goro Kutomi, Noriyuki Sato, Ichiro Takemasa, Toshihiko Torigoe
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancy, and the prognosis is not still satisfactory due to treatment resistance, recurrence and distant metastasis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs)/cancer-initiating cells (CICs) is endowed with higher tumor-initiating ability, self-renewal ability and differentiation ability, and CSCs/CICs are resistant to treatments. Thus, CSCs/CICs are thought to be responsible for recurrence and distant metastasis, and eradication of CSCs/CICs is essential to cure CRCs. However, the molecular mechanisms of CSCs/CICs are remain unknown, and we aimed to elucidate molecular aspects of CR-CSCs/CICs in this study...
February 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219202/-precision-treatment-after-resistance-to-first-generation-egfr-tki-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
C Pi, Y C Zhang, C R Xu, Q Zhou
Recently, with the research progress in molecular classification, the treatment of advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has been established as a model of anti-tumor treatment of precision medicine. The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKI) has transformed the treatment of NSCLC from platinum based doublet chemotherapy into era of target therapy. EGFR-TKI, such as erlotinib and gefitinib, have been recommended as standard first-line treatment of patients with EGFR mutation...
February 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218958/cd137-is-a-useful-marker-for-identifying-cd4-t-cell-responses-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#19
Zhuo-Hong Yan, Xiao-Fang Zheng, Ling Yi, Jing Wang, Xiao-Jue Wang, Pan-Jian Wei, Hong-Yan Jia, Li-Jun Zhou, Yan-Lin Zhao, Hong-Tao Zhang
Upregulation of CD137 on recently activated CD8(+) T cells has been used to identify rare viral and tumor antigen-specific T cells from the peripheral blood. We aimed to evaluate the accuracy of CD137 for identifying Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-reactive CD4(+) T cells in the peripheral blood of infected individuals by flow cytometry and to investigate the characteristics of these CD137(+) CD4(+) T cells. We initially enrolled 31 active tuberculosis (TB) patients, 31 individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI), and 25 healthy donors...
February 20, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217371/pathogenic-mechanisms-of-pancreatitis
#20
REVIEW
Murli Manohar, Alok Kumar Verma, Sathisha Upparahalli Venkateshaiah, Nathan L Sanders, Anil Mishra
Pancreatitis is inflammation of pancreas and caused by a number of factors including pancreatic duct obstruction, alcoholism, and mutation in the cationic trypsinogen gene. Pancreatitis is represented as acute pancreatitis with acute inflammatory responses and; chronic pancreatitis characterized by marked stroma formation with a high number of infiltrating granulocytes (such as neutrophils, eosinophils), monocytes, macrophages and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). These inflammatory cells are known to play a central role in initiating and promoting inflammation including pancreatic fibrosis, i...
February 6, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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