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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786795/protocols-for-studies-on-stromal-cells-in-prostate-cancer
#1
Damien A Leach, Grant Buchanan
Interactions between tumor cells and fibroblasts play a pivotal role in cancer development and progression. Indeed, the paracrine communication between these two cell types is known to have physiological effects that alter carcinogenic and metastatic potential. An often overlooked player in these interactions is the involvement of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The network of ECM proteins secreted from fibroblasts is reportedly altered with cancer initiation and progression, and in several cases has been associated with patient outcome...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786657/eukaryotic-translation-initiation-factor-4a-down-regulation-mediates-interleukin-24-induced-apoptosis-through-inhibition-of-translation
#2
Xuelin Zhong, Leah Persaud, Hilal Muharam, Ashleigh Francis, Dibash Das, Bertal Huseyin Aktas, Moira Sauane
Dysregulated activity of helicase eIF4A drives transformation to and maintenance of cancer cell phenotype by reprogramming cellular translation. Interleukin 24 (IL-24) is a tumor-suppressing protein, which has the ability to inhibit angiogenesis, sensitize cancer cells to chemotherapy, and induce cancer cell-specific apoptosis. In this study, we found that eIF4A is inhibited by IL-24. Consequently, selective reduction of translation was observed for mRNAs harboring strong secondary structures in their 5'-untranslated regions (5'UTRs)...
May 22, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785244/more-than-just-an-immunosuppressant-the-emerging-role-of-fty720-as-a-novel-inducer-of-ros-and-apoptosis
#3
REVIEW
Teruaki Takasaki, Kanako Hagihara, Ryosuke Satoh, Reiko Sugiura
Fingolimod hydrochloride (FTY720) is a first-in-class of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved to treat multiple sclerosis by its phosphorylated form (FTY720-P). Recently, a novel role of FTY720 as a potential anticancer drug has emerged. One of the anticancer mechanisms of FTY720 involves the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and subsequent apoptosis, which is largely independent of its property as an S1P modulator. ROS have been considered as a double-edged sword in tumor initiation/progression...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785119/clinical-relevance-of-lysyl-oxidase-like-2-and-functional-mechanisms-in-glioma
#4
Xiao-Guang Du, Mei-Jia Zhu
Introduction: Glioma is the most frequent malignancy of the adult central nervous system with high recurrence risk and poor prognosis. Understanding the biological molecular mechanisms involved in glioma progression is critical for studying oncogenic mechanisms and improving prognosis. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) is a kind of lysyl oxidase catalyzing the formation of peptidyl-lysine residues and promoting intramolecular cross-linking, especially for proteins in extracellular matrix. Our study explored the expression pattern of LOXL2 in glioma for the first time and found that its high expression was associated with larger tumor size and advanced tumor grade ( P <0...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785106/sn38-loaded-100-nm-targeted-liposomes-for-improving-poor-solubility-and-minimizing-burst-release-and-toxicity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study
#5
Yi-Ping Fang, Chih-Hung Chuang, Yi-Jhun Wu, Hsin-Che Lin, Yun-Chi Lu
Background: SN38 (7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin) is a camptothecin derivative acts against various tumors. However, SN38 is hydrolyzed in the physiological environment (pH 7.4), and this instability interferes with its potential therapeutic effect. Our objective was to investigate SN38-loaded liposomes to overcome the poor solubility of SN38 and its biodistribution, which further diminish its toxicity. Materials and methods: The sub-100 nm targeted liposomes was employed to deliver SN-38 and evaluate the characterization, release behaviors, cytotoxicity, in vivo pharmacokinetics and biochemical assay...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784639/tyrosine-kinase-inhibitor-induced-defects-in-dna-repair-sensitize-flt3-itd-positive-leukemia-cells-to-parp1-inhibitors
#6
Silvia Maifrede, Margaret Nieborowska-Skorska, Katherine Sullivan, Yashodhara Dasgupta, Paulina Podszywalow-Bartnicka, Bac Viet Le, Martyna Solecka, Zhaorui Lian, Elizaveta A Belyaeva, Alina Nersesyan, Marcin M Machnicki, Monika Toma, Nicolas Chatain, Malgorzata Rydzanicz, Huaqing Zhao, Jaroslav Jelinek, Katarzyna Piwocka, Tomasz Sliwinski, Tomasz Stoklosa, Rafal Ploski, Thomas Fischer, Stephen M Sykes, Steffen Koschmieder, Lars Bullinger, Peter Valent, Mariusz Wasik, Jian Huang, Tomasz Skorski
Mutations in the FMS-like tyrosine-kinase 3 (FLT3) such as internal tandem duplications (ITD) can be found in up to 23% of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and confer a poor prognosis. Current treatment options for FLT3(ITD)-positive AMLs include genotoxic therapy and FLT3 inhibitors (FLT3i), which are rarely curative. PARP1 inhibitors (PARP1i) have been successfully applied to induce synthetic lethality in tumors harboring BRCA1/2 mutations and displaying homologous recombination (HR) deficiency...
May 21, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784128/immunosurveillance-of-cancer-and-the-heat-shock-protein-cd91-pathway
#7
Robert J Binder
The intracellular functions of heat shock proteins (HSPs) as chaperones of macromolecules are well known. Current observations point to a role of these chaperones in initiating and modulating immune responses to tumors via receptor(s) on dendritic cells. In this article we provide an insight into, and a basis for, the importance of these HSP-mediated immune responses in rejecting nascent and emerging tumors.
May 16, 2018: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784032/metabolic-recoding-of-epigenetics-in-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Yi-Ping Wang, Qun-Ying Lei
Dysregulation of metabolism allows tumor cells to generate needed building blocks as well as to modulate epigenetic marks to support cancer initiation and progression. Cancer-induced metabolic changes alter the epigenetic landscape, especially modifications on histones and DNA, thereby promoting malignant transformation, adaptation to inadequate nutrition, and metastasis. Recent advances in cancer metabolism shed light on how aberrations in metabolites and metabolic enzymes modify epigenetic programs. The metabolism-induced recoding of epigenetics in cancer depends strongly on nutrient availability for tumor cells...
May 21, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782499/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-limits-lineage-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#9
Yi Hao, Glen A Bjerke, Karolina Pietrzak, Tiffany A Melhuish, Yu Han, Stephen D Turner, Henry F Frierson, David Wotton
Although treatment options for localized prostate cancer (CaP) are initially effective, the five-year survival for metastatic CaP is below 30%. Mutation or deletion of the PTEN tumor suppressor is a frequent event in metastatic CaP, and inactivation of the transforming growth factor (TGF) ß signaling pathway is associated with more advanced disease. We previously demonstrated that mouse models of CaP based on inactivation of Pten and the TGFß type II receptor (Tgfbr2) rapidly become invasive and metastatic...
May 21, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782008/de-novo-generation-of-somatic-stem-cells-by-yap-taz
#10
Tito Panciera, Luca Azzolin, Daniele Di Biagio, Antonio Totaro, Michelangelo Cordenonsi, Stefano Piccolo
Here we present protocols to isolate primary differentiated cells and turn them into stem/progenitor cells (SCs) of the same lineage by transient expression of the transcription factor YAP. With this method, luminal differentiated (LD) cells of the mouse mammary gland are converted into cells that exhibit molecular and functional properties of mammary SCs. YAP also turns fully differentiated pancreatic exocrine cells into pancreatic duct-like progenitors. Similarly, to endogenous, natural SCs, YAP-induced stem-like cells ("ySCs") can be eventually expanded as organoid cultures long term in vitro, without further need of ectopic YAP/TAZ, as ySCs are endowed with a heritable self-renewing SC-like state...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780488/a-pre-protective-strategy-for-precise-tumor-targeting-and-efficient-photodynamic-therapy-with-a-switchable-dna-upconversion-nanocomposite
#11
Zhengze Yu, Yegang Ge, Qiaoqiao Sun, Wei Pan, Xiuyan Wan, Na Li, Bo Tang
Tumor-specific targeting based on folic acid (FA) is one of the most common and significant approaches in cancer therapy. However, the expression of folate receptors (FRs) in normal tissues will lead to unexpected targeting and unsatisfactory therapeutic effect. To address this issue, we develop a pre-protective strategy for precise tumor targeting and efficient photodynamic therapy (PDT) using a switchable DNA/upconversion nanocomposite, which can be triggered in the acidic tumor microenvironment. The DNA/upconversion nanocomposite is composed of polyacrylic acid (PAA) coated upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), the surface of which is modified using FA and chlorin e6 (Ce6) functionalized DNA sequences with different lengths...
April 14, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779400/design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-chromenopyrimidines-as-potential-cytotoxic-agents
#12
Nehal M El-Bakhshawangy, Hala B El-Nassan, Asmaa E Kassab, Azza T Taher
AIM: The design and synthesis of chromenopyrimidines as microtubule destabilizing agents. MATERIALS & METHODS: Novel chromenopyrimidines and chromenotriazolopyrimidines were prepared and evaluated for their cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line. The most potent compound was tested for its possible effect on tubulin inhibition, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis initiation and caspase-3 activation. RESULTS: All the prepared compounds showed potent cytotoxic activity...
May 21, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778807/-18-f-fluoride-pet-ct-and-99m-tc-mdp-spect-ct-can-detect-bone-cancer-at-early-stage-in-rodents
#13
Christiano R R Alves, Daniele de P Faria, Camila de G Carneiro, Alexandre T Garcez, Vanessa P Gutierrez, Willian das Neves, Ney R de Almeida, Yara Cury, Roger Chammas, Patricia C Brum
Noninvasive imaging using positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) and single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) are considered revolutionized approaches to detect bone cancer. Both PET/CT and SPECT/CT technologies have advanced to permit miniaturization, which has provided the advantage of including animals as their own controls in longitudinal studies. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential of PET/CT and SPECT/CT as research tools to detect bone cancer in rats...
May 17, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778568/lnctic1-interacts-with-%C3%AE-catenin-to-drive-liver-tic-self-renewal-and-liver-tumorigenesis
#14
Zhenzhen Chen, Lintong Yao, Yating Liu, Pingping Zhu
Liver tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are drivers of liver tumorigenesis, and Wnt/β-catenin activation plays a principal role in the self-renewal of liver TICs. Despite a deep understanding of Wnt/β-catenin regulation, the roles of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in Wnt/β-catenin activation and liver TIC self-renewal are largely unknown. Here, we performed unbiased screening of lncRNAs in liver tumorigenesis and found lncTIC1 was highly expressed with liver tumorigenesis. LncTIC1 was also highly expressed in liver TICs and required for the self-renewal of liver TICs...
May 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778085/braf-and-mek-inhibitor-therapy-eliminates-nestin-expressing-melanoma-cells-in-human-tumors
#15
Deon B Doxie, Allison R Greenplate, Jocelyn S Gandelman, Kirsten E Diggins, Caroline E Roe, Kimberly B Dahlman, Jeffrey A Sosman, Mark C Kelley, Jonathan M Irish
Little is known about the in vivo impacts of targeted therapy on melanoma cell abundance and protein expression. Here, 21 antibodies were added to an established melanoma mass cytometry panel to measure 32 cellular features, distinguish malignant cells, and characterize dabrafenib and trametinib responses in BRAFV 600mut melanoma. Tumor cells were biopsied before neoadjuvant therapy and compared to cells surgically resected from the same site after 4 weeks of therapy. Approximately 50,000 cells per tumor were characterized by mass cytometry and computational tools t-SNE/viSNE, FlowSOM, and MEM...
May 19, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777335/a-trisubstituted-pyrazole-derivative-reduces-dmba-induced-mammary-tumor-growth-in-rats-by-inhibiting-estrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-expression
#16
Hanumappa Ananda, Kothanahally S Sharath Kumar, Muddenahalli S Sudhanva, Shobith Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S Rangappa
Aberrant expression of estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α) is observed in many pathological complications like breast cancer, endometrial cancer, and in osteoporosis. ER-α plays a vital role in the initiation and progression of breast cancer and confers chemo and radioresistance to the cancer cells by upregulating expression of anti-apoptotic proteins. The synthetic pyrazole derivative 3-(1-(4-bromophenyl)-5-phenyl-1H-pyrazol-3-yl)pyridine (compound 5d) displays significant cytotoxicity against mammary carcinoma cells...
May 18, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777299/-advanced-periocular-basal-cell-carcinoma-a-therapeutic-challenge
#17
B Lauterbach, V Kakkassery, D Debus, L M Heindl, E S Schultz
BACKGROUND: Basal cell carcinomas are the most common periocular malignant tumor. In advanced periocular basal cell carcinoma, vismodegib is a new treatment option which might potentially avoid surgical eye removal. CASE REPORT: We treated a 76-year-old patient unwilling to consent to surgery with vismodegib for advanced periocular basal cell carcinoma on the left forehead that had already undergone several previous treatments. After initial partial remission, the tumor regrew under ongoing therapy, so that radical surgical excision including orbital exenteration was performed...
May 17, 2018: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776953/the-landscape-of-actionable-genomic-alterations-in-cell-free-circulating-tumor-dna-from-21-807-advanced-cancer-patients
#18
Oliver A Zill, Kimberly C Banks, Stephen R Fairclough, Stefanie Mortimer, James V Vowles, Reza Mokhtari, David R Gandara, Philip C Mack, Justin I Odegaard, Rebecca J Nagy, Arthur M Baca, Helmy Eltoukhy, Darya I Chudova, Richard B Lanman, AmirAli Talasaz
PURPOSE: Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) sequencing provides a non-invasive method for obtaining actionable genomic information to guide personalized cancer treatment, but the presence of multiple alterations in circulation related to treatment and tumor heterogeneity complicate the interpretation of the observed variants. Experimental Design: We describe the somatic mutation landscape of 70 cancer genes from cfDNA deep-sequencing analysis of 21,807 patients with treated, late-stage cancers across &gt;50 cancer types...
May 18, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776156/realizations-of-highly-heterogeneous-collagen-networks-via-stochastic-reconstruction-for-micromechanical-analysis-of-tumor-cell-invasion
#19
Hanqing Nan, Long Liang, Guo Chen, Liyu Liu, Ruchuan Liu, Yang Jiao
Three-dimensional (3D) collective cell migration in a collagen-based extracellular matrix (ECM) is among one of the most significant topics in developmental biology, cancer progression, tissue regeneration, and immune response. Recent studies have suggested that collagen-fiber mediated force transmission in cellularized ECM plays an important role in stress homeostasis and regulation of collective cellular behaviors. Motivated by the recent in vitro observation that oriented collagen can significantly enhance the penetration of migrating breast cancer cells into dense Matrigel which mimics the intravasation process in vivo [Han et al...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775808/phase-ii-study-of-maintenance-pembrolizumab-in-patients-with-extensive-stage-small-cell-lung-cancer-sclc
#20
Shirish M Gadgeel, Nathan A Pennell, Mary Jo Fidler, Balazs Halmos, Philip Bonomi, James Stevenson, Bryan Schneider, Ammar Sukari, Jaclyn Ventimiglia, Wei Chen, Cathy Galasso, Antoinette Wozniak, Julie Boerner, Gregory P Kalemkerian
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of maintenance pembrolizumab in extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients, after treatment with platinum/etoposide. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Extensive-stage SCLC patients with a response or stable disease following induction chemotherapy were eligible. Pembrolizumab at a dose of 200 mg IV every 3 weeks was initiated within 8 weeks of the last cycle of chemotherapy. The primary endpoint of the study was progression-free survival (PFS) from study registration, with overall survival (OS) as a key secondary endpoint...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
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