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Kirill A Vinnikov, Robert C Thomson, Thomas A Munroe
Members of the family Pleuronectidae are common representatives of the marine benthic fauna inhabiting northern regions of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The most recent comprehensive classification of the family, based entirely on morphological synapomorphies, recognized five subfamilies, 23 genera, and 61 extant species. However, several subsequent molecular studies have shown that many synapomorphic characters discovered in the morphological study might represent homoplasies, thereby questioning the reliance on these characters with the warning that they may provide misleading information for testing other morphology-based evolutionary hypotheses...
March 10, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Nicholas P Murray, Melissa Hunfalvay, Takumi Bolte
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability of interpupillary distance (IPD) and pupil diameter (PD) measures using an infrared eye tracker and central point stimuli. Validity of the test compared to known clinical tools was determined, and normative data was established against which individuals can measure themselves. METHODS: Participants (416) across various demographics were examined for normative data. Of these, 50 were examined for reliability and validity...
July 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Sheikh Mahatabuddin, Yuichi Hanada, Yoshiyuki Nishimiya, Ai Miura, Hidemasa Kondo, Peter L Davies, Sakae Tsuda
A supersoluble 40-residue type I antifreeze protein (AFP) was discovered in a righteye flounder, the barfin plaice (bp). Unlike all other AFPs characterized to date, bpAFP transitions from moderately-active to hyperactive with increasing concentration. At sub-mM concentrations, bpAFP bound to pyramidal planes of ice to shape it into a bi-pyramidal hexagonal trapezohedron, similarly to the other moderately-active AFPs. At mM concentrations, bpAFP uniquely underwent further binding to the whole ice crystal surface including the basal planes...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Young-Ok Kim, Yu Li Heo, Hyung-Kwoun Kim, Bo-Hye Nam, Hee Jeong Kong, Dong-Gyun Kim, Woo-Jin Kim, Bong-Seok Kim, Young-Ju Jee, Sang-Jun Lee
Acinetobacter venetians V28 was isolated from the intestine of righteye flounder, Poecilopsetta plinthus caught in Vietnam seawater, and the esterase gene was cloned using a shotgun method. The amino acid sequence deduced from the nucleotide sequence (1,017 bp) corresponded to a protein of 338 amino acid residues with a molecular weight of 37,186. The esterase had 87% and 72% identities with the lipases of A. junii SH205 and A. calcoaceticus RUH2202, respectively. The esterase contained a putative leader sequence, as well as the conserved catalytic triad (Ser, His, Asp), consensus pentapeptide GXSXG, and oxyanion hole sequence (HG)...
September 2012: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Laurie A Graham, Christopher B Marshall, Feng-Hsu Lin, Robert L Campbell, Peter L Davies
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) are produced to prevent freezing in many fish species that are exposed to icy seawater. There are a number of nonhomologous types of AFPs, diverse in both sequence and structure, which share the function of binding to ice and inhibiting its growth. We recently discovered a hyperactive AFP in the winter flounder and related species that is many-fold more active than other fish AFPs. Like the 3-4-kDa type I AFPs, it is alanine-rich and highly helical, but this 17-kDa protein is considerably larger and forms a dimer...
February 19, 2008: Biochemistry
Sherry Y Gauthier, Christopher B Marshall, Garth L Fletcher, Peter L Davies
The recent discovery of a large hyperactive antifreeze protein in the blood plasma of winter flounder has helped explain why this fish does not freeze in icy seawater. The previously known, smaller and much less active type I antifreeze proteins cannot by themselves protect the flounder down to the freezing point of seawater. The relationship between the large and small antifreezes has yet to be established, but they do share alanine-richness (> 60%) and extensive alpha-helicity. Here we have examined two other righteye flounder species for the presence of the hyperactive antifreeze, which may have escaped prior detection because of its lability...
September 2005: FEBS Journal
C E Watson, P L Davies
The high molecular weight basic nuclear proteins (HMrBNPs), which are tightly bound to sperm chromatin in winter flounder, are made up of imperfect reiterations of simple peptide sequences that contain phosphorylatable DNA-binding motifs. Genomic Southern blots hybridized with probes to the coding and non-coding regions of HMrBNP mRNA showed that HMrBNP sequences form a complex multi-gene family. Previously, one gene (2B) was used to establish an evolutionary link between histone H1 and the HMrBNPs. Further examination of this complex, multi-gene family has now revealed that the majority of the HMrBNP genes are linked as 4...
March 19, 1999: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
C L Hew, N C Wang, S Joshi, G L Fletcher, G K Scott, P H Hayes, B Buettner, P L Davies
The ocean pout (Macrozoarces americanus) produces a set of antifreeze proteins that depresses the freezing point of its blood by binding to, and inhibiting the growth of, ice crystals. The amino acid sequences of all the major components of the ocean pout antifreeze proteins, including the immunologically distinct QAE component, have been derived by Edman degradation. In addition, sequences of several minor components were deduced from DNA sequencing of cDNA and genomic clones. Fifty percent of the amino acids are perfectly conserved in all these proteins as well as in two homologous sequences from the distantly related wolffish...
August 25, 1988: Journal of Biological Chemistry
G K Scott, P L Davies, M H Kao, G L Fletcher
The organization of antifreeze protein (AFP) genes in the yellowtail flounder was investigated by Southern blotting and the characterization of clones from a genomic library. This flounder, like the closely related winter flounder, has a set of 10-12 linked but irregularly spaced AFP genes. However, it lacks the tandemly amplified set of 20 such genes that are present in the winter flounder. DNA sequence analysis of a tandemly repeated gene from winter flounder showed that it can code for one of the two most abundant AFP components in the serum...
1988: Journal of Molecular Evolution
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