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Oral Melanocytic

Berislav Topić, Tarik Mašić, Svjetlana Radović, Ivor Lincender, Edin Muhić
Oral melanoma (OM) occurs from activated or genetically altered epidermal melanocytes. There is no scientific evidence that OM can be linked to physical, chemical and thermal irritation, or to other risk factors of the oral cavity. According to fi gures from various countries, OM accounts for 0.2% to 7.5% ( Japan) of all cases of melanoma of the skin and mucous membrane. The male to female ratio of OM is 2:1. About 80% of OMs are located in the mucosa of the palate and maxillary gingiva. This paper presents two cases of oral mucosal melanoma of the upper and lower lips in women aged 62 and 59 years...
June 2017: Acta Clinica Croatica
Serena Gianfaldoni, Georgi Tchernev, Uwe Wollina, Maria Grazia Roccia, Massimo Fioranelli, Jacopo Lotti, Miriam Rovesti, Francesca Satolli, Yan Valle, Andy Goren, Michael Tirant, Mirna Situm, Maja Kovacevic, Katlein França, Torello Lotti
BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is an acquired pigmentary cutaneous disease, characterised by the progressive loss of melanocytes, resulting in hypopigmented skin areas which progressively become amelanotic. Classically, vitiligo treatments are unsatisfactory and challenging. Despite the continuous introduction of new therapies, phototherapy is still the mainstay for vitiligo repigmentation. AIM: The aim of this multicenter observational retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the nb - UVB micro - phototherapy (BIOSKIN EVOLUTION®), used alone or in associations with an oral Janus kinase inhibitor (Tofacitinib citrate), in the treatment of stable or active forms of localised vitiligo...
January 25, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Paras B Patel, John M Wright, David R Kang, Yi-Shing Lisa Cheng
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is notorious for having a poor prognosis. Recognition of the early features of OMM by both clinicians and pathologists can play an important role in improving survival. Therefore, the purpose of this report is to increase awareness of the early features of OMM, by presenting 2 cases with longitudinal clinical and histopathologic documentation showing progression of OMM from a deceptively bland premalignant (noninvasive) oral melanocytic lesion (POML). By analyzing the clinical and histopathologic features of POML in our cases, and those in the literature, we found that the concerning features are (1) clinically, a pigmented lesion violating the ABCDE criteria or showing multiple recurrences; and (2) histologically, a melanocytic proliferation, in either a lentiginous or pagetoid pattern with or without cellular atypia...
December 28, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jianbo Zhou, Jin Chen, Huanmiao Yu
The activity of ABC294640, a small-molecular sphingosine kinase 2 (SphK2) inhibitor, in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells was tested in this study. SphK2 mRNA and protein are expressed in established (A431 cell line) and primary human skin SCC cells. ABC294640 dose-dependently inhibited survival, cell cycle progression and proliferation of skin SCC cells. Furthermore, ABC294640 induced caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis activation in skin SCC cells. The SphK2 inhibitor was however non-cytotoxic to SphK2-null skin melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts...
February 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Ana B Larque, Richard L Kradin, Ivan Chebib, G Petur Nielsen, Martin K Selig, Elizabeth A Thiele, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Miriam A Bredella, Pawel Kurzawa, Vikram Deshpande
Perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), mesenchymal tumors morphologically characterized by epithelioid cells, coexpress melanocytic and muscle markers. Herein, we describe a heretofore-undescribed tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-related neoplasm, morphologically resembling a soft tissue fibroma-like lesion, but showing an immunophenotype resembling PEComa. We identified 3 soft tissue fibroma-like lesions in individuals with TSC. We also evaluated 6 TSC-related periungual fibroma as well as a range of non-TSC fibroma-like lesions (n=19)...
April 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Konstantinos I Tosios, Eleni-Marina Kalogirou, Alexandra Sklavounou
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe 4 patients with oral mucosa hyperpigmentation associated with 4 drug classes and to review the relevant literature. STUDY DESIGN: Two patients under imatinib and hydroxychloroquine treatment exhibited diffuse palatal hyperpigmentation and 2 patients treated with minocycline and golimumab showed multifocal pigmented macules. In all cases, biopsy was performed. RESULTS: Microscopically, in all cases, there was no increase in the number of melanocytes in the epithelium, and pigment granules were present in the lamina propria...
November 3, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Nikolaos G Nikitakis, Ioannis Gkouveris, Erofili Papadopoulou, Argyrios Daskalopoulos, Alexandra Sklavounou
OBJECTIVE: Primary oral malignant melanoma (POMM) is a rare type of malignancy with a very poor prognosis, the molecular pathogenesis of which remains elusive. The aim of this study was to assess the expression status of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) proteins in POMM. STUDY DESIGN: Six POMMs were included in the study. Total protein levels of STAT1, STAT3, and STAT5a, as well as the tyrosine phosphorylated (activated) form of STAT3 (pSTAT3), were assessed immunohistochemically...
November 3, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Jiong Lyu, Zhijian Song, Jianhua Chen, Matthew J Shepard, Hao Song, Guoxin Ren, Zhiqiang Li, Wei Guo, Zhengping Zhuang, Yongyong Shi
Oral mucosal melanoma (OMM) is a rare and aggressive subtype of melanoma with little known about its pathogenesis or carcinogenesis. We therefore performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) on 19 matched OMM tumor/normal pairs in order to gain insight into potential genetic drivers of tumor formation. For the first time, we describe the comprehensive mutational profile of OMM. Our data suggest that the genetic background of OMM differs from those of other melanoma subtypes. We identified recurrent mutations involving KIT, POLE, PTPRD, PTCHD2, and DMXL2...
March 2018: Journal of Pathology
Enke Baldini, Teresa Odorisio, Salvatore Sorrenti, Antonio Catania, Francesco Tartaglia, Giovanni Carbotta, Daniele Pironi, Roberta Rendina, Eleonora D'Armiento, Severino Persechino, Salvatore Ulisse
Vitiligo represents the most common cause of acquired skin, hair, and oral depigmentation, affecting 0.5-1% of the population worldwide. It is clinically characterized by the appearance of disfiguring circumscribed skin macules following melanocyte destruction by autoreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Patients affected by vitiligo usually show a poorer quality of life and are more likely to suffer from depressive symptoms, particularly evident in dark-skinned individuals. Although vitiligo is a non-fatal disease, exposure of affected skin to UV light increases the chance of skin irritation and predisposes to skin cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Parviz Deyhimi, Sayed Mohammad Razavi, Shirin Shahnaseri, Saeedeh Khalesi, Solmaz Homayoni, Payam Tavakoli
Primary oral melanomas are uncommon malignant neoplasm of melanocytes origin. The most common site of oral melanoma is maxillary gingiva and hard palate. Oral mucosal melanoma exhibit a pathobiological behavior and clinical features different from cutaneous melanomas. Oral melanomas are often clinically silent which may consequently result in delayed diagnosis; thus, making the prognosis extremely poor. This case report presents clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of two cases of advanced oral melanoma, one pigmented or melanotic melanoma in a 46-year-old female and another amelanotic melanoma in a 59-year-old male patient, with chief complaint of swelling in oral mucosa...
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry
Miklos Szokol, Daniel Priksz, Mariann Bombicz, Balazs Varga, Arpad Kovacs, Gabor Aron Fulop, Tamas Csipo, Aniko Posa, Attila Toth, Zoltan Papp, Zoltan Szilvassy, Bela Juhasz
The present investigation evaluates the cardiovascular effects of the anorexigenic mediator alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Osmotic mini pumps delivering MSH or vehicle, for 6 weeks, were surgically implanted in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. Serum parameters, blood pressure, and weight gain were monitored along with oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). Echocardiography was conducted and, following sacrifice, the effects of treatment on ischemia/reperfusion cardiac injury were assessed using the isolated working heart method...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Samantha D Seitz, Thanhphuong N Dinh, Thomas Yh Yoon
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to describe a case of a melanotic macule found in conjunction with a giant cell fibroma (GCF). For oral pigmented lesions without an identifiable etiologic factor, critical factors in determining the differential diagnosis are clinical history, symmetry, and uniformity of the lesions. Potential differential diagnosis includes racial pigmentation, endocrine disturbance, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, trauma, hemochromatosis, oral malignant melanoma, or idiopathic etiology and melanotic macules...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Swapna Honwad, S V Ravi, Mandana Donoghue, Manjiri Joshi
INTRODUCTION: Oral Epithelial dysplasia (OED) is a potentially malignant disorder that is characterized by the presence of architectural and cytological changes. One of the prime factors responsible for the development of these lesions is the usage of tobacco. A variety of factors provide protective mechanism in order to prevent the effects of chemotoxic agents including tobacco products of which, melanin pigmentation is one of the vital elements. AIM: Role of melanocytes in progression of OED has remained unclear, so the present study was done to evaluate density of melanocyte and melanin granules in different grades of epithelial dysplasia and to correlate both findings with different grades of epithelial dysplasia...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
M Lambertini, A Patrizi, P A Fanti, B Melotti, U Caliceti, C Magnoni, C Misciali C, C Baraldi, G M Ravaioli, E Dika
Oral pigmentations (OPs) are often neglected, although a meticulous examination of the oral cavity is important not only in the diagnosis of oral melanoma, but also for the detection of important clinical findings that may indicate the presence of a systemic disease. OPs may be classified into two major groups on the basis of their clinical appearance: focal and diffuse pigmentations, even though this distinction may not appear so limpid in some cases. The former include amalgam tattoo, melanocytic nevi, melanoacanthoma, melanosis, while the latter include physiological/racial pigmentations, smoker's melanosis, drug induced hyperpigmentations, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentations, and OPs associated with systemic diseases...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
Oluwatobi A Ogbechie-Godec, Nada Elbuluk
Melasma is a common acquired condition of symmetric hyperpigmentation, typically occurring on the face, with higher prevalence in females and darker skin types. Multiple etiologies, including light exposure, hormonal influences, and family history, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Overall prevalence ranges widely at 1-50%, since values are typically calculated within a specific ethnic population within a geographic region. Histologically, melasma can display increased epidermal and/or dermal pigmentation, enlarged melanocytes, increased melanosomes, solar elastosis, dermal blood vessels, and, occasionally, perivascular lymphohistiocytic infiltrates...
September 2017: Dermatology and Therapy
Eunae S Cho, Hye-Min Cho, Woong Nam, Hyun Sil Kim
The deep penetrating nevus (DPN) is a rare benign melanocytic tumor often clinically and histopathologically mistaken for malignant melanoma (MM) and other nevus types. This report describes an extremely rare case of multiple lesions of a large DPN in the oral cavity with extensive infiltration to the minor salivary gland, buccal fat pad, buccinators, and masseter muscles, yet with preservation of the normal anatomic architecture. After receiving a diagnosis of MM in another hospital, the patient was at risk for receiving a wide excision that included the masticatory muscles, facial nerve, and overlying skin...
December 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
S A Machekposhti, M Soltani, P Najafizadeh, S A Ebrahimi, P Chen
Recently-introduced biocompatible polymeric microneedles offer an efficient method for drug delivery. Tranexamic acid is a novel drug for treating melasma that is administered both locally and orally and inhibits excessive melanin via melanocyte. The tranexamic acid biocompatible polymer microneedle used in this study was fabricated from PVP and methacrylic acid, using the lithography method. The required mechanical strength to pierce skin was attained by optimizing the ratio of PVP to methacrylic acid. Acute dermal toxicity was done, and drug diffusion in skin layers was simulated by calculating the diffusion coefficient of tranexamic acid in interstitial fluid (plasma)...
September 10, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Liviu Feller, Razia A G Khammissa, Johan Lemmer
Oral mucosal melanoma is an uncommon, usually heavily melanin-pigmented, but occasionally amelanotic aggressive tumour with a poor prognosis. Despite radical surgery, radiotherapy, or chemotherapy, local recurrence and distant metastasis are frequent. Microscopical examination is essential for diagnosis, and routine histological staining must be supplemented by immunohistochemical studies. The aetiology is unknown, the pathogenesis is poorly understood, and the 5-year survival rate rarely exceeds 30%. In most cases, oral mucosal melanoma arises from epithelial melanocytes in the basal layer of the epithelium and less frequently from immature melanocytes arrested in the lamina propria...
2017: TheScientificWorldJournal
Ying Zou, Minggai Ge, Xuemin Wang
Abnormal activation of PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling is detected in human skin squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). LY3023414 is a novel, potent, and orally bio-available PI3K-AKT-mTOR inhibitor. Its activity against human skin SCC cells was tested. We demonstrated that LY3023414 was cytotoxic when added to established (A431 line) and primary (patient-derived) human skin SCC cells. LY3023414 induced G0/1-S arrest and inhibited proliferation of skin SCC cells. Moreover, LY3023414 induced activation of caspase-3/-9 and apoptosis in skin SCC cells...
August 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Seema Patel, Abdur Rauf, Haroon Khan, Biswa Ranjan Meher, Syed Shams Ul Hassan
Vitiligo is an idiopathic systemic autoimmune disease affecting skin, hair and oral mucosa. This genetic yet acquired disease characterized by melanin loss is a cause of morbidity across all races. Though thyroid disturbance has been recognized as a key trigger of this pathology, an array of other factors plays critical role in its manifestation. Multiple hormones (corticotropin-releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, melatonin, calcitriol, testosterone, estrogen), genes (Human leukocyte antigen (HLA), Cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), Forkhead box D3 (FOXD3), Cluster of differentiation 117 (CD117), Estrogen receptor (ESR) 1, Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), Vitiligo-associated protein 1 (VIT1)), and lifestyle choices (stress, diet, cosmetic products, and medications) have been suspected as drivers of this disorder...
August 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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