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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031336/nationwide-screening-of-surface-water-toxicity-to-algae
#1
M L de Baat, D A Bas, S A M van Beusekom, S T J Droge, F van der Meer, M de Vries, P F M Verdonschot, M H S Kraak
According to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), chemical water quality is assessed by monitoring 45 priority substances. However, observed toxic effects can often not be attributed to these priority substances, and therefore there is an urgent need for an effect-based monitoring strategy that employs bioassays to identify environmental risk. Algal photosynthesis is a sensitive process that can be applied to identify the presence of hazardous herbicides in surface water. Therefore, the aim of this study was to employ an algal photosynthesis bioassay to assess surface water toxicity to algae and to identify the compounds causing the observed effects...
July 18, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30031168/the-use-of-real-world-data-in-cancer-drug-development
#2
E Skovlund, H G M Leufkens, J F Smyth
Excitement about the dramatic increase in potential successful anticancer medicines in recent years is hampered by the high costs involved as well as the length of time traditional pathways take for regulatory approval. The translation of experimental clinical data into real-world evidence is also problematic. While the randomised controlled trial remains the gold standard for assessing efficacy and safety, there is increasing interest in the use of observational data to enable more rapid, informed and widespread availability and access to important anticancer medicines...
July 18, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030985/mortality-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-chronic-diseases-during-16-years-a-study-in-a-latin-american-tertiary-hospital
#3
Gabriel F Ramos, Vanessa P Ribeiro, Mariana P Mercadante, Maira P Ribeiro, Artur F Delgado, Sylvia C L Farhat, Marta M Leal, Heloisa H Marques, Vicente Odone-Filho, Uenis Tannuri, Werther B Carvalho, Sandra J Grisi, Magda Carneiro-Sampaio, Clovis A Silva
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate mortality in adolescents and young adult patients with chronic diseases followed in a Latin American tertiary hospital. METHODS: A cross-sectional retrospective study was performed in a tertiary/academic hospital in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Death occurred in 529/2850 (18.5%) adolescents and young adult patients with chronic diseases, and 25/529 (4.7%) were excluded due to incomplete medical charts. Therefore, 504 deaths were evaluated...
July 18, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030868/stream-flow-alone-does-not-predict-population-structure-of-diving-beetles-across-complex-tropical-landscapes
#4
Athena Lam, Emmanuel F A Toussaint, Carolin Kindler, Matthew H Van Dam, Rawati Panjaitan, George K Roderick, Michael Balke
Recent theoretical advances have hypothesized a central role of habitat persistence on population genetic structure and resulting biodiversity patterns of freshwater organisms. Here, we address the hypothesis that lotic species, or lineages adapted to comparably geologically stable running water habitats (streams and their marginal habitats), have high levels of endemicity and phylogeographic structure due to the persistent nature of their habitat. We use a nextRAD DNA sequencing approach to investigate the population structure and phylogeography of a putatively widespread New Guinean species of diving beetle, Philaccolilus ameliae (Dytiscidae)...
July 21, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030847/skin-resident-memory-cd8-t-cells-are-phenotypically-and-functionally-distinct-from-circulating-populations-and-lack-immediate-cytotoxic-function
#5
J A Seidel, M Vukmanovic-Stejic, B Muller-Durovic, N Patel, J Fuentes-Duclan, S M Henson, J G Krueger, M H A Rustin, F O Nestle, K E Lacy, A N Akbar
The in depth understanding of skin resident memory CD8+ T lymphocytes (TRM ) may help uncover strategies for their manipulation during disease. We investigated isolated TRM from healthy human skin, which expressed the residence marker CD69, and compared them to circulating CD8+ T cell populations from the same donors. There were significantly increased proportions of CD8+ CD45RA- CD27- T cells in the skin that expressed low levels KLRG1, CD57, perforin and granzyme B. The CD8+ TRM in skin were therefore phenotypically distinct from circulating CD8+ CD45RA- CD27- T cells that expressed high levels of all these molecules...
July 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030843/international-initiative-for-outcomes-info-for-vitiligo-workshops-with-vitiligo-patients-on-repigmentation
#6
V Eleftheriadou, I Hamzavi, A Pandya, P Grimes, J E Harris, R H Huggins, H W Lim, N Elbuluk, A Tovar-Garza, A F Nahhas, T Braunberger, K Ezzedine
BACKGROUND: There is no cure nor firm clinical recommendations for the treatment of vitiligo. One of the main issues is the heterogeneity of outcome measures used in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) for vitiligo. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted with an aim to define successful repigmentation from patients' point of view and propose how and when repigmentation should be evaluated in clinical trials in vitiligo. METHODS: We conducted 3 workshops with vitiligo patients and their parents/care givers...
July 21, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030763/homocysteine-and-a2a-d2-receptor-receptor-interaction-at-striatal-astrocyte-processes
#7
Chiara Cervetto, Arianna Venturini, Diego Guidolin, Guido Maura, Mario Passalacqua, Carlo Tacchetti, Pietro Cortelli, Susanna Genedani, Simona Candiani, Paola Ramoino, Simone Pelassa, Manuela Marcoli, Luigi F Agnati
The interaction between adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors in striatal neurons is a well-established phenomenon and has opened up new perspectives on the molecular mechanisms involved in Parkinson's disease. However, it has barely been investigated in astrocytes. Here, we show by immunofluorescence that both A2A and D2 receptors are expressed in adult rat striatal astrocytes in situ, and investigate on presence, function, and interactions of the receptors in the astrocyte processes-acutely prepared from the adult rat striatum-and on the effects of homocysteine on the A2A-D2 receptor-receptor interaction...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030750/visualisation-of-coronary-venous-anatomy-by-computed-tomography-angiography-prior-to-cardiac-resynchronisation-therapy-implantation
#8
U C Nguyên, M J M Cluitmans, J G L M Luermans, M Strik, C B de Vos, B L J H Kietselaer, J E Wildberger, F W Prinzen, C Mihl, K Vernooy
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to illustrate the additive value of computed tomography angiography (CTA) for visualisation of the coronary venous anatomy prior to cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) implantation. METHODS: Eighteen patients planned for CRT implantation were prospectively included. A specific CTA protocol designed for visualisation of the coronary veins was carried out on a third-generation dual-source CT platform. Coronary veins were semi-automatically segmented to construct a 3D model...
July 20, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030746/clinical-features-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-pituicytoma-an-update
#9
REVIEW
F J Salge-Arrieta, R Carrasco-Moro, V Rodríguez-Berrocal, H Pian, J S Martínez-San Millán, P Iglesias, L Ley-Urzáiz
BACKGROUND: Pituicytomas (PTs) are extremely rare, low-grade glial tumors closely related to the neurohypophyseal axis. Definite conclusions concerning the optimal diagnostic and therapeutic approach to these neoplasms are lacking to date, as most of this information has been presented as case reports. METHODS: Retrospective review of case reports published in the scientific literature to date, including a new illustrative example treated in our department. RESULTS: 116 cases were collected...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030744/bone-involvement-and-mineral-metabolism-in-williams-syndrome
#10
S Palmieri, M F Bedeschi, E Cairoli, V Morelli, M E Lunati, A Scillitani, V Carnevale, F Lalatta, A M Barbieri, E Orsi, A Spada, I Chiodini, C Eller-Vainicher
CONTEXT: The previous studies suggested a possible increased risk of hypercalcaemia and reduced bone mineral density (BMD) in Williams' syndrome (WS). However, an extensive study regarding bone metabolism has never been performed. OBJECTIVE: To investigate bone health in young adults with WS. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTINGS: Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases and Medical Genetic Units. PATIENTS: 29 WS young adults and 29 age- and sex-matched controls...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030621/scoring-the-tumor-stroma-ratio-in-colon-cancer-procedure-and-recommendations
#11
G W van Pelt, S Kjær-Frifeldt, J H J M van Krieken, R Al Dieri, H Morreau, R A E M Tollenaar, F B Sørensen, W E Mesker
The tumor-stroma ratio (TSR) has been reported as a strong, independent prognostic parameter in colon cancer as well as in other epithelial cancer types, and may be implemented to routine pathology diagnostics. The TSR is an easy technique, based on routine hematoxylin and eosin stained histological sections, estimating the amount of stroma present in the primary tumor. It links tumors with high stromal content to poor prognosis. The analysis time is less than 2 min with a low inter-observer variation. Scoring of the TSR has been validated in a number of independent international studies...
July 20, 2018: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030516/ultrafast-imaging-of-laser-driven-shock-waves-using-betatron-x-rays-from-a-laser-wakefield-accelerator
#12
J C Wood, D J Chapman, K Poder, N C Lopes, M E Rutherford, T G White, F Albert, K T Behm, N Booth, J S J Bryant, P S Foster, S Glenzer, E Hill, K Krushelnick, Z Najmudin, B B Pollock, S Rose, W Schumaker, R H H Scott, M Sherlock, A G R Thomas, Z Zhao, D E Eakins, S P D Mangles
Betatron radiation from laser wakefield accelerators is an ultrashort pulsed source of hard, synchrotron-like x-ray radiation. It emanates from a centimetre scale plasma accelerator producing GeV level electron beams. In recent years betatron radiation has been developed as a unique source capable of producing high resolution x-ray images in compact geometries. However, until now, the short pulse nature of this radiation has not been exploited. This report details the first experiment to utilize betatron radiation to image a rapidly evolving phenomenon by using it to radiograph a laser driven shock wave in a silicon target...
July 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030346/radiomics-in-vulvar-cancer-first-clinical-experience-using-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-images
#13
Angela Collarino, Giorgia Garganese, Simona M Fragomeni, Lenka M Pereira Arias-Bouda, Francesco P Ieria, Ronald Boellaard, Vittoria Rufini, Lioe-Fee de Geus-Oei, Giovanni Scambia, Renato A Valdés Olmos, Alessandro Giordano, Willem Grootjans, Floris H P van Velden
This study investigates whether radiomic features derived from preoperative positron emission tomography (PET) images could predict both tumor biology and prognosis in women with invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Methods: Patients were retrospectively included when they had a unifocal primary cancer of ≥ 2.6 cm in diameter, had received a preoperative 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18 F-FDG) PET/computed tomography (CT) scan followed by surgery and had at least six months of follow-up data. 18 F-FDG-PET images were analyzed by semi-automatically drawing on the primary tumor in each PET image, followed by the extraction of 83 radiomic features...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030339/sensitivity-and-isoform-specificity-of-18-f-fluorofuranylnorprogesterone-for-measuring-progesterone-receptor-protein-response-to-estradiol-challenge-in-breast-cancer
#14
Kelley Salem, Manoj Kumar, Yongjun Yan, Justin J Jeffery, Kyle C Kloepping, Ciara J Michel, Ginny L Powers, Aparna M Mahajan, Amy M Fowler
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of 21-18 F-fluoro-16α,17α-[(R)-(1'-α-furylmethylidene)dioxy]-19-norpregn-4-ene-3,20-dione (18 F-FFNP) to measure alterations in progesterone receptor (PR) protein level and isoform expression in response to estradiol challenge. Methods: T47D human breast cancer cells and female mice-bearing T47D tumor xenografts were treated with 17β-estradiol (E2) to increase PR expression. 18 F-FFNP uptake was measured using cell uptake and tissue biodistribution assays...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030295/reducing-ex-vivo-culture-improves-the-anti-leukemic-activity-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cells
#15
Saba Ghassemi, Selene Nunez-Cruz, Roddy S O'Connor, Joseph A Fraietta, Prachi R Patel, John Scholler, David M Barrett, Stefan M Lundh, Megan M Davis, Felipe Bedoya, John Leferovich, Simon F Lacey, Bruce L Levine, Stephan A Grupp, Carl H June, J Joseph Melenhorst, Michael C Milone
The success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-mediated immunotherapy in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) highlights the potential of T-cell therapies with directed cytotoxicity against specific tumor antigens. The efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy depends on the engraftment and persistence of T cells following adoptive transfer. Most protocols for T-cell engineering routinely expand T cells ex vivo for 9-14 days. Because the potential for engraftment and persistence is related to the state of T-cell differentiation, we hypothesized that reducing the duration of ex vivo culture would limit differentiation and enhance the efficacy of CAR T-cell therapy...
July 20, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030281/finding-the-sweet-spot-via-personalised-achilles-tendon-training-the-future-is-within-reach
#16
EDITORIAL
Claudio Pizzolato, David G Lloyd, Ming H Zheng, Thor F Besier, Vickie B Shim, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, David J Saxby, Rod S Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 20, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030173/mechanical-confinement-via-a-peg-collagen-interpenetrating-network-inhibits-behavior-characteristic-of-malignant-cells-in-the-triple-negative-breast-cancer-cell-line-mda-mb-231
#17
Daniel S Reynolds, Kristen M Bougher, Justin H Letendre, Stephen F Fitzgerald, Undina O Gisladottir, Mark W Grinstaff, Muhammad H Zaman
To decouple the effects of collagen fiber density and network mechanics on cancer cell behavior, we describe a highly tunable in vitro 3D interpenetrating network (IPN) consisting of a primary fibrillar collagen network reinforced by a secondary visible light-mediated thiol-ene poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) network. This PEG/Collagen IPN platform is cytocompatible, inherently bioactive via native cellular adhesion sites, and mechanically tunable over several orders of magnitude-mimicking both healthy and cancerous breast tissue...
July 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030076/soil-emendation-with-nano-fungal-chitosan-for-heavy-metals-biosorption
#18
Sultan F Alsharari, Ahmed A Tayel, Shaaban H Moussa
The bioremediation of water and soil, from heavy metal (HM) contamination, is a continuing worldwide demand. Chitosan, as a promising bioactive polymer, was produced from grown fungal (Cunninghamella elegans) mycelia and had a molecular weight of 112 kDa and a deacetylation degree of 87%. Sodium tripolyphosphate was applied for the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles (NCt) from fungal chitosan (Cts); the particle size of produced NCt was in range of 5-45 nm. The produced biopolymers were used for HM absorption, Pb2+ and Cu2+ at concentration range of 100-300 ppm, from aqueous solution and soil matrix...
July 17, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030051/in-vitro-screening-of-cell-bioenergetics-to-assess-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-drug-development
#19
K Tilmant, H Gerets, P De Ron, E Hanon, C Bento-Pereira, F A Atienzar
Drug-induced mitochondrial toxicity is considered as a common cellular mechanism that can induce a variety of organ toxicities. In the present manuscript, 17 in vitro mitochondrial toxic drugs, reported to induce Drug-Induced Liver Injury (DILI) and 6 non-mitochondrial toxic drugs (3 with DILI and 3 without DILI concern), were tested in HepG2 cells using a bioenergetics system. The 17 mitochondrial toxic drugs represent a wide variety of mitochondrial dysfunctions as well as DILI and include 4 pairs of drugs which are structurally related but associated with different DILI concerns in human...
July 17, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030044/the-gm2-ganglioside-inhibits-inkt-cell-responses-in-a-cd1d-dependent-manner
#20
C S Pereira, H Ribeiro, B Pérez-Cabezas, M T Cardoso, N Alegrete, A Gaspar, E Leão-Teles, M F Macedo
Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of T lymphocytes that recognize lipid antigens presented on CD1d molecules at the surface of antigen-presenting cells. GM2 is a glycosphingolipid abundant in cellular membranes and known to bind CD1d molecules, but the functional consequences of this binding are not completely clarified. Herein, we analyzed the effect of GM2 in iNKT cell activation. We found that culturing antigen-presenting cells or total peripheral blood mononuclear cells with GM2 did not induce activation of human iNKT cells, implying that this lipid is not antigenic for human iNKT cells...
July 17, 2018: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
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