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Zika and microcephaly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453985/zika-virus-infected-primary-microglia-impairs-npcs-proliferation-and-differentiation
#1
Jin Wang, Jing Liu, Rui Zhou, Xin Ding, Qipeng Zhang, Chenyu Zhang, Liang Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) can lead to severe birth defects especially microcephaly in newborns by infecting human neural progenitors and impairing brain development. However, as the resident immune cells in the brain, the role of microglia in the ZIKV pathology is not clearly defined. To understand the interplay between immune response and neural cells, we investigate the interaction between microglia and NPCs during ZIKV infection. Our results demonstrate that primary microglia infected with ZIKV induces an inflammatory response similar to that in human, producing high level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452026/general-movements-and-motor-outcomes-in-two-infants-exposed-to-zika-virus-brief-report
#2
Daniele de Almeida Soares-Marangoni, Natália Matos Tedesco, Andressa Lagoa Nascimento, Priscila Rimoli De Almeida, Caroline Neder Dos Santos Pereira
OBJECTIVE: We described the general movements (GMs) in the fidgety period and the motor performance of two infants who were exposed to Zika virus (ZIKV) during distinct trimesters of gestation. METHODS: Infants were assessed at 4 and 12 months of age. Prechtl's GM assessment and the Alberta Infant Motor Scale were used. RESULTS: In Case 1, the mother presented confirmed ZIKV infection in the 10th week of gestation and the infant was born full-term with brain abnormalities and microcephaly...
February 16, 2018: Developmental Neurorehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447264/ebselen-alleviates-testicular-pathology-in-mice-with-zika-virus-infection-and-prevents-its-sexual-transmission
#3
Yogy Simanjuntak, Jian-Jong Liang, Si-Yu Chen, Jin-Kun Li, Yi-Ling Lee, Han-Chung Wu, Yi-Ling Lin
Despite the low case fatality, Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Antiviral and vaccine developments against ZIKV are still ongoing; therefore, in the meantime, preventing the disease transmission is critical. Primarily transmitted by Aedes species mosquitoes, ZIKV also can be sexually transmitted. We used AG129 mice lacking interferon-α/β and -γ receptors to study the testicular pathogenesis and sexual transmission of ZIKV. Infection of ZIKV progressively damaged mouse testes, increased testicular oxidative stress as indicated by the levels of reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, glutathione peroxidase 4, spermatogenesis-associated-18 homolog in sperm and pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β, IL-6, and G-CSF...
February 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441490/zika-virus-outbreak-a-review-of-neurological-complications-diagnosis-and-treatment-options
#4
REVIEW
Veerendra Koppolu, T Shantha Raju
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus transmitted mainly by mosquitos of Aedes species. The virus has emerged in recent years and spread throughout North and South Americas. The recent outbreak of ZIKV started in Brazil (2015) has resulted in infections surpassing a million mark. Contrary to the previous beliefs that Zika causes mildly symptomatic infections fever, headache, rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis, the recent outbreak associated ZIKV to serious neurological complications such as microcephaly, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and eye infections...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437050/motor-abnormalities-and-epilepsy-in-infants-and-children-with-evidence-of-congenital-zika-virus-infection
#5
André Pessoa, Vanessa van der Linden, Marshalyn Yeargin-Allsopp, Maria Durce Costa Gomes Carvalho, Erlane Marques Ribeiro, Kim Van Naarden Braun, Maureen S Durkin, Daniel M Pastula, Jazmyn T Moore, Cynthia A Moore
Initial reports of congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection focused on microcephaly at birth with severe brain anomalies; the phenotype has broadened to include microcephaly that develops after birth and neurodevelopmental sequelae. In this narrative review, we summarize medical literature describing motor abnormalities and epilepsy in infants with evidence of congenital ZIKV infection and provide information on the impact of these conditions. Specific scenarios are used to illustrate the complex clinical course in infants with abnormalities that are consistent with congenital Zika syndrome...
February 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435496/zika-virus-alters-dna-methylation-of-neural-genes-in-an-organoid-model-of-the-developing-human-brain
#6
Sylvie Janssens, Michael Schotsaert, Rahul Karnik, Vinod Balasubramaniam, Marion Dejosez, Alexander Meissner, Adolfo García-Sastre, Thomas P Zwaka
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during early pregnancy can cause microcephaly and associated defects at birth, but whether it can induce neurologic sequelae that appear later in life remains unclear. Using a model of the developing brain based on embryonic stem cell-derived brain organoids, we studied the impact of ZIKV infection on the DNA methylation pattern across the entire genome in selected neural cell types. The virus unexpectedly alters the DNA methylome of neural progenitors, astrocytes, and differentiated neurons at genes that have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of brain disorders, most prominently mental retardation and schizophrenia...
January 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433112/-zika-virus-and-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome
#7
Haruki Koike
Recent studies revealed an association between Zika virus infection and a variety of neurological disorders, including microcephaly, meningoencephalitis, myelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Following the first report of a patient diagnosed with GBS after Zika virus infection in December 2013, the number of GBS patients significantly increased in endemic countries, such as French-Polynesia and Latin American countries. Electrophysiological studies suggested that patients suffering from GBS associated with Zika virus infection manifest acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), rather than acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN)...
February 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426815/associations-of-topics-of-discussion-on-twitter-with-survey-measures-of-attitudes-knowledge-and-behaviors-related-to-zika-probabilistic-study-in-the-united-states
#8
Mohsen Farhadloo, Kenneth Winneg, Man-Pui Sally Chan, Kathleen Hall Jamieson, Dolores Albarracin
BACKGROUND: Recent outbreaks of Zika virus around the world led to increased discussions about this issue on social media platforms such as Twitter. These discussions may provide useful information about attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors of the population regarding issues that are important for public policy. OBJECTIVE: We sought to identify the associations of the topics of discussions on Twitter and survey measures of Zika-related attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors, not solely based upon the volume of such discussions but by analyzing the content of conversations using probabilistic techniques...
February 9, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425176/favipiravir-and-ribavirin-inhibit-replication-of-asian-and-african-strains-of-zika-virus-in-different-cell-models
#9
Ji-Ae Kim, Rak-Kyun Seong, Mukesh Kumar, Ok Sarah Shin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently emerged as a new public health threat. ZIKV infections have caused a wide spectrum of neurological diseases, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome, myelitis, meningoencephalitis, and congenital microcephaly. No effective therapies currently exist for treating patients infected with ZIKV. Herein, we evaluated the anti-viral activity of favipiravir (T-705) and ribavirin against Asian and African strains of ZIKV using different cell models, including human neuronal progenitor cells (hNPCs), human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs), human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) and Vero cells...
February 9, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423037/the-structure-of-the-binary-methyltransferase-sah-complex-from-zika-virus-reveals-a-novel-conformation-for-the-mechanism-of-mrna-capping
#10
Chatrin Chatrin, Sandeep K Talapatra, Bruno Canard, Frank Kozielski
Zika virus, a flavivirus like Dengue and West Nile viruses, poses a significant risk as a pathogen in the category of emerging infectious diseases. Zika infections typically cause nonspecific, mild symptoms, but can also manifest as a neurological disorder like Guillain-Barré syndrome. Infection in pregnant women is linked to microcephaly in newborn infants. The methyltransferase domain of the non-structural protein 5 is responsible for two sequential methylations of the 5'-RNA cap. This is crucial for genome stability, efficient translation, and escape from the host immune response...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422006/inhibition-of-neurogenesis-by-zika-virus-infection
#11
Fahim Ahmad, Amna Siddiqui, Mohammad A Kamal, Sayed S Sohrab
The association between Zika virus infection and neurological disorder has raised urgent global alarm. The ongoing epidemic has triggered quick responses in the scientific community. The first case of Zika virus was reported in 2015 from Brazil and now has spread over 30 countries. Nearly four hundred cases of travel-associated Zika virus infection have also been reported in the United States. Zika virus is primarily transmitted by mosquito belongs to the genus Aedes that are widely distributed throughout the world including the Southern United States...
February 1, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421460/media-coverage-of-the-zika-crisis-in-brazil-the-construction-of-a-war-frame-that-masked-social-and-gender-inequalities
#12
Barbara Ribeiro, Sarah Hartley, Brigitte Nerlich, Rusi Jaspal
Between 2015 and 2016, Zika became an epidemic of global concern and the focus of intense media coverage. Using a hybrid model of frame and social representations theory, we examine how the Zika outbreak was reported in two major newspapers in Brazil: O Globo and Folha de São Paulo. The analysis of 186 articles published between December 2015 and May 2016 reveals a dominant 'war' frame supported by two sub-frames: one focused on eradicating the vector (mosquito) and another on controlling microcephaly, placing the burden of prevention on women...
January 31, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416874/optimization-of-commercially-available-zika-virus-antibodies-for-use-in-a-laboratory-developed-immunohistochemical-assay
#13
Brigid C Bollweg, Luciana Silva-Flannery, Pamela Spivey, Gillian L Hale
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy can cause adverse fetal outcomes and severe irreversible congenital birth defects including microcephaly. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a valuable diagnostic tool for detecting ZIKV antigens in tissues from cases of fetal loss in women infected with ZIKV, and for providing insights into disease pathogenesis. As a result, there is increasing demand for commercially available ZIKV antibodies for use in IHC assays. ZIKV antibodies were selected and obtained from commercial sources to include both mouse and rabbit hosts, and a variety of antigenic targets...
January 2018: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415586/what-we-know-and-what-we-don-t-know-about-perinatal-zika-virus-infection-a-systematic-review
#14
Antoni Soriano-Arandes, Irene Rivero-Calle, Eleni Nastouli, Maria Espiau, M A Frick, Ana Alarcon, Federico Martinón-Torres
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has caused the most challenging worldwide infectious epidemic outbreak in recent months. ZIKV causes microcephaly and other congenital malformations. There is a need to perform updated systematic reviews on ZIKV infection periodically because this epidemic is bringing up new evidence with extraordinary speed. Areas covered: Evidence related to ZIKV infection in the gestational, perinatal, and early infant periods covering epidemiology, virology, pathogenesis, risk factors, time of infection during pregnancy, newborn symptoms, treatment, and vaccines...
February 8, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414097/normal-mode-analysis-of-zika-virus
#15
Byung Ho Lee, Soojin Jo, Moon-Ki Choi, Min Hyeok Kim, Jae Boong Choi, Moon Ki Kim
In recent years, Zika virus (ZIKV) caused a new pandemic due to its rapid spread and close relationship with microcephaly. As a result, ZIKV has become an obvious global health concern. Information about the fundamental viral features or the biological process of infection remains limited, despite considerable efforts. Meanwhile, the icosahedral shell structure of the mature ZIKV was recently revealed by cryo-electron microscopy. This structural information enabled us to simulate ZIKV. In this study, we analyzed the dynamic properties of ZIKV through simulation from the mechanical viewpoint...
January 12, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412347/microcephaly-in-piau%C3%A3-brazil-descriptive-study-during-the-zika-virus-epidemic-2015-2016
#16
Igor Gonçalves Ribeiro, Marcia Regina de Andrade, Janaína de Moraes Silva, Zenira Martins Silva, Maria Amélia de Oliveira Costa, Marcelo Adriano da Cunha E Silva Vieira, Francisca Miriane de Araújo Batista, Herlon Guimarães, Marcelo Yoshito Wada, Eduardo Saad
OBJECTIVE: to describe the occurrence and characteristics of microcephaly cases in Piauí, Brazil, during an epidemic of Zika virus infection in 2015-2016. METHODS: descriptive study using data of live births from January/2015 to January/2016, obtained from the Information System on Live Births (Sinasc), the Public Health Events Registry (RESP) and the active search for medical records; mothers and live births were tested for dengue, chikungunya, and Zika, besides syphilis, toxoplasmosis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes (STORCH)...
February 1, 2018: Epidemiologia e Servicos de Saude: Revista do Sistema Unico de Saude do Brasil
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406461/zika-virus-a-public-health-perspective
#17
Nahida Chakhtoura, Rohan Hazra, Catherine Y Spong
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Zika virus' impact on pregnancy became widely known in 2015 with a dramatic increase in the number of babies born with microcephaly in Recife, Brazil. A mosquito-borne virus resulting in congenital anomalies is unique, and Zika's ability to cause neurological defects on a large scale was a grim reminder of the Rubella epidemic in the 1950s. Over the past 2 years, studies have provided insight on how Zika virus (ZIKV) infects cells and causes disease, but much remains unknown about the long-term risks of Zika exposure on infant growth and development...
February 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400709/congenital-zika-virus-infection-as-a-silent-pathology-with-loss-of-neurogenic-output-in-the-fetal-brain
#18
Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Branden R Nelson, Jennifer E Stencel-Baerenwald, Colin Studholme, Raj P Kapur, Blair Armistead, Christie L Walker, Sean Merillat, Jay Vornhagen, Jennifer Tisoncik-Go, Audrey Baldessari, Michelle Coleman, Manjiri K Dighe, Dennis W W Shaw, Justin A Roby, Veronica Santana-Ufret, Erica Boldenow, Junwei Li, Xiaohu Gao, Michael A Davis, Jesica A Swanstrom, Kara Jensen, Douglas G Widman, Ralph S Baric, Joseph T Medwid, Kathryn A Hanley, Jason Ogle, G Michael Gough, Wonsok Lee, Chris English, W McIntyre Durning, Jeff Thiel, Chris Gatenby, Elyse C Dewey, Marian R Fairgrieve, Rebecca D Hodge, Richard F Grant, LaRene Kuller, William B Dobyns, Robert F Hevner, Michael Gale, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus with teratogenic effects on fetal brain, but the spectrum of ZIKV-induced brain injury is unknown, particularly when ultrasound imaging is normal. In a pregnant pigtail macaque (Macaca nemestrina) model of ZIKV infection, we demonstrate that ZIKV-induced injury to fetal brain is substantial, even in the absence of microcephaly, and may be challenging to detect in a clinical setting. A common and subtle injury pattern was identified, including (i) periventricular T2-hyperintense foci and loss of fetal noncortical brain volume, (ii) injury to the ependymal epithelium with underlying gliosis and (iii) loss of late fetal neuronal progenitor cells in the subventricular zone (temporal cortex) and subgranular zone (dentate gyrus, hippocampus) with dysmorphic granule neuron patterning...
February 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390455/cerebral-injuries-associated-with-zika-virus-in-utero-exposure-in-children-without-birth-defects-in-french-guiana-case-report
#19
Arthur Felix, Edouard Hallet, Anne Favre, Rémi Kom-Tchameni, Antoine Defo, Olivier Fléchelles, Jean-Marc Rosenthal, Maylis Douine, Mathieu Nacher, Narcisse Elenga
RATIONALE: A major epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection occurred in French Guiana and West Indies. French national epidemiological surveillance estimated that 1650 pregnant women contracted the ZIKV during epidemic period from January 2016 to October 2016 in French Guiana. PATIENT CONCERNS: ZIKV infection during pregnancy is a cause of microcephaly and birth defects. DIAGNOSES: In this report, we describe 2 children with proven in utero ZIKV exposure...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386734/zika-an-enormous-public-health-challenge-for-a-miniscule-virus
#20
REVIEW
M S Mustafa, R Ramasethu
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has recently affected 4 million people across the globe. The World Health Organization has declared Zika a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". The disease is caused by an arbovirus and transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Zika has followed a pattern already set in by Dengue and Chikungunya viruses. The virus exists in sylvatic form with spillovers to humans. The present outbreak in Brazil started in May 2015 and spread rapidly to Latin America and the Caribbean. The rapid spread is due to availability of non-immune population...
January 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
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