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Zika and microcephaly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679791/phosphorodiamidate-morpholino-targeting-the-5-untranslated-region-of-the-zikv-rna-inhibits-virus-replication
#1
Waldemar Popik, Atanu Khatua, James E K Hildreth, Benjamin Lee, Donald J Alcendor
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has been associated with microcephaly in infants. Currently there is no treatment or vaccine. Here we explore the use of a morpholino oligonucleotide targeted to the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the ZIKV RNA to prevent ZIKV replication. METHODS: Morpholino DWK-1 inhibition of ZIKV replication in human glomerular podocytes was examined by qRT-PCR, reduction in ZIKV genome copy number, western blot analysis, immunofluorescence and proinflammatory cytokine gene expression...
April 18, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679079/a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-decodes-the-zika-virus-ns5-methyltransferase-bound-to-sah-and-rna-analogue
#2
Chih-Hung Chuang, Shean-Jaw Chiou, Tian-Lu Cheng, Yeng-Tseng Wang
Since 2015, widespread Zika virus outbreaks in Central and South America have caused increases in microcephaly cases, and this acute problem requires urgent attention. We employed molecular dynamics and Gaussian accelerated molecular dynamics techniques to investigate the structure of Zika NS5 protein with S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) and an RNA analogue, namely 7-methylguanosine 5'-triphosphate (m7GTP). For the binding motif of Zika virus NS5 protein and SAH, we suggest that the four Zika NS5 substructures (residue orders: 101-112, 54-86, 127-136 and 146-161) and the residues (Ser56, Gly81, Arg84, Trp87, Thr104, Gly106, Gly107, His110, Asp146, Ile147, and Gly148) might be responsible for the selectivity of the new Zika virus drugs...
April 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668332/neurological-complications-of-zika-virus-infection
#3
Francisco Javier Carod-Artal
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease is a vector-borne infectious disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Recently, ZIKV has caused outbreaks in most American countries. Areas covered: Publications about neurological complications of ZIKV infection retrieved from pubmed searchers were reviewed, and reference lists and relevant articles from review articles were also examined. Vertical/intrauterine transmission leads to congenital infection and causes microcephaly and congenital ZIKV syndrome. ZIKV preferentially infects human neural progenitor cells and triggers cell apoptosis...
April 18, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664391/zika-virus-igg-in-infants-with-microcephaly-guinea-bissau-2016
#4
Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne, Frederik Schaltz-Buchholzer, Fernanda Bruzadelli, Asson Có, Placido Cardoso, Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen, Johan Michiels, Leo Heyndrickx, Kevin K Ariën, Thea Kølsen Fischer, Anders Fomsgaard
We analyzed blood samples from infants born with microcephaly and their mothers in Guinea-Bissau in 2016 for pathogens associated with birth defects. No Zika virus RNA was detected, but Zika virus IgG was highly prevalent. We recommend implementing pathogen screening of infants with congenital defects in Guinea-Bissau.
May 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650501/social-responsibility-and-global-health-lessons-from-the-rio-olympics-zika-controversy
#5
Fernando Hellmann, Luzilena de Souza Prudêncio Rohde, Marta Verdi, Volnei Garrafa, Camilo Manchola-Castillo
The outbreak of Zika virus infection in the Americas and its possible association with microcephaly raised several concerns among global health authorities regarding the organisation of the Olympic and Paralympic Games scheduled for August and September 2016, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It generated an international controversy over the continuation of the Games with debates on the ethical principle of social responsibility. Based on the principles of social responsibility and health in the Universal Declaration of Bioethics and Human Rights, the present comment ponders on the application of such principles in the context of mega-events and global health...
March 30, 2018: Indian Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627357/estimating-the-numbers-of-pregnant-women-infected-with-zika-virus-and-infants-with-congenital-microcephaly-in-colombia-2015-2017
#6
Alys Adamski, Jeanne Bertolli, Carlos Castañeda-Orjuela, Owen J Devine, Michael A Johansson, Maritza Adegnis Gonzalez Duarte, Sarah C Tinker, Sherry L Farr, Marcela Maria Mercado Reyes, Van T Tong, Oscar Eduardo Pacheco Garcia, Diana Valencia, Diego Alberto Cuellar Ortiz, Margaret A Honein, Denise J Jamieson, Martha Lucía Ospina Martínez, Suzanne M Gilboa
BACKGROUND: Colombia experienced a Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in 2015-2016. To assist with planning for medical and supportive services for infants affected by prenatal ZIKV infection, we used a model to estimate the number of pregnant women infected with ZIKV and the number of infants with congenital microcephaly from August 2015- August 2017. METHODS: We used nationally-reported cases of symptomatic ZIKV disease among pregnant women and information from the literature on the percent of asymptomatic infections to estimate the number of pregnant women with ZIKV infection occurring August 2015 - December 2016...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623081/a-new-in-vivo-model-to-study-protective-immunity-to-zika-virus-infection-in-mice-with-intact-type-i-interferon-signaling
#7
Loulieta Nazerai, Amalie Skak Schøller, Peter Overbeck Sharma Rasmussen, Søren Buus, Anette Stryhn, Jan Pravsgaard Christensen, Allan Randrup Thomsen
The association between recent Zika virus (ZIKV) infection and neurological complications, microcephaly in the fetus, and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults underscores the necessity for a protective vaccine. Rational vaccine development requires an in-depth understanding of the mechanisms which could protect against infection with this virus. However, so far, such an analysis has been hampered by the absence of a suitable small animal model. Unlike the situation in humans, ZIKV only replicates effectively in the peripheral organs of mice, if type I IFN signaling is interrupted...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594116/prevalence-of-igg-autoantibodies-against-gd3-ganglioside-in-acute-zika-virus-infection
#8
Dirlei Nico, Luciana Conde, Juan L Rivera-Correa, Andréia Vasconcelos-Dos-Santos, Louise Mesentier-Louro, Leonardo Freire-de-Lima, Mônica Barcellos Arruda, Celio Geraldo Freire-de-Lima, Orlando da Costa Ferreira, Maria Elisabeth Lopes Moreira, Andrea Araújo Zin, Zilton Farias Meira Vasconcelos, Rosalia Mendez Otero, Clarisa Beatriz Palatnik-de-Sousa, Amilcar Tanuri, Adriane Regina Todeschini, Wilson Savino, Ana Rodriguez, Alexandre Morrot
Zika virus (ZIKV) disease has become a global health emergency with devastating effects on public health. Recent evidences implicate the virus as an emergent neuropathological agent promoting serious pathologies of the human nervous system, that include destructive and malformation consequences such as development of ocular and fetal brain lesions, microcephaly in neonates, and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. These neurological disorders of both central and peripheral nervous systems are thought to be associated to the neurotropic properties of the virus that has ability to infect neural stem cells as well as peripheral neurons, a hallmark of its pathogenicity...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593941/dynamics-of-zika-virus-outbreaks-an-overview-of-mathematical-modeling-approaches
#9
Anuwat Wiratsudakul, Parinya Suparit, Charin Modchang
Background: The Zika virus was first discovered in 1947. It was neglected until a major outbreak occurred on Yap Island, Micronesia, in 2007. Teratogenic effects resulting in microcephaly in newborn infants is the greatest public health threat. In 2016, the Zika virus epidemic was declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC). Consequently, mathematical models were constructed to explicitly elucidate related transmission dynamics. Survey Methodology: In this review article, two steps of journal article searching were performed...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593256/microencephaly-in-fetal-piglets-following-in-utero-inoculation-of-zika-virus
#10
P J Wichgers Schreur, L van Keulen, D Anjema, J Kant, J Kortekaas
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that became associated with microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults after its emergence in the Pacific and the Americas in 2015. Newly developed rodent and nonhuman primate models have already revealed important insights into ZIKV-induced neuropathology. Nonhuman primates are phylogenetically closely related to humans and are therefore preferred human surrogates in ZIKV research. However, the use of nonhuman primates, particularly during gestation, raises ethical issues...
March 29, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590178/recombinant-zika-virus-envelope-protein-elicited-protective-immunity-against-zika-virus-in-immunocompetent-mice
#11
Huabin Liang, Ruoheng Yang, Zhihua Liu, Min Li, Haitao Liu, Xia Jin
Zika virus (ZIKV) has caused great public concerns due to its recent large outbreaks and a close association with microcephaly in fetus and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. Rapid development of vaccines against ZIKV is a public health priority. To this end, we have constructed and purified recombinant ZIKV envelope protein using both prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems, and then tested their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in immune competent mice. Both protein immunogens elicited humoral and cellular immune responses, and protected immune competent mice from ZIKV challenge in vivo...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574335/infection-by-zika-viruses-requires-the-transmembrane-protein-axl-endocytosis-and-low-ph
#12
Mirjana Persaud, Alicia Martinez-Lopez, Cindy Buffone, Steven A Porcelli, Felipe Diaz-Griffero
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in Brazil has suggested associations of this virus infection with neurological disorders, including microcephaly in newborn infants and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. Previous reports have shown that AXL, a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase protein, is essential for ZIKV infection of mammalian cells, but this remains controversial. Here, we have assessed the involvement of AXL in the ability of ZIKV to infect mammalian cells, and also the requirement for endocytosis and acidic pH...
March 22, 2018: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562870/sleep-eeg-of-microcephaly-in-zika-outbreak
#13
Paulo Afonso Medeiros Kanda, Aline de Almeida Xavier Aguiar, Jose Lucivan Miranda, Alexandre Loverde Falcao, Claudia Suenia Andrade, Luigi Neves Dos Santos Reis, Ellen White R Bacelar Almeida, Yanes Brum Bello, Arthur Monfredinho, Rafael Guimaraes Kanda
Microcephaly (MC), previously considered rare, is now a health emergency of international concern because of the devastating Zika virus pandemic outbreak of 2015. The authors describe the electroencephalogram (EEG) findings in sleep EEG of epileptic children who were born with microcephaly in areas of Brazil with active Zika virus transmission between 2014 and 2017. The authors reviewed EEGs from 23 children. Nine were females (39.2%), and the age distribution varied from 4 to 48 months. MC was associated with mother positive serology to toxoplasmosis (toxo), rubella (rub), herpes, and dengue (1 case); toxo (1 case); chikungunya virus (CHIKV) (1 case); syphilis (1 case); and Zika virus (ZIKV) (10 cases)...
2018: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561936/microcephaly-caused-by-congenital-zika-virus-infection-and-viral-detection-in-maternal-urine-during-pregnancy
#14
Vanessa Couras Regadas, Márcio de Castro E Silva, Lucas Giansante Abud, Luiz Mario Pereira Lopes Labadessa, Rafael Gouvêa Gomes de Oliveira, Cecília Hissae Miyake, Rodolfo Mendes Queiroz
Currently Latin America is undergoing a major epidemic of Zika virus, which is transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Concern for Zika virus infection has been increasing as it is suspected of causing brain defects in newborns such as microcephaly and, more recently, potential neurological and autoimmune complications including Guillian-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We describe a case of virus infection in a 25-year-old woman during the first trimester of her pregnancy, confirmed by laboratory tests only for the detection of viral particles in maternal urine, with imaging studies demonstrating the progression of cranial and encephalic changes in the fetus and later in the newborn, such as head circumference reduction, cerebral calcifications and ventriculomegaly...
January 2018: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555345/rapid-response-to-an-emerging-infectious-disease-lessons-learned-from-development-of-a-synthetic-dna-vaccine-targeting-zika-virus
#15
Sagar B Kudchodkar, Hyeree Choi, Emma L Reuschel, Rianne Esquivel, Jackie Jin-Ah Kwon, Moonsup Jeong, Joel N Maslow, Charles C Reed, Scott White, J Joseph Kim, Gary P Kobinger, Pablo Tebas, David B Weiner, Kar Muthumani
Vaccines are considered one of the greatest advances in modern medicine. The global burden of numerous infectious diseases has been significantly reduced, and in some cases, effectively eradicated through the deployment of specific vaccines. However, efforts to develop effective vaccines against infectious pathogens such as influenza, HIV, dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), Ebola virus, and Zika virus (ZIKV) have proven challenging. Zika virus is a mosquito-vectored flavivirus responsible for periodic outbreaks of disease in Africa, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands dating back over 50 years...
March 16, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553331/two-infants-with-presumed-congenital-zika-syndrome-brownsville-texas-usa-2016-2017
#16
Ashley Howard, John Visintine, Jaime Fergie, Miguel Deleon
Since 2007, Zika virus has spread through the Pacific Islands and the Americas. Beginning in 2016, women in Brownsville, Texas, USA, were identified as possibly being exposed to Zika virus during pregnancy. We identified 18 pregnant women during 2016-2017 who had supportive serologic or molecular test results indicating Zika virus or flavivirus infection. Two infants were evaluated for congenital Zika syndrome after identification of prenatal microcephaly. Despite standard of care testing of mothers and neonates, comparative results were unreliable for mothers and infants, which highlights the need for clinical and epidemiologic evidence for an accurate diagnosis...
April 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545017/prevalence-of-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-among-zika-virus-infected-cases-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#17
REVIEW
Ludovica Barbi, Antonio Victor Campos Coelho, Luiz Cláudio Arraes de Alencar, Sergio Crovella
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emergent flavivirus transmitted mainly through Aedes spp. mosquitoes that is posing challenge to healthcare services in countries experiencing an outbreak. Usually ZIKV infection is mild, but in some cases it has been reported to progress into neurological diseases such as microcephaly in infants and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in adults. GBS is a debilitating autoimmune disorder that affects peripheral nerves. Since ZIKV caused massive outbreaks in South America in the past few years, we aimed to systematically review the literature and perform a meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of GBS among ZIKV-infected individuals...
March 12, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541942/recent-advances-in-animal-models-of-zika-virus-infection
#18
Shupeng Dong, Qiming Liang
An infection by Zika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, broke out in South American regions in 2015, and recently showed a tendency of spreading to North America and even worldwide. ZIKV was first detected in 1947 and only 14 human infection cases were reported until 2007. This virus was previously observed to cause only mild flu-like symptoms. However, recent ZIKV infections might be responsible for the increasing cases of neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and congenital defects, including newborn microcephaly...
March 14, 2018: Virologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539287/pregnancy-outcomes-after-zikv-infection-in-french-territories-in-the-americas
#19
Bruno Hoen, Bruno Schaub, Anna L Funk, Vanessa Ardillon, Manon Boullard, André Cabié, Caroline Callier, Gabriel Carles, Sylvie Cassadou, Raymond Césaire, Maylis Douine, Cécile Herrmann-Storck, Philippe Kadhel, Cédric Laouénan, Yoann Madec, Alice Monthieux, Mathieu Nacher, Fatiha Najioullah, Dominique Rousset, Catherine Ryan, Kinda Schepers, Sofia Stegmann-Planchard, Benoît Tressières, Jean-Luc Voluménie, Samson Yassinguezo, Eustase Janky, Arnaud Fontanet
BACKGROUND: The risk of congenital neurologic defects related to Zika virus (ZIKV) infection has ranged from 6 to 42% in various reports. The aim of this study was to estimate this risk among pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection in French territories in the Americas. METHODS: From March 2016 through November 2016, we enrolled in this prospective cohort study pregnant women with symptomatic ZIKV infection that was confirmed by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assay...
March 15, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29536828/zika-virus-epidemiology-from-uganda-to-world-pandemic-an-update
#20
C Talero-Gutiérrez, A Rivera-Molina, C Pérez-Pavajeau, I Ossa-Ospina, C Santos-García, M C Rojas-Anaya, A de-la-Torre
Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is an emergent worldwide public health problem. Historically, 84 countries have reported vector-borne ZIKV transmission, 61 of which report on-going transmission. It is a Flavivirus transmitted through arthropods belonging to the Aedes genus. Since 2015, ZIKV infections have increased dramatically; with 1.3 million people infected during 2015 in Brazil alone. This paper's objective is to highlight the conjectural epidemiological points of the virus' dissemination. The digital archives Pubmed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for papers that assessed aspects of ZIKV transmission and epidemiology...
March 14, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
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