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Zika and microcephaly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651111/the-rise-of-zika-infection-and-microcephaly-what-can-we-learn-from-a-public-health-emergency
#1
REVIEW
B McCloskey, T Endericks
OBJECTIVES: To consider why Zika was declared a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), why it stopped being one and what we can learn from this for the future. STUDY DESIGN: This paper reviews the sequence of events and evidence base for the decision to declare Zika a PHEIC, the global response to this, the challenges in maintaining an evidence-based approach to outbreak response and identifies learning outcomes. METHODS: Evidence review, all published articles in reputable UK and international journals were identified...
June 23, 2017: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649357/rna-editing-by-the-host-adar-system-affects-the-molecular-evolution-of-the-zika-virus
#2
Helen Piontkivska, Madeline Frederick, Michael M Miyamoto, Marta L Wayne
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-transmitted flavivirus, linked to microcephaly and fetal death in humans. Here, we investigate whether host-mediated RNA editing of adenosines (ADAR) plays a role in the molecular evolution of ZIKV. Using complete coding sequences for the ZIKV polyprotein, we show that potential ADAR substitutions are underrepresented at the ADAR-resistant GA dinucleotides of both the positive and negative strands, that these changes are spatially and temporally clustered (as expected of ADAR editing) for three branches of the viral phylogeny, and that ADAR mutagenesis can be linked to its codon usage...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647174/risk-of-zika-related-microcephaly-stable-or-variable
#3
Laura C Rodrigues, Enny S Paixao
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647173/an-update-on-zika-virus-infection
#4
REVIEW
David Baud, Duane J Gubler, Bruno Schaub, Marion C Lanteri, Didier Musso
The epidemic history of Zika virus began in 2007, with its emergence in Yap Island in the western Pacific, followed in 2013-14 by a larger epidemic in French Polynesia, south Pacific, where the first severe complications and non-vector-borne transmission of the virus were reported. Zika virus emerged in Brazil in 2015 and was declared a national public health emergency after local researchers and physicians reported an increase in microcephaly cases. In 2016, WHO declared the recent cluster of microcephaly cases and other neurological disorders reported in Brazil a global public health emergency...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647172/infection-related-microcephaly-after-the-2015-and-2016-zika-virus-outbreaks-in-brazil-a-surveillance-based-analysis
#5
Wanderson Kleber de Oliveira, Giovanny Vinícius Araújo de França, Eduardo Hage Carmo, Bruce Bartholow Duncan, Ricardo de Souza Kuchenbecker, Maria Inês Schmidt
BACKGROUND: On Nov 11, 2015, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a Public Health Emergency of National Concern in response to an increased number of microcephaly cases, possibly related to previous Zika virus outbreaks. We describe the course of the dual epidemics of the Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly in Brazil up to Nov 12, 2016, the first anniversary of this declaration. METHODS: We used secondary data for Zika virus and microcephaly cases obtained through the Brazilian Ministry of Health's surveillance systems from Jan 1, 2015, to Nov 12, 2016...
June 21, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646619/early-insights-into-zika-s-microcephaly-physiopathology-from-the-epicentre-of-the-outbreak-teratogenic-apoptosis-on-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Patricia Jungmann, Pedro Pires, Edward Araujo
Foetal infection by the Zika virus has been implicated in the exceptional rise in the number of mycrocephalic newborns recorded by the end of 2015 in Brazil. The mechanism by which this teratogenic effect is produced in the developing brain has not been entirely established. Very early in the outbreak, we addressed this question by evaluating available initial data from a gestational and post-natal clinical investigation in the Brazilian state of Pernambuco. The present study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that the subtractive dysmorphic brain malformations observed in Zika's microcephaly are primarily due to the massive induction of apoptosis of neuroprogenitor cells...
June 24, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640798/evaluation-of-placental-and-fetal-tissue-specimens-for-zika-virus-infection-50-states-and-district-of-columbia-january-december-2016
#7
Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Regina Simeone, Elizabeth Simon, Julu Bhatnagar, Titilope Oduyebo, Rebecca Free, Amy M Denison, Demi B Rabeneck, Sascha Ellington, Emily Petersen, Joy Gary, Gillian Hale, M Kelly Keating, Roosecelis B Martines, Atis Muehlenbachs, Jana Ritter, Ellen Lee, Alexander Davidson, Erin Conners, Sarah Scotland, Kayleigh Sandhu, Andrea Bingham, Elizabeth Kassens, Lou Smith, Kirsten St George, Nina Ahmad, Mary Tanner, Suzanne Beavers, Brooke Miers, Kelley VanMaldeghem, Sumaiya Khan, Ingrid Rabe, Carolyn Gould, Dana Meaney-Delman, Margaret A Honein, Wun-Ju Shieh, Denise J Jamieson, Marc Fischer, Sherif R Zaki
Zika virus infection during pregnancy can cause congenital microcephaly and brain abnormalities (1), and detection of Zika virus RNA in clinical and tissue specimens can provide definitive laboratory evidence of recent Zika virus infection. Whereas duration of viremia is typically short, prolonged detection of Zika virus RNA in placental, fetal, and neonatal brain tissue has been reported and can provide key diagnostic information by confirming recent Zika virus infection (2). In accordance with recent guidance (3,4), CDC provides Zika virus testing of placental and fetal tissues in clinical situations where this information could add diagnostic value...
June 23, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638259/global-alert-zika-virus-an-emerging-arbovirus
#8
REVIEW
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632511/zika-virus-a-cause-of-concern-in-transplantation
#9
Marilyn E Levi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Worldwide, the number of countries reporting Zika virus (ZKV) infection continues to increase. Although 80% of cases are asymptomatic, ZKV has been identified as a neurotropic virus associated with congenital microcephaly, Guillain-Barre' syndrome, and meningoencephalitis. Until recently, infection in transplant recipients has not been identified. This study will review the existing literature on ZKV infection, laboratory testing, and management in transplant recipients...
June 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631169/zika-virus-infection-in-vietnam-current-epidemic-strain-origin-spreading-risk-and-perspective
#10
REVIEW
Dinh-Toi Chu, Vo Truong Nhu Ngoc, Yang Tao
Zika virus infection and its associated microcephaly have being receiving global concern. This infection has spread widely since the first outbreak was recorded in Africa in 1952. Now, it has been reported in over 70 countries on five continents including Africa, North and South America, Asia, and Europe. Vietnam is one of the most recent countries which had cases of Zika virus infection at the end of 2016. This country has also reported the first case of a microcephaly-born baby which was probably linked to Zika virus infection...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617773/pregnancy-outcomes-after-maternal-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-u-s-territories-january-1-2016-april-25-2017
#11
Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Marion E Rice, Romeo R Galang, Anna C Fulton, Kelley VanMaldeghem, Miguel Valencia Prado, Esther Ellis, Magele Scott Anesi, Regina M Simeone, Emily E Petersen, Sascha R Ellington, Abbey M Jones, Tonya Williams, Sarah Reagan-Steiner, Janice Perez-Padilla, Carmen C Deseda, Andrew Beron, Aifili John Tufa, Asher Rosinger, Nicole M Roth, Caitlin Green, Stacey Martin, Camille Delgado Lopez, Leah deWilde, Mary Goodwin, H Pamela Pagano, Cara T Mai, Carolyn Gould, Sherif Zaki, Leishla Nieves Ferrer, Michelle S Davis, Eva Lathrop, Kara Polen, Janet D Cragan, Megan Reynolds, Kimberly B Newsome, Mariam Marcano Huertas, Julu Bhatangar, Alma Martinez Quiñones, John F Nahabedian, Laura Adams, Tyler M Sharp, W Thane Hancock, Sonja A Rasmussen, Cynthia A Moore, Denise J Jamieson, Jorge L Munoz-Jordan, Helentina Garstang, Afeke Kambui, Carolee Masao, Margaret A Honein, Dana Meaney-Delman
Pregnant women living in or traveling to areas with local mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission are at risk for Zika virus infection, which can lead to severe fetal and infant brain abnormalities and microcephaly (1). In February 2016, CDC recommended 1) routine testing for Zika virus infection of asymptomatic pregnant women living in areas with ongoing local Zika virus transmission at the first prenatal care visit, 2) retesting during the second trimester for women who initially test negative, and 3) testing of pregnant women with signs or symptoms consistent with Zika virus disease (e...
June 16, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615701/revisiting-zika-and-rubella
#12
Adolfo Martinez-Palomo
Three months after the World Health Organization declared the epidemic of Zika virus infections to be a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, we can look back at what we have learned and prospects for controlling the disease. Although Zika virus infections may explain many cases of brain damage in newborns, it may not be the only cause. We need a clear association between confirmed cases of Zika infections in pregnant women and microcephaly in newborns. Until we reach a firm conclusion, past experience with another virus that causes damage to newborns offers some hope...
August 2016: Journal of Public Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610628/case-report-microcephaly-associated-with-zika-virus-infection-colombia
#13
Salim Mattar, Carolina Ojeda, Janna Arboleda, German Arrieta, Irene Bosch, Ingrid Botia, Nelson Alvis-Guzman, Carlos Perez-Yepes, Lee Gerhke, German Montero
BACKGROUND: Recently there has been a large outbreak of Zika virus infections in Colombia, South America. The epidemic began in September 2015 and continued to April 2017, for the total number of Zika cases reported of 107,870. For those confirmed Zika cases, there were nearly 20,000 (18.5%) suspected to be pregnant women, resulting in 157 confirmed cases of microcephaly in newborns reported by their health government agency. There is a clear under-estimation of the total number of cases and in addition no prior publications have been published to demonstrate the clinical aspects of the Zika infection in Colombia...
June 13, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604336/characteristics-of-dysphagia-in-infants-with-microcephaly-caused-by-congenital-zika-virus-infection-brazil-2015
#14
Mariana C Leal, Vanessa van der Linden, Thiago P Bezerra, Luciana de Valois, Adriana C G Borges, Margarida M C Antunes, Kátia G Brandt, Catharina X Moura, Laura C Rodrigues, Coeli R Ximenes
We summarize the characteristics of dysphagia in 9 infants in Brazil with microcephaly caused by congenital Zika virus infection. The Schedule for Oral Motor Assessment, fiberoptic endoscopic evaluation of swallowing, and the videofluoroscopic swallowing study were used as noninstrumental and instrumental assessments. All infants had a degree of neurologic damage and showed abnormalities in the oral phase. Of the 9 infants, 8 lacked oral and upper respiratory tract sensitivity, leading to delays in initiation of the pharyngeal phase of swallowing...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601976/zika-virus-as-an-emerging-neuropathogen-mechanisms-of-neurovirulence-and-neuro-immune-interactions
#15
REVIEW
Gerwyn Morris, Tatiana Barichello, Brendon Stubbs, Cristiano A Köhler, André F Carvalho, Michael Maes
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging arbovirus of the genus Flaviviridae, which causes a febrile illness and has spread from across the Pacific to the Americas in a short timeframe. Convincing evidence has implicated the ZIKV to incident cases of neonatal microcephaly and a set of neurodevelopmental abnormalities referred to as the congenital Zika virus syndrome. In addition, emerging data points to an association with the ZIKV and the development of the so-called Guillain-Barre syndrome, an acute autoimmune polyneuropathy...
June 11, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598357/microcephaly
#16
REVIEW
Emily Hanzlik, Joseph Gigante
Microcephaly is defined as a head circumference more than two standard deviations below the mean for gender and age. Congenital microcephaly is present at birth, whereas postnatal microcephaly occurs later in life. Genetic abnormalities, syndromes, metabolic disorders, teratogens, infections, prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal injuries can cause both congenital and postnatal microcephaly. Evaluation of patients with microcephaly begins with a thorough history and physical examination. In cases of worsening microcephaly or neurological signs or symptoms, neuroimaging, metabolic, or genetic testing should be strongly considered...
June 9, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594787/measures-taken-to-prevent-zika-virus-infection-during-pregnancy-puerto-rico-2016
#17
Denise V D'Angelo, Beatriz Salvesen von Essen, Mark J Lamias, Holly Shulman, Wanda I Hernandez-Virella, Aspy J Taraporewalla, Manuel I Vargas, Leslie Harrison, Sascha R Ellington, Leslianne Soto, Tanya Williams, Aurea Rodriguez, Carrie K Shapiro-Mendoza, Brenda Rivera, Shanna Cox, Karen Pazol, Marion E Rice, Deborah L Dee, Lisa Romero, Eva Lathrop, Wanda Barfield, Ruben A Smith, Denise J Jamieson, Margaret A Honein, Carmen Deseda, Lee Warner
Zika virus infection during pregnancy remains a serious health threat in Puerto Rico. Infection during pregnancy can cause microcephaly, brain abnormalities, and other severe birth defects (1). From January 1, 2016 through March 29, 2017, Puerto Rico reported approximately 3,300 pregnant women with laboratory evidence of possible Zika virus infection (2). There is currently no vaccine or intervention to prevent the adverse effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy; therefore, prevention has been the focus of public health activities, especially for pregnant women (3)...
June 9, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594771/serial-head-and-brain-imaging-of-17-fetuses-with-confirmed-zika-virus-infection-in-colombia-south-america
#18
Miguel Parra-Saavedra, Jennita Reefhuis, Juan Pablo Piraquive, Suzanne M Gilboa, Martina L Badell, Cynthia A Moore, Marcela Mercado, Diana Valencia, Denise J Jamieson, Mauricio Beltran, Magda Sanz-Cortes, Ana Maria Rivera-Casas, Mayel Yepez, Guido Parra, Martha Ospina Martinez, Margaret A Honein
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate fetal ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging findings among a series of pregnant women with confirmed Zika virus infection to evaluate the signs of congenital Zika syndrome with respect to timing of infection. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case series of pregnant women referred to two perinatal clinics in Barranquilla and Ibagué, Colombia, who had findings consistent with congenital Zika syndrome and Zika virus infection confirmed in maternal, fetal, or neonatal samples...
June 6, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592568/congenital-zika-virus-infection-more-than-just-microcephaly
#19
Jonathan J Miner
A nonhuman primate model demonstrates efficient vertical transmission of Zika virus.
June 7, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589934/dna-vaccination-protects-mice-against-zika-virus-induced-damage-to-the-testes
#20
Bryan D Griffin, Kar Muthumani, Bryce M Warner, Anna Majer, Mable Hagan, Jonathan Audet, Derek R Stein, Charlene Ranadheera, Trina Racine, Marc-Antoine De La Vega, Jocelyne Piret, Stephanie Kucas, Kaylie N Tran, Kathy L Frost, Christine De Graff, Geoff Soule, Leanne Scharikow, Jennifer Scott, Gordon McTavish, Valerie Smid, Young K Park, Joel N Maslow, Niranjan Y Sardesai, J Joseph Kim, Xiao-Jian Yao, Alexander Bello, Robbin Lindsay, Guy Boivin, Stephanie A Booth, Darwyn Kobasa, Carissa Embury-Hyatt, David Safronetz, David B Weiner, Gary P Kobinger
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen causally associated with serious sequelae in fetuses, inducing fetal microcephaly and other neurodevelopment defects. ZIKV is primarily transmitted by mosquitoes, but can persist in human semen and sperm, and sexual transmission has been documented. Moreover, exposure of type-I interferon knockout mice to ZIKV results in severe damage to the testes, epididymis and sperm. Candidate ZIKV vaccines have shown protective efficacy in preclinical studies carried out in animal models, and several vaccines have entered clinical trials...
June 7, 2017: Nature Communications
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