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Zika and microcephaly

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051080/antiviral-activity-of-fenretinide-against-zika-virus
#1
Jared D Pitts, Pi-Chun Li, Melissanne de Wispelaere, Priscilla L Yang
The rapid spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) in recent years has highlighted the severe diseases associated with ZIKV infection, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in newborns. Yet, no vaccines or antivirals currently exist to prevent or treat ZIKV infection. We and others have previously identified N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (fenretinide or 4-HPR) as an antiviral compound that inhibits dengue virus 2 (DV2) and other flaviviruses by limiting the steady-state accumulation of viral RNA. Here we show that 4-HPR potently inhibits Zika virus (ZIKV) in mammalian cell culture and significantly reduces both serum viremia and brain viral burden in a murine model of ZIKV infection...
October 16, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050846/zika-virus-what-where-from-and-where-to
#2
REVIEW
Kerri Basile, Jen Kok, Dominic E Dwyer
The significance of Zika virus as a clinically significant flavivirus has previously been under-recognised, until extensive outbreaks in Yap in 2007, French Polynesia in 2013 and the Americas since 2015. Although Zika virus infection is commonly asymptomatic or mild, emerging evidence suggests a strong link to microcephaly in babies and Guillain-Barré syndrome in adults. This article reviews the epidemiology, geographic distribution, basic virology, transmission, clinical presentation, potential complications, laboratory diagnosis, treatment and prevention of Zika virus infection...
October 16, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049277/update-interim-guidance-for-the-diagnosis-evaluation-and-management-of-infants-with-possible-congenital-zika-virus-infection-united-states-october-2017
#3
Tolulope Adebanjo, Shana Godfred-Cato, Laura Viens, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Wendi Kuhnert-Tallman, Henry Walke, Titilope Oduyebo, Kara Polen, Georgina Peacock, Dana Meaney-Delman, Margaret A Honein, Sonja A Rasmussen, Cynthia A Moore
CDC has updated its interim guidance for U.S. health care providers caring for infants with possible congenital Zika virus infection (1) in response to recently published updated guidance for health care providers caring for pregnant women with possible Zika virus exposure (2), unknown sensitivity and specificity of currently available diagnostic tests for congenital Zika virus infection, and recognition of additional clinical findings associated with congenital Zika virus infection. All infants born to mothers with possible Zika virus exposure* during pregnancy should receive a standard evaluation at birth and at each subsequent well-child visit including a comprehensive physical examination, age-appropriate vision screening and developmental monitoring and screening using validated tools (3-5), and newborn hearing screen at birth, preferably using auditory brainstem response (ABR) methodology (6)...
October 20, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044149/development-and-evaluation-of-a-rapid-molecular-diagnostic-test-for-zika-virus-infection-by-reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification
#4
Yohei Kurosaki, Danyelly Bruneska Gondim Martins, Mayuko Kimura, Andriu Dos Santos Catena, Maria Amélia Carlos Souto Maior Borba, Sandra da Silva Mattos, Haruka Abe, Rokusuke Yoshikawa, José Luiz de Lima Filho, Jiro Yasuda
The recent outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) disease caused an enormous number of infections in Central and South America, and the unusual increase in the number of infants born with microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection aroused global concern. Here, we developed a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay using a portable device for the detection of ZIKV. The assay specifically detected ZIKV strains of both Asian and African genotypes without cross-reactivity with other arboviruses, including Dengue and Chikungunya viruses...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043960/surveillance-of-zika-virus-infection-in-the-eu-eea-june-2015-to-january-2017
#5
G Spiteri, B Sudre, A Septfons, J Beauté, On Behalf Of The European Zika Surveillance Network
Surveillance of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA) was implemented in 2016 in response to the large outbreak reported in the Americas in 2015 associated with an increased number of infants born with microcephaly. Between June 2015 and January 2017, 21 EU/EEA countries reported 2,133 confirmed cases of ZIKV infection, of whom 106 were pregnant women. Cases infected in the Caribbean constituted 71% of reported cases. Almost all cases (99%) were most probably infected by mosquito bite during travel outside continental Europe, while only 1% were transmitted sexually...
October 2017: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042714/challenges-of-dental-care-for-children-with-microcephaly-carrying-zika-congenital-syndrome
#6
EDITORIAL
Alessandro Leite Cavalcanti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039731/patchy-dna-forms-of-the-zika-virus-rna-genome-are-generated-following-infection-in-mosquito-cell-cultures-and-in-mosquitoes
#7
Dilip K Nag, Laura D Kramer
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and has historically been reported to cause mild symptomatic diseases during human infections. More recently, the explosion of microcephaly among infants born to ZIKV-infected women has made ZIKV a global public health concern. While ZIKV causes acute human diseases, infections of vector mosquitoes are basically non-pathogenic, allowing persistent infections and conferring lifelong ability to transmit the virus. Recent studies have revealed that DNA forms of arboviral RNA genomes play a significant role in viral persistence in mosquitoes...
October 17, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037541/zika-virus-an-emerging-challenge-for-obstetrics-and-gynecology
#8
REVIEW
Jhe-Jhih Lin, Ting-Yu Chin, Chih-Ping Chen, Hong-Lin Chan, Tzong-Yuan Wu
Microcephaly is a rare birth defect, however, the re-emerging mosquito and sexual transmitted flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV), had changed the situation and caused an urgent challenge for the obstetrics and gynecology. This review will brief summarize the epidemiology and virology of ZIKV. And compared the animal models that had developed for the ZIKV infections. These animal models will be benefit for the development of vaccines and anti-ZIKV drugs. Furthermore, the genes that are involved in the causation of microcephaly were also summarized...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036922/microrna-and-mrna-dysregulation-in-astrocytes-infected-with-zika-virus
#9
Robert A Kozak, Anna Majer, Mia J Biondi, Sarah J Medina, Lee W Goneau, Babu V Sajesh, Jessy A Slota, Vanessa Zubach, Alberto Severini, David Safronetz, Shannon L Hiebert, Daniel R Beniac, Timothy F Booth, Stephanie A Booth, Gary P Kobinger
The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic is an ongoing public health concern. ZIKV is a flavivirus reported to be associated with microcephaly, and recent work in animal models demonstrates the ability of the virus to cross the placenta and affect fetal brain development. Recent findings suggest that the virus preferentially infects neural stem cells and thereby deregulates gene expression, cell cycle progression, and increases cell death. However, neuronal stem cells are not the only brain cells that are susceptible to ZIKV and infection of other brain cells may contribute to disease progression...
October 14, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033372/chloroquine-a-fda-approved-drug-prevents-zika-virus-infection-and-its-associated-congenital-microcephaly-in-mice
#10
Chunfeng Li, Xingliang Zhu, Xue Ji, Natalie Quanquin, Yong-Qiang Deng, Min Tian, Roghiyh Aliyari, Xiangyang Zuo, Ling Yuan, Shabbir Khan Afridi, Xiao-Feng Li, Jae U Jung, Karin Nielsen-Saines, Frank Xiao-Feng Qin, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhiheng Xu, Genhong Cheng
Zika virus (ZIKV) has become a global public health emergency due to its rapidly expanding range and its ability to cause severe congenital defects such as microcephaly. However, there are no FDA-approved therapies or vaccines against ZIKV infection. Through our screening of viral entry inhibitors, we found that chloroquine (CQ), a commonly used antimalarial and a FDA-approved drug that has also been repurposed against other pathogens, could significantly inhibit ZIKV infection in vitro, by blocking virus internalization...
September 28, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030384/follow-up-brain-imaging-of-37-children-with-congenital-zika-syndrome-case-series-study
#11
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Natacha Calheiros de Lima Petribu, Maria de Fatima Vasco Aragao, Vanessa van der Linden, Paul Parizel, Patricia Jungmann, Luziany Araújo, Marília Abath, Andrezza Fernandes, Alessandra Brainer-Lima, Arthur Holanda, Roberto Mello, Camila Sarteschi, Maria do Carmo Menezes Bezerra Duarte
Objective To compare initial brain computed tomography (CT) scans with follow-up CT scans at one year in children with congenital Zika syndrome, focusing on cerebral calcifications.Design Case series study.Setting Barão de Lucena Hospital, Pernambuco state, Brazil.Participants 37 children with probable or confirmed congenital Zika syndrome during the microcephaly outbreak in 2015 who underwent brain CT shortly after birth and at one year follow-up.Main outcome measure Differences in cerebral calcification patterns between initial and follow-up scans...
October 13, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030319/coordination-of-different-complexes-to-copper-ii-and-cobalt-iii-metal-centers-enhances-zika-virus-and-dengue-virus-loads-in-both-arthropod-cells-and-human-keratinocytes
#12
Shovan Dutta, Michael J Celestine, Supreet Khanal, Alexis Huddleston, Colin Simms, Jessa Faye Arca, Amlan Mitra, Loree Heller, Piotr J Kraj, Michel Ledizet, John F Anderson, Girish Neelakanta, Alvin A Holder, Hameeda Sultana
Trace elements such as copper and cobalt have been associated with virus-host interactions. However, studies to show the effect of conjugation of copper(II) or cobalt(III) metal centers to thiosemicarbazone ligand(s) derived from either food additives or mosquito repellent such as 2-acetylethiazole or citral, respectively, on Zika virus (ZIKV) or dengue virus (serotype 2; DENV2) infections have not been explored. In this study, we show that four compounds comprising of thiosemicarbazone ligand derived from 2-acetylethiazole viz...
October 10, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022904/zika-virus-infection-dysregulates-human-neural-stem-cell-growth-and-inhibits-differentiation-into-neuroprogenitor-cells
#13
Pradip Devhare, Keith Meyer, Robert Steele, Ratna B Ray, Ranjit Ray
The current outbreak of Zika virus-associated diseases in South America and its threat to spread to other parts of the world has emerged as a global health emergency. A strong link between Zika virus and microcephaly exists, and the potential mechanisms associated with microcephaly are under intense investigation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of Zika virus infection of Asian and African lineages (PRVABC59 and MR766) in human neural stem cells (hNSCs). These two Zika virus strains displayed distinct infection pattern and growth rates in hNSCs...
October 12, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022864/reverse-genetic-system-genetically-stable-reporter-viruses-and-packaged-subgenomic-replicon-based-on-a-brazilian-zika-virus-isolate
#14
Margit Mutso, Sirle Saul, Kai Rausalu, Olga Susova, Eva Žusinaite, Suresh Mahalingam, Andres Merits
Zika virus (ZIKV, genus Flavivirus) has emerged as a major mosquito-transmitted human pathogen, with recent outbreaks associated with an increased incidence of neurological complications, particularly microcephaly and the Guillain-Barré syndrome. Because the virus has only very recently emerged as an important pathogen, research is being hampered by a lack of reliable molecular tools. Here we report an infectious cDNA (icDNA) clone for ZIKV isolate BeH819015 from Brazil, which was selected as representative of South American ZIKV isolated at early stages of the outbreak...
October 12, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020159/distinguishing-secondary-dengue-virus-infection-from-zika-virus-infection-with-previous-dengue-by-a-combination-of-three-simple-serological-tests
#15
Wen-Yang Tsai, Han Ha Youn, Carlos Brites, Jih-Jin Tsai, Jasmine Tyson, Celia Pedroso, Jan Felix Drexler, Mars Stone, Graham Simmons, Michael P Busch, Marion Lanteri, Susan L Stramer, Angel Balmaseda, Eva Harris, Wei-Kung Wang
Background: The explosive spread of Zika virus (ZIKV) and associated microcephaly present an urgent need for sensitive and specific serodiagnostic tests, particularly for pregnant women in dengue virus (DENV)-endemic regions. Recent reports of enhanced ZIKV replication by dengue-immune sera have raised concerns about the role of previous DENV infection on the risk and severity of microcephaly and other ZIKV complications. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on ZIKV and DENV non-structural protein 1 (NS1) were established to test acute, convalescent-phase and post-convalescent-phase serum/plasma samples from reverse-transcription polymerase-chain reaction-confirmed-cases including 20 primary ZIKV, 25 ZIKV with previous dengue, 58 secondary DENV, and 16 primary DENV1 infections...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019762/central-nervous-system-effects-of-intrauterine-zika-virus-infection-a-pictorial-review
#16
Bianca Guedes Ribeiro, Heron Werner, Flávia P P L Lopes, L Celso Hygino da Cruz, Tatiana M Fazecas, Pedro A N Daltro, Renata A Nogueira
Relatively few agents have been associated with congenital infections involving the brain. One such agent is the Zika virus, which has caused several outbreaks worldwide and has spread in the Americas since 2015. The Zika virus is an arbovirus transmitted by infected female mosquito vectors, such as the Aedes aegypti mosquito. This virus has been commonly associated with congenital infections of the central nervous system and has greatly increased the rates of microcephaly. Ultrasonography (US) remains the method of choice for fetal evaluation of congenital Zika virus infection...
October 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017720/insights-into-the-molecular-roles-of-zika-virus-in-human-reproductive-complications-and-congenital-neuropathologies
#17
REVIEW
Rajendra Gharbaran, Latchman Somenarain
The recent upsurge in the association of congenital neurological disorders and infection by the Zika virus (ZIKV) has resulted in increased research focus on the biology of this flavivirus. Studies in animal models indicate that ZIKV can breach the placental barrier and selectively infect and deplete neuroprogenitor cells (NPCs) of the developing fetus, resulting in changes of brain structures, reminiscent of human microcephaly. In vitro and ex vivo studies using human cells and tissues showed that human NPCs and placental cells are targeted by ZIKV...
October 7, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994790/modelling-zika-virus-infection-of-the-developing-human-brain-in-vitro-using-stem-cell-derived-cerebral-organoids
#18
Max R Salick, Michael F Wells, Kevin Eggan, Ajamete Kaykas
The recent emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in susceptible populations has led to an abrupt increase in microcephaly and other neurodevelopmental conditions in newborn infants. While mosquitos are the main route of viral transmission, it has also been shown to spread via sexual contact and vertical mother-to-fetus transmission. In this latter case of transmission, due to the unique viral tropism of ZIKV, the virus is believed to predominantly target the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) of the developing brain. Here a method for modeling ZIKV infection, and the resulting microcephaly, that occur when human cerebral organoids are exposed to live ZIKV is described...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980148/the-pathogenesis-of-microcephaly-resulting-from-congenital-infections-why-is-my-baby-s-head-so-small
#19
REVIEW
L D Frenkel, F Gomez, F Sabahi
The emergence of Zika-virus-associated congenital microcephaly has engendered renewed interest in the pathogenesis of microcephaly induced by infectious agents. Three of the original "TORCH" agents are associated with an appreciable incidence of congenital microcephaly: cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and Toxoplasma gondii. The pathology of congenital microcephaly is characterized by neurotropic infectious agents that involve the fetal nervous system, leading to brain destruction with calcifications, microcephaly, sensorineural hearing loss, and ophthalmologic abnormalities...
October 5, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975230/ocular-histopathologic-features-of-congenital-zika-syndrome
#20
Maria P Fernandez, Edgar Parra Saad, Martha Ospina Martinez, Sheryl Corchuelo, Marcela Mercado Reyes, Maria Jose Herrera, Miguel Parra Saavedra, Angelica Rico, Angela M Fernandez, Richard K Lee, Camila V Ventura, Audina M Berrocal, Sander R Dubovy
Importance: Congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) is known to be associated with severe malformations in newborns. Although microcephaly is the hallmark of this disease, the ocular findings are important given the severe visual impairment that has been observed in these patients. Regardless of the increased number of CZS cases reported, to date, no studies have described the ocular histopathologic findings of this entity. Objectives: To evaluate the presence of Zika virus (ZIKV) antigens and describe the associated ocular histopathologic features of 4 cases of CZS...
September 21, 2017: JAMA Ophthalmology
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