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pediatric neuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26266339/the-usefulness-of-immunotherapy-in-pediatric-neurodegenerative-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-literature-data
#1
REVIEW
Giovanna Vitaliti, Omidreza Tabatabaie, Nassim Matin, Caterina Ledda, Piero Pavone, Riccardo Lubrano, Agostino Serra, Paola Di Mauro, Salvatore Cocuzza, Raffaele Falsaperla
Immunotherapeutic strategies to treat neurodegenerative disorders have inspired the scientific community. The aim of our review is to address the translational aspects of neuroimmunology to describe the efficacy of immunotherapy in the treatment of pediatric neurodegenerative disorders. In the studies we analyzed IVIG were found to be efficient in the treatment of post-streptococcal neurodegenerative disorders, even if in PANDAS, plasma-exchange (PE) showed a higher efficiency. IVIG were also successfully used in ADEM and Guillan-Barré syndrome...
2015: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25384862/clinical-and-neurochemical-characteristics-of-pediatric-multiple-sclerosis-csf-analysis-as-knowledge-base-for-differential-diagnosis-and-pathophysiology
#2
Kevin Rostasy, Hansotto Reiber
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system affecting young adults. Although adults and children share important features of the disease, they also differ in some clinical, radiological and laboratory aspects. This review focuses on the neuroimmunological findings in the cerebrospinal fluid of children with MS pointing out that there is already at earliest time of clinical manifestation a neuroimmunological pattern, which differs only in intensity of the humoral immune response but not in frequency and does not support a neuroimmunological difference between early onset from adult onset MS...
June 2009: Acta Neuropsychiatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25301689/post-infectious-autoimmune-disorders-sydenham-s-chorea-pandas-and-beyond
#3
REVIEW
Kyle A Williams, Susan E Swedo
Infections, and the resulting immune response to these infections, have recently received increased recognition as pathogenic mechanisms for neuropsychiatric disorders. Sydenham's chorea (SC), a widely recognized post-streptococcal autoimmune disorder, represents a model for this proposed pathogenesis. In SC, a dysregulated immune response to a streptococcal infection is hypothesized to result in inflammation of neuronal networks, particularly the basal ganglia nuclei. The resulting dysfunction in the basal ganglia nuclei are hypothesized to lead to a constellation of adventitious movements and psychiatric symptoms, which investigations have shown are amenable to immunomodulatory therapies...
August 18, 2015: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24712433/the-search-for-circulating-epilepsy-biomarkers
#4
REVIEW
Manu Hegde, Daniel H Lowenstein
Few would experience greater benefit from the development of biomarkers than those who suffer from epilepsy. Both the timing of individual seizures and the overall course of the disease are highly unpredictable, and the associated morbidity is considerable. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop biomarkers that can predict the progression of epilepsy and treatment response. Doing so may also shed light on the mechanisms of epileptogenesis and pharmacoresistance, which remain elusive despite decades of study...
2014: Biomarkers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22507888/effects-of-age-and-sex-on-aquaporin-4-autoimmunity
#5
Amy M L Quek, Andrew McKeon, Vanda A Lennon, Jayawant N Mandrekar, Raffaele Iorio, Yujuan Jiao, Chiara Costanzi, Brian G Weinshenker, Dean M Wingerchuk, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Elizabeth A Shuster, Sean J Pittock
OBJECTIVE: To determine the sex and age distribution of aquaporin-4 (AQP4) autoimmunity using data derived from clinical service laboratory testing of 56,464 patient samples. DESIGN: Observational analysis. SETTING: Mayo Clinic Neuroimmunology Laboratory. PATIENTS: Between October 1, 2005, and January 4, 2011, 56,464 patients were tested for AQP4-IgG; 2960 (5.2%) patients were seropositive. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Seropositivity for AQP4-IgG...
August 2012: Archives of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21397169/neuronal-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-complex-autoimmunity-in-children
#6
Radhika Dhamija, Deborah L Renaud, Sean J Pittock, Andrew McKeon, Daniel H Lachance, Katherine C Nickels, Elaine C Wirrell, Nancy L Kuntz, Mary D King, Vanda A Lennon
Autoimmunity targeting voltage-gated potassium channel complexes have not been systematically documented in children. Identified in the Neuroimmunology Laboratory records of Mayo Clinic were 12 seropositive children, 7 among 252 Mayo Clinic pediatric patients tested on a service basis for serologic evidence of neurologic autoimmunity (June 2008-April 2010), 4 during the assay's preimplementation validation (before June 2008) and 1 non-Mayo patient with available clinical information. Neurologic manifestations were subacute and multifocal...
April 2011: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19412443/a-neuropsychiatric-review-of-pediatric-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-etiology-and-efficacious-treatments
#7
Adam B Lewin, Eric A Storch, Gary R Geffken, Wayne K Goodman, Tanya K Murphy
Pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a chronic neuropsychiatric condition associated with broad impairments in functioning. This paper outlines current etiological theories of OCD, providing a review of neuroanatomical, neurochemical, neuroimmunological, and cognitive-behavioral explanations. Subsequently, first-line treatment modalities are discussed (serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SRIs] and cognitive-behavioral therapy [CBT] with exposure and response prevention [E/RP]) in the context of recent pharmacological, CBT, and combined trials...
March 2006: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19339060/elevated-b-cell-activating-factor-baff-but-not-april-correlates-with-csf-cerebellar-autoantibodies-in-pediatric-opsoclonus-myoclonus-syndrome
#8
V Fühlhuber, S Bick, A Kirsten, A Hahn, T Gerriets, M Tschernatsch, M Kaps, K T Preissner, F Blaes, S Altenkämper
Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) occurs idiopathic or, in association with a neuroblastoma, as a paraneoplastic syndrome. Since autoantibodies were identified in some patients, an autoimmune pathogenesis has been suspected. While the newly discovered B-cell activating factors BAFF and APRIL are involved in systemic autoimmune diseases, their association with neuroimmunological diseases is hardly understood. We here investigated the BAFF and APRIL levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of OMS patients and their correlation with surface-binding autoantibodies...
May 29, 2009: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/19333200/prevalence-of-antiphospholipid-and-antinuclear-antibodies-in-children-with-epilepsy
#9
Tamás Constantin, Tamás Kálovics, Andrea Ponyi, Eszter Nagy, Krisztina Sallai, Léna Szabó, Miklós Garami, Judit Müller, Péter Gergely, Katalin Dankó, György Fekete, Rozália Kálmánchey
BACKGROUND: Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by recurrent venous thrombosis or arterial occlusive events and fetal losses associated with elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs). MATERIAL/METHODS: The presence of antinuclear, anti-beta2-glycoprotein I, and anticardiolipin antibodies were investigated in 60 consecutive children with epilepsy who were followed up in a single Hungarian center. RESULTS: Almost 50% (28/60) of the patients were ANA positive...
April 2009: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/16970869/tic-disorders-neural-circuits-neurochemistry-and-neuroimmunology
#10
REVIEW
Kendra Harris, Harvey S Singer
The neuroanatomy and neurochemistry underlying tic disorders are thought to involve corticostriatothalamocortical circuits and dysregulation of their component neurotransmitter systems. Tourette syndrome is a tic disorder that begins in childhood and follows a waxing and waning course of tic severity. Although it is generally believed to have a genetic component, its etiology has not been fully elucidated. The clinical entity pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcal infection (PANDAS) has led some to suggest that the pathophysiology of tics in some individuals might involve a postinfectious autoimmune component...
August 2006: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/9665947/intrathecal-synthesis-of-immunoglobulins-in-eosinophilic-meningoencephalitis-due-to-angiostrongylus-cantonensis
#11
A J Dorta-Contreras, H Reiber
Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis due to the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, which is endemic to Cuba, occurs in children and is due to accidental contact with soil snails. The course is less often fatal than in adult patients in southeastern Asia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 24 pediatric patients were analyzed and evaluated in CSF/serum quotient diagrams (Reiber graphs) to characterize the neuroimmunological response and the blood-CSF barrier dysfunction that occur in the course of the disease...
July 1998: Clinical and Diagnostic Laboratory Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/8973076/a-putative-poststreptococcal-case-of-ocd-with-chronic-tic-disorder-not-otherwise-specified
#12
D M Tucker, J F Leckman, L Scahill, G E Wilf, R LaCamera, L Cardona, P Cohen, S Heidmann, J Goldstein, J Judge, E Snyder, A Bult, B S Peterson, R King, P Lombroso
A 12-year-old girl presented with an atypical, recurrent, increasingly treatment-resistant case of obsessive-compulsive disorder and chronic tic disorder associated with profound separation anxiety, learning difficulty, and intermittent upper respiratory symptoms. In addition to detailed reviews of history and findings from many clinical caretakers from the prior 7 years, current pediatric, psychiatric, neuropsychological, neuroimaging, and clinical laboratory data were also available. Treatment options were considered from multiple perspectives: psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy, conventional pharmacotherapy, family interventions, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and learning-supportive strategies...
December 1996: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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