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Precision medicine stroke

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590102/common-%C3%AE-globin-variants-modify-hematologic-and-other-clinical-phenotypes-in-sickle-cell-trait-and-disease
#1
Laura M Raffield, Jacob C Ulirsch, Rakhi P Naik, Samuel Lessard, Robert E Handsaker, Deepti Jain, Hyun M Kang, Nathan Pankratz, Paul L Auer, Erik L Bao, Joshua D Smith, Leslie A Lange, Ethan M Lange, Yun Li, Timothy A Thornton, Bessie A Young, Goncalo R Abecasis, Cathy C Laurie, Deborah A Nickerson, Steven A McCarroll, Adolfo Correa, James G Wilson, Guillaume Lettre, Vijay G Sankaran, Alex P Reiner
Co-inheritance of α-thalassemia has a significant protective effect on the severity of complications of sickle cell disease (SCD), including stroke. However, little information exists on the association and interactions for the common African ancestral α-thalassemia mutation (-α3.7 deletion) and β-globin traits (HbS trait [SCT] and HbC trait) on important clinical phenotypes such as red blood cell parameters, anemia, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a community-based cohort of 2,916 African Americans from the Jackson Heart Study, we confirmed the expected associations between SCT, HbC trait, and the -α3...
March 28, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472380/spontaneous-coronary-artery-dissection-current-state-of-the-science-a-scientific-statement-from-the-american-heart-association
#2
REVIEW
Sharonne N Hayes, Esther S H Kim, Jacqueline Saw, David Adlam, Cynthia Arslanian-Engoren, Katherine E Economy, Santhi K Ganesh, Rajiv Gulati, Mark E Lindsay, Jennifer H Mieres, Sahar Naderi, Svati Shah, David E Thaler, Marysia S Tweet, Malissa J Wood
Spontaneous coronary artery dissection (SCAD) has emerged as an important cause of acute coronary syndrome, myocardial infarction, and sudden death, particularly among young women and individuals with few conventional atherosclerotic risk factors. Patient-initiated research has spurred increased awareness of SCAD, and improved diagnostic capabilities and findings from large case series have led to changes in approaches to initial and long-term management and increasing evidence that SCAD not only is more common than previously believed but also must be evaluated and treated differently from atherosclerotic myocardial infarction...
February 22, 2018: Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464356/weighing-the-anti-ischemic-benefits-and-bleeding-risks-from-aspirin-therapy-a-rational-approach
#3
REVIEW
Sagar Dugani, Jeffrey M Ames, JoAnn E Manson, Samia Mora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention...
February 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459990/-acute-treatment-and-secondary-prophylaxis-of-ischemic-stroke-an-excellent-example-for-personalized-medicine
#4
R Wachter, K Gröschel
About a quarter of a million people in Germany suffer a stroke every year. Stroke is the most dreaded cardiovascular disease, even before myocardial infarction and heart failure. In the last two to three years, significant progress has been made in acute treatment, secondary prophylaxis in patients with patent foramen ovale, and the interdisciplinary evaluation of atrial fibrillation as the cause of the stroke. These new findings allow for more precise treatment.
February 19, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283026/restoring-motor-functions-after-stroke-multiple-approaches-and-opportunities
#5
Estelle Raffin, Friedhelm C Hummel
More than 1.5 million people suffer a stroke in Europe per year and more than 70% of stroke survivors experience limited functional recovery of their upper limb, resulting in diminished quality of life. Therefore, interventions to address upper-limb impairment are a priority for stroke survivors and clinicians. While a significant body of evidence supports the use of conventional treatments, such as intensive motor training or constraint-induced movement therapy, the limited and heterogeneous improvements they allow are, for most patients, usually not sufficient to return to full autonomy...
November 1, 2017: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280924/metabolomics-and-precision-medicine-in-trauma-the-state-of-the-field
#6
Sudha P Jayaraman, Rahul J Anand, Jonathan H DeAntonio, Martin Mangino, Michel B Aboutanos, Vigneshwar Kasirajan, Rao Ivatury, Alex B Valadka, Olena Glushakova, Ronald L Hayes, Lorin M Bachmann, Gretchen M Brophy, Daniel Contaifer, Urszula O Warncke, Donald F Brophy, Dayanjan S Wijesinghe
Trauma is a major problem in the United States. Mortality from trauma is the number one cause of death under the age of 45 in the US and is the third leading cause of death for all age groups. There are nearly 200,000 deaths per year due to trauma in the US at a cost of over $671 billion in combined health care costs and lost productivity. Unsurprisingly, trauma accounts for about 30% of all life-years lost in the US. Due to immense development of trauma systems, a large majority of trauma patients survive the injury but then go on to die from complications arising from the injury...
December 26, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237706/patient-characteristics-resource-use-and-outcomes-associated-with-general-internal-medicine-hospital-care-the-general-medicine-inpatient-initiative-gemini-retrospective-cohort-study
#7
Amol A Verma, Yishan Guo, Janice L Kwan, Lauren Lapointe-Shaw, Shail Rawal, Terence Tang, Adina Weinerman, Peter Cram, Irfan A Dhalla, Stephen W Hwang, Andreas Laupacis, Muhammad M Mamdani, Steven Shadowitz, Ross Upshur, Robert J Reid, Fahad Razak
BACKGROUND: The precise scope of hospital care delivered under general internal medicine services remains poorly quantified. The purpose of this study was to describe the demographic characteristics, medical conditions, health outcomes and resource use of patients admitted to general internal medicine at 7 hospital sites in the Greater Toronto Area. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study involving all patients who were admitted to or discharged from general internal medicine at the study sites between Apr...
December 11, 2017: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170312/15-a-clinical-decision-tool-for-prescribing-anti-platelet-medication-for-patients-with-suspected-acute-coronary-syndrome-pam
#8
Charles Reynard, Rick Body
BACKGROUND: The benefit of antiplatelet medication in confirmed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is well established. In the Emergency Department (ED) diagnostic uncertainty may lead to over-treatment, with consequent risks (e.g., bleeding), or under-treatment, compromising clinical outcomes. Clinicians must subjectively balance the anticipated risks and benefits with their perceived probability of ACS in order to decide whether to prescribe these medications. We aimed to construct a clinical model to optimise and personalise recommendations for anti-platelet prescription in this context...
December 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114077/the-ubiquitin-e3-ligase-traf6-exacerbates-ischemic-stroke-by-ubiquitinating-and-activating-rac1
#9
Tao Li, Juan-Juan Qin, Xia Yang, Yan-Xiao Ji, Fangliang Guo, Wen-Lin Cheng, Xiaolin Wu, Fu-Han Gong, Ying Hong, Xue-Yong Zhu, Jun Gong, Zhihua Wang, Zan Huang, Zhi-Gang She, Hongliang Li
Stroke is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and excitotoxicity contribute to neuronal death during ischemic stroke; however, the mechanisms underlying these complicated pathophysiological processes remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we found that the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6) was markedly increased after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in mice. TRAF6 ablation in male mice decreased the infarct volume and neurological deficit scores, and decreased pro-inflammatory signaling, oxidative stress and neuronal death after cerebral I/R, whereas transgenic overexpression of TRAF6 in male mice exhibited opposite effects...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105736/stroke-identification-by-criteria-based-dispatch-a-register-based-study
#10
E N Ellensen, H Naess, T Wisborg, S Hunskaar, E Zakariassen
BACKGROUND: Rapid and precise dispatch of resources is a key element in pre-hospital emergency medicine. Emergency medical communication centres (EMCCs) dispatch resources based on protocols and guidelines, balancing the acute need of the individual and the resource allocation of the pre-hospital emergency medical system. The aim of this study was to determine the validity of stroke identification by the Norwegian dispatch guidelines. METHOD AND MATERIAL: This was a register-based study where patients suspected for stroke were compared to those with the final diagnosis of stroke as an indicator group for the guideline validation...
January 2018: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103068/antiplatelet-therapy-for-secondary-prevention-of-vascular-disease-complications
#11
REVIEW
Rahul R Goli, Mayur M Contractor, Ashwin Nathan, Sony Tuteja, Taisei Kobayashi, Jay Giri
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Platelets are activated upon interaction with injured vascular endothelium to form a primary hemostatic plug. Pathogenic thrombosis driven by platelet aggregation can occur in the setting of vascular disease leading to ischemic events. The use of antiplatelet agents has become a mainstay for prevention of the secondary complications of vascular disease. This review summarizes seminal and recent literature related to this area. RECENT FINDINGS: Aspirin is a cornerstone of antiplatelet therapy for coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular disease for prevention of myocardial infarction, stroke, and vascular death...
November 4, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060181/a-new-hand-function-assessment-method-using-an-infrared-imaging-device
#12
Qinag Fang, Xudong Gu
Many post-stroke patients suffer various degrees of hand function and fine motor skills impairment. Both passive and active hand rehabilitation training are beneficial in improving strength and dexterity of hands. However, hand rehabilitation programs should be prescribed, based on an accurate assessment of hand function. Here we propose a novel method for hand function assessment that can accurately measure multiple joint angles of a hand simultaneously using a portable infrared imaging device. Different from the traditional assessment methods that are often based on clinicians' subjective observation and ordinal charts, this method provides an accurate, fast and objective evaluation using infrared imaging sensors...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040936/chemical-profiling-and-quantification-of-dan-deng-tong-nao-capsule-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-high-resolution-hybrid-quadruple-orbitrap-mass-spectrometry
#13
Xiao-Jing Lv, Zhi Sun, Pei-Le Wang, Jing Yang, Tan-Ye Xu, Qing-Quan Jia, Da-Wei Li, Fang-Yi Su, Zhen-Feng Zhu, Jian Kang, Xiao-Jian Zhang
Dan-Deng-Tong-Nao capsule (DDTN) was a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula, and has been widely used for the treatment of stroke clinically which caused by blood stasis. However, the bioactive substances and mechanism are unclear because of the complex compositions in DDTN. In this research, An ultra high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled with hybrid quadruple-orbitrap mass spectrometry (Q-Orbitrap MS) method was utilized to identify the chemical constituents of DDTN. In total, 102 compounds including diterpenes, lactones, flavonoids, and phenolic acids were identified by the accurate masses and fragmentation pathways, and 18 of them were unambiguously determined by comparison of reference standards...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971520/isotropic-3d-cardiac-cine-mri-allows-efficient-sparse-segmentation-strategies-based-on-3d-surface-reconstruction
#14
Freddy Odille, Aurélien Bustin, Shufang Liu, Bailiang Chen, Pierre-André Vuissoz, Jacques Felblinger, Laurent Bonnemains
PURPOSE: Segmentation of cardiac cine MRI data is routinely used for the volumetric analysis of cardiac function. Conventionally, 2D contours are drawn on short-axis (SAX) image stacks with relatively thick slices (typically 8 mm). Here, an acquisition/reconstruction strategy is used for obtaining isotropic 3D cine datasets; reformatted slices are then used to optimize the manual segmentation workflow. METHODS: Isotropic 3D cine datasets were obtained from multiple 2D cine stacks (acquired during free-breathing in SAX and long-axis (LAX) orientations) using nonrigid motion correction (cine-GRICS method) and super-resolution...
October 2, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882919/a-randomised-controlled-cross-over-double-blind-pilot-study-protocol-on-thc-cbd-oromucosal-spray-efficacy-as-an-add-on-therapy-for-post-stroke-spasticity
#15
Lucio Marinelli, Maurizio Balestrino, Laura Mori, Luca Puce, Gian Marco Rosa, Laura Giorello, Antonio Currà, Francesco Fattapposta, Carlo Serrati, Carlo Gandolfo, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Carlo Trompetto
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is the most disabling neurological disorder and often causes spasticity. Transmucosal cannabinoids (tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (THC:CBD), Sativex) is currently available to treat spasticity-associated symptoms in patients with multiple sclerosis. Cannabinoids are being considered useful also in the treatment of pain, nausea and epilepsy, but may bear and increased risk for cardiovascular events. Spasticity is often assessed with subjective and clinical rating scales, which are unable to measure the increased excitability of the monosynaptic reflex, considered the hallmark of spasticity...
September 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697713/an-update-of-the-italian-stroke-organization-stroke-prevention-awareness-diffusion-group-guidelines-on-carotid-endarterectomy-and-stenting-a-personalized-medicine-approach
#16
Gaetano Lanza, Carlo Setacci, Stefano Ricci, Patrizio Castelli, Alberto Cremonesi, Jessica Lanza, Claudio Novali, Carlo Pratesi, Paola Santalucia, Francesco Speziale, Augusto Zaninelli, Gian Franco Gensini
Although proof-based medicine has generated much valid evidence for the drawing up of guidelines and recommendations for best clinical practice in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis, whether and when it is better to employ endarterectomy or stenting as the intervention of choice still remain matters of debate. Moreover, guidelines have been targeted up to now to the 'representative' patient, as resulting from the statistical analyses of the studies conducted on the safety and efficacy of both interventions as well as on medical therapy alone...
July 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656344/-the-importance-of-neuronal-networks-for-motor-rehabilitation-after-a-stroke
#17
REVIEW
F C Hummel
Every year in Europe 1.5 million patients suffer a new stroke. Despite the further developments in acute therapy with nationwide stroke units, thrombolysis, thrombectomy and post-acute neurorehabilitation, only a small proportion of patients recover to a satisfactory degree allowing them to return to their normal social and professional life. This makes stroke the main cause of long-term disability with a corresponding impact on patient lives, socioeconomics and the healthcare system. Thus, the concepts of neurorehabilitation have to be extended to enhance the effects of rehabilitative treatment strategies...
August 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597905/stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-past-present-and-future-comparing-the-guidelines-and-practical-decision-making
#18
Gregory Lip, Ben Freedman, Raffaele De Caterina, Tatjana S Potpara
Concepts and our approaches to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) have changed markedly over the last decade. There has been an evolution over the approach to stroke and bleeding risk assessment, as well as new treatment options. An increasing awareness of AF has led to calls to improve the detection of and population screening for AF. Stroke and bleeding risk assessment continues to evolve, and the ongoing debate on balance between simplicity and practicality, against precision medicine will continue...
June 28, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584214/study-on-language-rehabilitation-for-aphasia
#19
REVIEW
Zeng-Zhi Yu, Shu-Jun Jiang, Zi-Shan Jia, Hong-Yu Xiao, Mei-Qi Zhou
OBJECTIVE: The aim is to update our clinical recommendations for evidence-based language rehabilitation of people with aphasia, based on a systematic review of the literature from 1999 to 2015. DATA SOURCES: Articles referred to in this systematic review of the Medline and PubMed published in English language literatures were from 1998 to 2015. The terms used in the literature searches were aphasia and evidenced-based. STUDY SELECTION: The task force initially identified citations for 51 published articles...
June 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557787/warfarin-personalized-dosage-re-compounding-for-a-more-suitable-therapy-and-better-compliance
#20
Tommaso Pellagatti, Marco Ternelli, Davide Frascio, Ruggero Bettini
Warfarin is still the most prescribed oral anticoagulant prescribed for the prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic events such as stroke, heart attack, embolism, and deep vein thrombosis. It is administered orally in the form of sodium salt as a tablet with a typical strength of 5 mg. The molecule has a narrow therapeutic index. As a consequence, the dosage must be individualized for each patient based on the patient response in terms of time of coagulation. Thus, warfarin represents an example of a drug whose dose needs to be tailored to individual requirements that are often changing and, therefore, constitute a paramount illustration of personalized medicine...
May 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding
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