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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29465793/modulation-of-task-related-cortical-connectivity-in-the-acute-and-subacute-phase-after-stroke
#1
Lisbeth Hoejkjaer Larsen, Ivan Chrilles Zibrandtsen, Troels Wienecke, Troels Wesenberg Kjaer, Henning Langberg, Jens Bo Nielsen, Mark Schram Christensen
The functional relevance of cortical reorganisation post-stroke is still not well understood. In this study we investigated task-specific modulation of cortical connectivity between neural oscillations in key motor regions during the early phase after stroke. EEG and EMG recordings were examined from 15 patients and 18 controls during a precision grip task using the affected hand. Each patient attended two sessions in the acute and subacute phase (median of 3 & 34 days) post-stroke. Dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses was used to investigate task-specific modulations of oscillatory couplings in a bilateral network comprising supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and primary motor cortex (M1)...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464356/weighing-the-anti-ischemic-benefits-and-bleeding-risks-from-aspirin-therapy-a-rational-approach
#2
REVIEW
Sagar Dugani, Jeffrey M Ames, JoAnn E Manson, Samia Mora
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular prevention is well understood; however, the role in primary prevention is less clear, and requires careful balancing of potential benefits with risks. Here, we summarize the evidence base on the benefits and risks of aspirin therapy, discuss clinical practice guidelines and decision support tools to assist in initiating aspirin therapy, and highlight ongoing trials that may clarify the role of aspirin in cardiovascular disease prevention...
February 21, 2018: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29462049/suprasternal-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-patients-with-marginal-femoral-access
#3
Andy C Kiser, Thomas G Caranasos, Mark D Peterson, David M Holzhey, Philipp Kiefer, L Wiley Nifong, Michael A Borger
OBJECTIVE: Recently, the PARTNER 2A trial reported results of transcatheter aortic valve replacement versus surgical aortic valve replacement in 2032 intermediate-risk patients at 2 years. Two hundred thirty-six patients (24%) required an access route other than transfemoral. Compared with transfemoral and surgical aortic valve replacement, nontransfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement was associated with a numerically higher rate of death and disabling stroke at 30 days. This underscores the need for a better alternative surgical approach for patients with marginal femoral access...
February 17, 2018: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459990/-acute-treatment-and-secondary-prophylaxis-of-ischemic-stroke-an-excellent-example-for-personalized-medicine
#4
R Wachter, K Gröschel
About a quarter of a million people in Germany suffer a stroke every year. Stroke is the most dreaded cardiovascular disease, even before myocardial infarction and heart failure. In the last two to three years, significant progress has been made in acute treatment, secondary prophylaxis in patients with patent foramen ovale, and the interdisciplinary evaluation of atrial fibrillation as the cause of the stroke. These new findings allow for more precise treatment.
February 19, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449770/adverse-events-following-cervical-manipulative-therapy-consensus-on-classification-among-dutch-medical-specialists-manual-therapists-and-patients
#5
Hendrikus A Kranenburg, Sandra E Lakke, Maarten A Schmitt, Cees P Van der Schans
Objectives: To obtain consensus-based agreement on a classification system of adverse events (AE) following cervical spinal manipulation. The classification system should be comprised of clear definitions, include patients' and clinicians' perspectives, and have an acceptable number of categories. Methods: Design : A three-round Delphi study. Participants : Thirty Dutch participants (medical specialists, manual therapists, and patients) participated in an online survey...
December 2017: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446620/polydopamine-coated-main-chain-liquid-crystal-elastomer-as-optically-driven-artificial-muscle
#6
Hongmiao Tian, Zhijian Wang, Yilong Chen, Jinyou Shao, Tong Gao, Shengqiang Cai
Optically-driven active materials have received much attention because their deformation and motion can be controlled remotely, instantly and precisely in a contactless way. In this article, we investigated an optically-actuated elastomer with rapid response: polydopamine (PDA)-coated liquid crystal elastomer (LCE). Due to the photothermal effect of PDA coating and thermal responsiveness of LCE, the elastomer film contracted significantly with near infrared (NIR) irradiation. With a fixed strain, light-induced actuating stress in the film could be as large as 1...
February 15, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444182/towards-phenotyping-stroke-leveraging-data-from-a-large-scale-epidemiological-study-to-detect-stroke-diagnosis
#7
Yizhao Ni, Kathleen Alwell, Charles J Moomaw, Daniel Woo, Opeolu Adeoye, Matthew L Flaherty, Simona Ferioli, Jason Mackey, Felipe De Los Rios La Rosa, Sharyl Martini, Pooja Khatri, Dawn Kleindorfer, Brett M Kissela
OBJECTIVE: 1) To develop a machine learning approach for detecting stroke cases and subtypes from hospitalization data, 2) to assess algorithm performance and predictors on real-world data collected by a large-scale epidemiology study in the US; and 3) to identify directions for future development of high-precision stroke phenotypic signatures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We utilized 8,131 hospitalization events (ICD-9 codes 430-438) collected from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky Stroke Study in 2005 and 2010...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444105/accuracy-and-precision-of-consumer-level-activity-monitors-for-stroke-detection-during-wheelchair-propulsion-and-arm-ergometry
#8
Jochen Kressler, Joshua Koeplin-Day, Benedikt Muendle, Brice Rosby, Elizabeth Santo, Antoinette Domingo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether consumer-level activity trackers can estimate wheelchair strokes and arm ergometer revolutions. Thirty able-bodied participants wore three consumer-level activity trackers (Garmin VivoFit, FitBit Flex, and Jawbone UP24) on the wrist. Participants propelled a wheelchair at fixed frequencies (30, 45 and 60 strokes per minute (spm)) three minutes each and at pre-determined varied frequencies, (30-80 spm) for two minutes. Participants also freely wheeled through an obstacle course...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440034/subclinical-compromise-in-cardiac-strain-relates-to-lower-cognitive-performances-in-older-adults
#9
Hailey A Kresge, Omair A Khan, Madison A Wagener, Dandan Liu, James G Terry, Sangeeta Nair, Francis E Cambronero, Katherine A Gifford, Katie E Osborn, Timothy J Hohman, Kimberly R Pechman, Susan P Bell, Thomas J Wang, John Jeffrey Carr, Angela L Jefferson
BACKGROUND: Global longitudinal strain (GLS), reflecting total shortening of the myocardium during the cardiac cycle, has emerged as a more precise myocardial function measure than left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Longitudinal strain may be selectively affected in subclinical heart disease, even in the presence of normal LVEF. This study examines subclinical cardiac dysfunction, assessed by GLS and LVEF, and cognition among older adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: Vanderbilt Memory and Aging Project participants who were free of clinical dementia, stroke, and heart failure (n=318, 73±7 years, 58% male) completed neuropsychological assessment and cardiac magnetic resonance to quantify GLS and LVEF...
February 13, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431191/in-vivo-microdialysis-with-ultra-performance-liquid-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-for-analysis-of-tetramethylpyrazine-and-its-interaction-with-borneol-in-rat-brain-and-blood
#10
Weiguo Liao, Xiaojie Huang, Yongxin Yin, Bin Liu, Runzhi Zhu
Tetramethylpyrazine (TMP) has been widely used in the treatment of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. However, the mechanism of TMP and how to increase the bioavailability of TMP need to be further explored. In our study, an in vivo microdialysis sampling technique coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of TMP and its interaction with different doses of borneol (BO) in rats. Linearity of TMP in brain and blood dialysates exhibited good linear relationships over the concentration range of 0...
February 12, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426989/magnetic-resonance-post-contrast-vascular-hyperintensities-at-3-t-a-new-highly-sensitive-sign-of-vascular-occlusion-in-acute-ischaemic-stroke
#11
Loïc Duron, Julien Savatovsky, Michael Obadia, Marie Astrid Metten, Pascal Roux, Raphael Blanc, Jean-Claude Sadik, Sarah Dhundass, Augustin Lecler
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the diagnostic cornerstone for precisely identifying acute ischaemic strokes and locating vascular occlusions, especially since mechanical thrombectomy has become a reference treatment. We observed that a post-contrast three-dimensional turbo-spin-echo T1-weighted sequence showed striking post-contrast vascular hyperintensities (PCVH) in ischaemic territories. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence and the meaning of this finding. METHODS: This retrospective single centre study included 130 consecutive patients admitted for acute ischaemic stroke with a 3-T MRI performed in the first 12 h of symptom onset from September 2014 through September 2016...
February 9, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422410/tissue-engineering-3d-neurovascular-units-a-biomaterials-and-bioprinting-perspective
#12
REVIEW
Geoffrey Potjewyd, Samuel Moxon, Tao Wang, Marco Domingos, Nigel M Hooper
Neurovascular dysfunction is a central process in the pathogenesis of stroke and most neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. The multicellular neurovascular unit (NVU) combines the neural, vascular and extracellular matrix (ECM) components in an important interface whose correct functioning is critical to maintain brain health. Tissue engineering is now offering new tools and insights to advance our understanding of NVU function. Here, we review how the use of novel biomaterials to mimic the mechanical and functional cues of the ECM, coupled with precisely layered deposition of the different cells of the NVU through 3D bioprinting, is revolutionising the study of neurovascular function and dysfunction...
February 5, 2018: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421936/cardiorenal-safety-of-otc-analgesics
#13
William B White, Robert A Kloner, Dominick J Angiolillo, Michael H Davidson
Over-the-counter analgesics are used globally for the relief of acute pain. Although effective, these agents can be associated with adverse effects that may limit their use in some people. In the early 2000s, observations from clinical trials of prescription-strength and supratherapeutic doses of nonselective and cyclooxygenase-2-selective nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) raised safety concerns regarding the risk of cardiovascular adverse effects with the use of these medications. Subsequently, the US Food and Drug Administration mandated additional study of the cardiovascular safety of NSAIDs for a more comprehensive understanding of their risk...
March 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420085/reactive-oxygen-species-play-a-biphasic-role-in-brain-ischemia
#14
Jiping Yang, Jinchong Qi, Baoxin Xiu, Bei Yang, Caihong Niu, Hua Yang
OBJECTIVE: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the essential mechanism involving in the ischemic process. Due to their complex characteristics, the precise effects of ROS on post-ischemic neurons remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of ROS in brain ischemia. METHODS: Dynamic ROS levels in the perifocal cortex were evaluated after right middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) of SD rats. Furthermore the role of ROS was assessed following delayed treatment with the ROS scavenger dimethylthiourea (DMTU) after brain ischemia...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Investigative Surgery: the Official Journal of the Academy of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414011/simultaneous-determination-of-trimethylamine-n-oxide-choline-betaine-by-uplc-ms-ms-in-human-plasma-an-application-in-acute-stroke-patients
#15
Weibang Yu, Chuncao Xu, Guomin Li, Weipeng Hong, Ziyi Zhou, Canxing Xiao, Yuanqi Zhao, Yefeng Cai, Min Huang, Jing Jin
Trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) is derived from the gut microbiome and tissues metabolism of dietary choline and betaine. These molecules are closely related to the development of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. A rapid, sensitive and accurate method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), choline and betaine in human plasma using d9-trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), d9-choline, d9-betaine as the internal standard (IS). After methanol precipitation with 10 μL plasma samples, the analytes were extracted and then separated on Amide column (2...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412713/mortality-disparities-in-racial-ethnic-minority-groups-in-the-veterans-health-administration-an-evidence-review-and-map
#16
Kim Peterson, Johanna Anderson, Erin Boundy, Lauren Ferguson, Ellen McCleery, Kallie Waldrip
BACKGROUND: Continued racial/ethnic health disparities were recently described as "the most serious and shameful health care issue of our time." Although the 2014 US Affordable Care Act-mandated national insurance coverage expansion has led to significant improvements in health care coverage and access, its effects on life expectancy are not yet known. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest US integrated health care system, has a sustained commitment to health equity that addresses all 3 stages of health disparities research: detection, understanding determinants, and reduction or elimination...
March 2018: American Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410646/intramuscular-emg-decomposition-basing-on-motor-unit-action-potentials-detection-and-superposition-resolution
#17
Xiaomei Ren, Chuan Zhang, Xuhong Li, Gang Yang, Thomas Potter, Yingchun Zhang
A novel electromyography (EMG) signal decomposition framework is presented for the thorough and precise analysis of intramuscular EMG signals. This framework first detects all of the active motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) and assigns single MUAP segments to their corresponding motor units. MUAP waveforms that are found to be superimposed are then resolved into their constituent single MUAPs using a peel-off approach and similarly assigned. The method is composed of six stages of analytical procedures: preprocessing, segmentation, alignment and feature extraction, clustering and refinement, supervised classification, and superimposed waveform resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406481/precise-isometric-hand-grip-learning-of-hemiparetic-stroke-patients
#18
Tibor Vámos, Andrea Berencsi, Gábor Fazekas, Lajos Kullmann
Rehabilitation of hand movements after stroke aims at skills that can be well retained and transferred to novel conditions. These functions may be altered by training schedules such as constant and variable practice. A total of 36 participants with hemiparesis completed one of these schedules counterbalanced. Precise isometric hand grip force production was practiced for 4 days with a target force of 25% maximum voluntary contraction. The constant group practiced only the target force, whereas the variable group practiced the same amount including ±5 and 10% maximum voluntary contraction...
February 5, 2018: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402879/effects-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-combined-with-task-oriented-mirror-therapy-training-on-hand-rehabilitation-of-acute-stroke-patients
#19
Jinhong Kim, Jongeun Yim
BACKGROUND Impairments of hand function make it difficult to perform daily life activities and to return to work. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (HF-rTMS) combined with task-oriented mirror therapy (TOMT) on hand rehabilitation in acute stroke patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS Twenty subacute stroke patients in the initial stages (<3 months) participated in the study. Subjects were allocated to 2 groups: the experimental group received HF-rTMS + TOMT and the control group received HF-rTMS...
February 6, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390706/development-of-a-multistage-compliant-mechanism-with-new-boundary-constraint
#20
Mingxiang Ling, Junyi Cao, Zhou Jiang, Qisheng Li
This paper presents a piezo-actuated compliant mechanism with a new boundary constraint to provide concurrent large workspace and high dynamic frequency for precision positioning or other flexible manipulation applications. A two-stage rhombus-type displacement amplifier with the "sliding-sliding" boundary constraint is presented to maximize the dynamic frequency while retaining a large output displacement. The vibration mode is also improved by the designed boundary constraint. A theoretical kinematic model of the compliant mechanism is established to optimize the geometric parameters, and a prototype is fabricated with a compact dimension of 60 mm × 60 mm × 12 mm...
January 2018: Review of Scientific Instruments
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