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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718030/precision-stroke-animal-models-the-permanent-mcao-model-should-be-the-primary-model-not-transient-mcao
#1
Devin W McBride, John H Zhang
An argument for preclinical stroke research to make more use of the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, rather than transient MCAO, is presented. Despite STAIR recommending permanent MCAO as the primary model, preclinical stroke research has not been listened. In 2012, Hossmann reported that 64% of the treatment studies for MCAO used prompt transient MCAO models and only 36% of the studies used permanent MCAO or gradual transient MCAO (i.e., embolic stroke model). Then, in 2014 and 2015, 88% of published basic science studies on large vessel occlusion used the transient MCAO model...
July 17, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716274/head-ct-findings-at-a-public-hospital-in-rural-haiti
#2
Yannis K Valtis, Maggie F Cochran, Louine Martineau, Bregenet Lamour, Jeffrey B Mendel, Aaron L Berkowitz
BACKGROUND: Neuroimaging is often unavailable in low-income countries, creating challenges for precise diagnosis of neurologic disease in individual patients, and impeding acquisition of precise neuroepidemiologic data for program and policy development. METHODS: We analyzed reports from 3614 head CTs performed between July 2013 and January 2016 at Hôpital Universitaire de Mirebalais, a public academic hospital in rural Haiti, extracting patients' age, study indication, and radiologic findings...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712815/asymptomatic-carotid-stenosis-is-associated-with-cognitive%C3%A2-impairment
#3
Brajesh K Lal, Moira C Dux, Siddhartha Sikdar, Carly Goldstein, Amir A Khan, John Yokemick, Limin Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular risk factors (eg, hypertension, coronary artery disease) and stroke can lead to vascular cognitive impairment. The Asymptomatic Carotid Stenosis and Cognitive Function study evaluated the isolated impact of asymptomatic carotid stenosis (no prior ipsilateral or contralateral stroke or transient ischemic attack) on cognitive function. Cerebrovascular hemodynamic and carotid plaque characteristics were analyzed to elucidate potential mechanisms affecting cognition...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711336/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-and-cardiovascular-events-a-10-year-study-in-the-urban-area-of-como-italy
#4
Simone Vidale, Marco Arnaboldi, Vittorio Bosio, Giovanni Corrado, Mario Guidotti, Roberto Sterzi, Carlo Campana
BACKGROUND: In the last years several studies have investigated the effects of some air pollutants on cardiovascular diseases (CVD), but the results are not conclusive. Aim of this study was to investigate the association between short-term exposure to ambient air pollution and CVD events in a long-term observational period. METHODS: All CVD events (myocardial infarction - MI and ischemic stroke - IS) which occurred in residents of Como between January 2005 and December 2014 were included...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697713/an-update-of-the-italian-stroke-organization-stroke-prevention-awareness-diffusion-group-guidelines-on-carotid-endarterectomy-and-stenting-a-personalized-medicine-approach
#5
Gaetano Lanza, Carlo Setacci, Stefano Ricci, Patrizio Castelli, Alberto Cremonesi, Jessica Lanza, Claudio Novali, Carlo Pratesi, Paola Santalucia, Francesco Speziale, Augusto Zaninelli, Gian Franco Gensini
Although proof-based medicine has generated much valid evidence for the drawing up of guidelines and recommendations for best clinical practice in symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid stenosis, whether and when it is better to employ endarterectomy or stenting as the intervention of choice still remain matters of debate. Moreover, guidelines have been targeted up to now to the 'representative' patient, as resulting from the statistical analyses of the studies conducted on the safety and efficacy of both interventions as well as on medical therapy alone...
July 2017: International Journal of Stroke: Official Journal of the International Stroke Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685128/stroke-onset-time-determination-using-mri-relaxation-times-without-non-ischaemic-reference-in-a-rat-stroke-model
#6
Terence J T Norton, Marcelo Pereyra, Michael J Knight, Bryony M McGarry, Kimmo T Jokivarsi, Olli H J Gröhn, Risto A Kauppinen
BACKGROUND: Objective timing of stroke in emergency departments is expected to improve patient stratification. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relaxations times, T2 and T1ρ , in abnormal diffusion delineated ischaemic tissue were used as proxies of stroke time in a rat model. METHODS: Both 'non-ischaemic reference'-dependent and -independent estimators were generated. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), T2 and T1ρ , were sequentially quantified for up to 6 hours of stroke in rats (n = 8) at 4...
June 20, 2017: Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678807/risk-of-cardiovascular-disease-in-chinese-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-cross-sectional-study-based-on-hospital-medical-records-in-10-years
#7
Kun Zou, Fu-Kun Xiao, Hong-Ying Li, Qiao Zhou, Lu Ban, Min Yang, Chang-Fu Kuo, Weiya Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Though the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been established in Western population, little is known about the risk in Chinese people with RA. Our objective was to estimate the risk of CVD in Chinese people with RA using hospital medical records data. METHODS: The inpatients medical record database 2005-2015 of Sichuan provincial people's hospital was examined. All individuals with a primary diagnosis of RA were included as cases, and those of osteoarthritis (OA) were included as controls, which consisted of the unmatched dataset...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668000/a-micromachined-piezoelectric-microgripper-for-manipulation-of-micro-nanomaterials
#8
Huaduo Shi, Weiliang Shi, Ran Zhang, Junyi Zhai, Jinkui Chu, Shuxiang Dong
Micro/nanomaterials and devices have attracted great interest in recent years because of their extensive application prospects in almost all kinds of fields. However, the manipulations of the material at the micro/nanoscale, such as the separation or transfer of a micro/nano-object in the process of assembling micro/nanodevices, are quite difficult. In this paper, we present a micromachined micro-gripper made of photoresist material (SU-8) and driven by piezoelectric Pb(Mg,Nb)O3-PbTiO3 single crystal pieces...
June 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666929/fluid-responsiveness-after-cardiac-surgery-fracas-a-prospective-observational-study-using-peripheral-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#9
Ethan Butler, John Nguyen, Sajeev Mahendran, Anders Aneman
OBJECTIVES: To describe tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) in response to a vascular occlusion test using thenar eminence and forearm near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and the association with volume responsiveness after cardiac surgery. DESIGN: Single-center, prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Cardiothoracic intensive care unit. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy-six post-cardiac surgical adults. INTERVENTIONS: Immediately before and 10 minutes after a 250-to-500 mL fluid bolus, StO2 was measured in response to a vascular occlusion test to calculate tissue deoxygenation (Rdes) and reoxygenation (Rres) rates...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659855/upper-extremity-motor-impairments-and-microstructural-changes-in-bulbospinal-pathways-in-chronic-hemiparetic-stroke
#10
Meriel Owen, Carson Ingo, Julius P A Dewald
Following hemiparetic stroke, precise, individuated control of single joints is often replaced by highly stereotyped patterns of multi-joint movement, or abnormal limb synergies, which can negatively impact functional use of the paretic arm. One hypothesis for the expression of these synergies is an increased dependence on bulbospinal pathways such as the rubrospinal (RubST) tract and especially the reticulospinal (RetST) tracts, which co-activate multiple muscles of the shoulder, elbow, wrist, and fingers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656344/-the-importance-of-neuronal-networks-for-motor-rehabilitation-after-a-stroke
#11
REVIEW
F C Hummel
Every year in Europe 1.5 million patients suffer a new stroke. Despite the further developments in acute therapy with nationwide stroke units, thrombolysis, thrombectomy and post-acute neurorehabilitation, only a small proportion of patients recover to a satisfactory degree allowing them to return to their normal social and professional life. This makes stroke the main cause of long-term disability with a corresponding impact on patient lives, socioeconomics and the healthcare system. Thus, the concepts of neurorehabilitation have to be extended to enhance the effects of rehabilitative treatment strategies...
June 27, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645800/high-throughput-sequencing-of-the-entire-genomic-regions-of-ccm1-krit1-ccm2-and-ccm3-pdcd10-to-search-for-pathogenic-deep-intronic-splice-mutations-in-cerebral-cavernous-malformations
#12
Matthias Rath, Sönke E Jenssen, Konrad Schwefel, Stefanie Spiegler, Dana Kleimeier, Christian Sperling, Lars Kaderali, Ute Felbor
Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCM) are vascular lesions of the central nervous system that can cause headaches, seizures and hemorrhagic stroke. Disease-associated mutations have been identified in three genes: CCM1/KRIT1, CCM2 and CCM3/PDCD10. The precise proportion of deep-intronic variants in these genes and their clinical relevance is yet unknown. Here, a long-range PCR (LR-PCR) approach for target enrichment of the entire genomic regions of the three genes was combined with next generation sequencing (NGS) to screen for coding and non-coding variants...
June 20, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641984/bi-objective-approach-for-placing-ground-and-air-ambulance-base-and-helipad-locations-in-order-to-optimize-ems-response
#13
Milad Shahriari, Ali Bozorgi-Amiri, Shayan Tavakoli, Abolghasem Yousefi-Babadi
Shortening the travel time of patient transfer has clinical implications for many conditions such as cardiac arrest, trauma, stroke and STEMI. As resources are often limited precise calculations are needed. In this paper we consider the location problem for both ground and aerial emergency medical services. Given the uncertainty of when patients are in need of prompt medical attention we consider these demand points to be uncertain. We consider various ways in which ground and helicopter ambulances can work together to make the whole process go faster...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637430/malaria-control-by-commodities-without-practical-malariology
#14
J Kevin Baird
Malaria remains a serious clinical and public health problem, the object of an ongoing technological and humanitarian struggle to abate the very substantial harm done. The manner by which humanity approached malaria control changed abruptly and profoundly after 1945 with the advent of the insecticide DDT. Malariologists in the first half of the twentieth century conceived precise modifications to natural or man-made environments aimed at making those less hospitable to specific anopheline mosquito vector species...
June 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634267/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-role-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-in-the-vasculature
#15
REVIEW
Jennifer J DuPont, Iris Z Jaffe
Since the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) was cloned 30 years ago, it has become clear that MR is expressed in extra-renal tissues, including the cardiovascular system, where it is expressed in all cells of the vasculature. Understanding the role of MR in the vasculature has been of particular interest as clinical trials show that MR antagonism improves cardiovascular outcomes out of proportion to changes in blood pressure. The last 30 years of research have demonstrated that MR is a functional hormone-activated transcription factor in vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628593/consideration-of-dose-and-timing-when-applying-interventions-after-stroke-and-spinal-cord-injury
#16
D Michele Basso, Catherine E Lang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Nearly 4 decades of investigation into the plasticity of the nervous system suggest that both timing and dose could matter. This article provides a synopsis of our lectures at the IV STEP meeting, which presented a perspective of current data on the issues of timing and dose for adult stroke and spinal cord injury motor rehabilitation. SUMMARY OF KEY POINTS: For stroke, the prevailing evidence suggests that greater amounts of therapy do not result in better outcomes for upper extremity interventions, regardless of timing...
July 2017: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620783/advanced-neuroimaging-of-cerebral-small-vessel-disease
#17
REVIEW
Gordon W Blair, Maria Valdez Hernandez, Michael J Thrippleton, Fergus N Doubal, Joanna M Wardlaw
Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterised by damage to deep grey and white matter structures of the brain and is responsible for a diverse range of clinical problems that include stroke and dementia. In this review, we describe advances in neuroimaging published since January 2015, mainly with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), that, in general, are improving quantification, observation and investigation of SVD focussing on three areas: quantifying the total SVD burden, imaging brain microstructural integrity and imaging vascular malfunction...
July 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619447/similar-movements-are-associated-with-drastically-different-muscle-contraction-velocities
#18
Daniel A Hagen, Francisco J Valero-Cuevas
We investigated how kinematic redundancy interacts with the neurophysiological control mechanisms required for smooth and accurate, rapid limb movements. Biomechanically speaking, tendon excursions are over-determined because the rotation of few joints determines the lengths and velocities of many muscles. But how different are the muscle velocity profiles induced by various, equally valid hand trajectories? We used an 18-muscle sagittal-plane arm model to calculate 100,000 feasible shoulder, elbow, and wrist joint rotations that produced valid basketball free throws with different hand trajectories, but identical initial and final hand positions and velocities...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597905/stroke-prevention-in-atrial-fibrillation-past-present-and-future-comparing-the-guidelines-and-practical-decision-making
#19
Gregory Lip, Ben Freedman, Raffaele De Caterina, Tatjana S Potpara
Concepts and our approaches to stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation (AF) have changed markedly over the last decade. There has been an evolution over the approach to stroke and bleeding risk assessment, as well as new treatment options. An increasing awareness of AF has led to calls to improve the detection of and population screening for AF. Stroke and bleeding risk assessment continues to evolve, and the ongoing debate on balance between simplicity and practicality, against precision medicine will continue...
June 28, 2017: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596188/retrospective-validation-of-a-computer-assisted-quantification-model-of-intracerebral-hemorrhage-volume-on-accuracy-precision-and-acquisition-time-compared-with-standard-abc-2-manual-volume-calculation
#20
W Xue, S Vegunta, C M Zwart, M I Aguilar, A C Patel, J M Hoxworth, B M Demaerschalk, J R Mitchell
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral hemorrhage accounts for 6.5%-19.6% of all acute strokes. Initial intracerebral hemorrhage volume and expansion are both independent predictors of clinical outcomes and mortality. Therefore, a rapid, unbiased, and precise measurement of intracerebral hemorrhage volume is a key component of clinical management. The most commonly used method, ABC/2, results in overestimation. We developed an interactive segmentation program, SegTool, using a novel graphic processing unit, level set algorithm...
June 8, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
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