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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089455/comparison-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-implantation-with-the-newest-generation-sapien-3-vs-direct-flow-medical-valve-in-a-single-center-cohort
#1
Eberhard Schulz, Alexander Jabs, Alexander Tamm, Patrick Herz, Andreas Schulz, Tommaso Gori, Stephan von Bardeleben, Walter Kasper-König, Ulrich Hink, Christian-Friedrich Vahl, Thomas Münzel
BACKGROUND: The latest generation transcatheter heart valves including Edwards Sapien 3 (ES3) and Direct Flow Medical (DFM) were designed to allow precise implantation at the intended position and to minimize prosthesis dysfunction as well as procedural complications. Our aim was to compare short-term functional and clinical outcomes of these 2 transcatheter aortic valve systems. METHODS: Of 174 patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) at our institution between August 2013 and June 2015, 113 were treated with ES3 and 61 with DFM...
January 7, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088628/methods-needed-to-measure-predictive-accuracy-a-study-of-diabetic-patients
#2
Hafiz M R Khan, Sarah Mende, Aamrin Rafiq, Kemesha Gabbidon, P Hemachandra Reddy
Diabetes is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality and it can result in several complications such as kidney failure, heart failure, stroke, and blindness making it a major medical and public health concern in the United States. Statistical methods are important to detect risk factors and identify the best sampling plan to determine predictive bounds for diabetic patients' data. The main objective of this paper is to identify the best fit bootstrapping sampling method and to draw the predictive bound considering diabetes patient data...
January 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076681/computational-modeling-of-neurotransmitter-release-evoked-by-electrical-stimulation-non-linear-approaches-to-predicting-stimulation-evoked-dopamine-release
#3
James K Trevathan, Ali Yousefi, Hyung Ook Park, John J Bartoletta, Kip A Ludwig, Kendall H Lee, J Luis Lujan
Neurochemical changes evoked by electrical stimulation of the nervous system have been linked to both therapeutic and undesired effects of neuromodulation therapies used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, stroke, hypertension, tinnitus, and many other indications. In fact, interest in better understanding the role of neurochemical signaling in neuromodulation therapies has been a focus of recent government- and industry-sponsored programs whose ultimate goal is to usher in an era of personalized medicine by creating neuromodulation therapies that respond to real-time changes in patient status...
January 11, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066594/cough-frequency-monitors-can-they-discriminate-patient-from-environmental-coughs
#4
Stefan T Kulnik, Natalie M Williams, Lalit Kalra, John Moxham, Surinder S Birring
BACKGROUND: Objective cough frequency measurements are increasingly applied in clinical research. Technological advances enable automated detection and counting of cough events from sound recordings of many hours' duration. A possible limitation of sound-based cough frequency measurement is the contamination of recordings by environmental coughs (coughs from persons other than the patient). This study aimed to investigate the accuracy of a sound-based cough monitor for detecting and discriminating patient cough from environmental cough...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064029/improving-precision-by-adjusting-for-prognostic-baseline-variables-in-randomized-trials-with-binary-outcomes-without-regression-model%C3%A2-assumptions
#5
Jon Arni Steingrimsson, Daniel F Hanley, Michael Rosenblum
In randomized clinical trials with baseline variables that are prognostic for the primary outcome, there is potential to improve precision and reduce sample size by appropriately adjusting for these variables. A major challenge is that there are multiple statistical methods to adjust for baseline variables, but little guidance on which is best to use in a given context. The choice of method can have important consequences. For example, one commonly used method leads to uninterpretable estimates if there is any treatment effect heterogeneity, which would jeopardize the validity of trial conclusions...
January 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062620/application-of-cardiac-troponin-in-cardiovascular-diseases-other-than-acute-coronary-syndrome
#6
REVIEW
Kai M Eggers, Bertil Lindahl
BACKGROUND: Increased cardiac troponin concentrations in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) identify patients with ongoing cardiomyocyte necrosis who are at increased risk. However, with the use of more precise assays, cardiac troponin increases are commonly noted in other cardiovascular conditions as well. This has generated interest in the use of cardiac troponin for prognostic assessment and clinical management of these patients. In this review, we have summarized the data from studies investigating the implications of cardiac troponin concentrations in various acute and chronic conditions beyond ACS, i...
January 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040913/novel-electric-thermophoretic-sampling-device-with-highly-repeatable-characteristics
#7
Michael Altenhoff, Christian Teige, Michael Storch, Stefan Will
A novel thermophoretic sampling device for probing nanoparticle aggregates in all types of flames as well as in particle-laden gases and aerosols is presented. For the motion of the sampling probe, a tubular electric linear motor is utilized, and its design and operation are described in detail. The spatial and temporal performance is determined from oscilloscope measurements and high-speed recordings of one motion profile featuring three different resident times. Motion sequences offering a minimum residence time of 3 ms and a maximum velocity of 4...
December 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038454/reactive-oxygen-species-mediate-heat-stress-induced-apoptosis-via-erk-dephosphorylation-and-bcl-2-ubiquitination-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells
#8
Li Li, Hongping Tan, Hong Yang, Feng Li, Xuan He, Zhengtao Gu, Ming Zhao, Lei Su
Heat stress can induce the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in HUVEC cells, indicating that apoptosis may be a prominent pathological feature of heat stroke, however, little is known about the precise mechani sms involved in it. In this study, we describe the apoptotic effect of intense heat stress on HUVEC cells and our investigation of its underlying mechanisms. Treatment of cells with intense heat stress induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a concomitant increase in activation of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway...
December 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010951/utility-of-ward-based-retinal-photography-in-stroke-patients
#9
Shaun Frost, Michael Brown, Verity Stirling, Janardhan Vignarajan, David Prentice, Yogesan Kanagasingam
BACKGROUND: Improvements in acute care of stroke patients have decreased mortality, but survivors are still at increased risk of future vascular events and mitigation of this risk requires thorough assessment of the underlying factors leading to the stroke. The brain and eye share a common embryological origin and numerous similarities exist between the small vessels of the retina and brain. Recent population-based studies have demonstrated a close link between retinal vascular changes and stroke, suggesting that retinal photography could have utility in assessing underlying stroke risk factors and prognosis after stroke...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992350/alignment-free-self-calibrating-elbow-angles-measurement-using-inertial-sensors
#10
Philipp Muller, Marc-Andre Begin, Thomas Schauer, Thomas Seel
Due to their relative ease of handling and low cost, inertial measurement unit (IMU)-based joint angle measurements are used for a widespread range of applications. These include sports performance, gait analysis and rehabilitation (e.g. Parkinson's disease monitoring or post-stroke assessment). However, a major downside of current algorithms, recomposing human kinematics from IMU data, is that they require calibration motions and/or the careful alignment of the IMUs with respect to the body segments. In this article, we propose a new method, which is alignment-free and self-calibrating using arbitrary movements of the user and an initial zero reference arm pose...
December 14, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992335/ultrasonic-3-d-vector-flow-method-for-quantitative-in-vivo-peak-velocity-and-flow-rate-estimation
#11
Simon Holbek, Caroline Ewertsen, Hamed Bouzari, Michael Johannes Pihl, Kristoffer Lindskov Hansen, Matthias Bo Stuart, Carsten Thomsen, Michael Bachmann Nielsen, Jorgen Arendt Jensen
Current clinical ultrasound systems are limited to show blood flow movement in either 1-D or 2-D. In this paper, a method for estimating 3-D vector velocities in a plane using the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method, a 32 x 32 element matrix array, and the experimental ultrasound scanner SARUS is presented. The aim of this paper is to estimate precise flow rates and peak velocities derived from 3-D vector flow estimates. The emission sequence provides 3-D vector flow estimates at up to 1.145 frames per second in a plane, and was used to estimate 3-D vector flow in a cross sectional image plane...
December 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959716/cardiovascular-safety-of-celecoxib-naproxen-or-ibuprofen-for-arthritis
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Steven E Nissen, Neville D Yeomans, Daniel H Solomon, Thomas F Lüscher, Peter Libby, M Elaine Husni, David Y Graham, Jeffrey S Borer, Lisa M Wisniewski, Katherine E Wolski, Qiuqing Wang, Venu Menon, Frank Ruschitzka, Michael Gaffney, Bruce Beckerman, Manuela F Berger, Weihang Bao, A Michael Lincoff
Background The cardiovascular safety of celecoxib, as compared with nonselective nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), remains uncertain. Methods Patients who required NSAIDs for osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis and were at increased cardiovascular risk were randomly assigned to receive celecoxib, ibuprofen, or naproxen. The goal of the trial was to assess the noninferiority of celecoxib with regard to the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular death (including hemorrhagic death), nonfatal myocardial infarction, or nonfatal stroke...
29, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942807/neural-control-and-precision-of-flight-muscle-activation-in-drosophila
#13
REVIEW
Fritz-Olaf Lehmann, Jan Bartussek
Precision of motor commands is highly relevant in a large context of various locomotor behaviors, including stabilization of body posture, heading control and directed escape responses. While posture stability and heading control in walking and swimming animals benefit from high friction via ground reaction forces and elevated viscosity of water, respectively, flying animals have to cope with comparatively little aerodynamic friction on body and wings. Although low frictional damping in flight is the key to the extraordinary aerial performance and agility of flying birds, bats and insects, it challenges these animals with extraordinary demands on sensory integration and motor precision...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942403/the-future-of-off-pump-coronary-artery-bypass-grafting-a-north-american-perspective
#14
Bobby Yanagawa, Rashmi Nedadur, John D Puskas
Off-pump coronary artery bypass graft (OPCAB) is currently performed routinely in a minority of specialized centers and in many more centers, utilized only when a porcelain aorta mandates a no-touch aortic technique. The OPCAB literature can be summarized as follows: (I) large-scale randomized trials in relatively low risk patients that include surgeons with a range of experience demonstrating no consistent beneficial differences in major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular outcomes but lower transfusion rates and shorter length of stay, tempered by some reports of higher rates of incomplete revascularization and lower rates of long term graft patency; (II) smaller randomized controlled trials (RCTs) from highly specialized programs demonstrating equivalent or superior outcomes with OPCAB and similar completeness of revascularization and graft patency; and (III) observational data from large databases demonstrating a consistent benefit of OPCAB, especially in higher-risk patient subsets...
November 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928711/dry-weight-assessment-by-combined-ultrasound-and-bioimpedance-monitoring-in-low-cardiovascular-risk-hemodialysis-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Dimitrie Siriopol, Mihai Onofriescu, Luminita Voroneanu, Mugurel Apetrii, Ionut Nistor, Simona Hogas, Mehmet Kanbay, Radu Sascau, Dragos Scripcariu, Adrian Covic
PURPOSE: Fluid overload is associated with adverse outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The precise assessment of hydration status in HD patients remains a major challenge for nephrologists. Our study aimed to explore whether combining two bedside methods, lung ultrasonography (LUS) and bioimpedance, may provide complementary information to guide treatment in specific HD patients. METHODS: In total, 250 HD patients from two dialysis units were included in this randomized clinical trial...
January 2017: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921034/crowdsourcing-precision-cerebrovascular-health-imaging-and-cloud-seeding-a-million-brains-initiative%C3%A2
#16
David S Liebeskind
Crowdsourcing, an unorthodox approach in medicine, creates an unusual paradigm to study precision cerebrovascular health, eliminating the relative isolation and non-standardized nature of current imaging data infrastructure, while shifting emphasis to the astounding capacity of big data in the cloud. This perspective envisions the use of imaging data of the brain and vessels to orient and seed A Million Brains Initiative™ that may leapfrog incremental advances in stroke and rapidly provide useful data to the sizable population around the globe prone to the devastating effects of stroke and vascular substrates of dementia...
2016: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919057/principles-of-precision-medicine-in-stroke
#17
REVIEW
Jason D Hinman, Natalia S Rost, Thomas W Leung, Joan Montaner, Keith W Muir, Scott Brown, Juan F Arenillas, Edward Feldmann, David S Liebeskind
The era of precision medicine has arrived and conveys tremendous potential, particularly for stroke neurology. The diagnosis of stroke, its underlying aetiology, theranostic strategies, recurrence risk and path to recovery are populated by a series of highly individualised questions. Moreover, the phenotypic complexity of a clinical diagnosis of stroke makes a simple genetic risk assessment only partially informative on an individual basis. The guiding principles of precision medicine in stroke underscore the need to identify, value, organise and analyse the multitude of variables obtained from each individual to generate a precise approach to optimise cerebrovascular health...
January 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915126/stroke-risk-stratification-and-its-validation-using-ultrasonic-echolucent-carotid-wall-plaque-morphology-a-machine-learning-paradigm
#18
Tadashi Araki, Pankaj K Jain, Harman S Suri, Narendra D Londhe, Nobutaka Ikeda, Ayman El-Baz, Vimal K Shrivastava, Luca Saba, Andrew Nicolaides, Shoaib Shafique, John R Laird, Ajay Gupta, Jasjit S Suri
Stroke risk stratification based on grayscale morphology of the ultrasound carotid wall has recently been shown to have a promise in classification of high risk versus low risk plaque or symptomatic versus asymptomatic plaques. In previous studies, this stratification has been mainly based on analysis of the far wall of the carotid artery. Due to the multifocal nature of atherosclerotic disease, the plaque growth is not restricted to the far wall alone. This paper presents a new approach for stroke risk assessment by integrating assessment of both the near and far walls of the carotid artery using grayscale morphology of the plaque...
November 27, 2016: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909266/reliability-of-infarct-volumetry-its-relevance-and-the-improvement-by-a-software-assisted-approach
#19
Felix Friedländer, Ferdinand Bohmann, Max Brunkhorst, Ju-Hee Chae, Kavi Devraj, Yvette Köhler, Peter Kraft, Hannah Kuhn, Alexandra Lucaciu, Sebastian Luger, Waltraud Pfeilschifter, Rebecca Sadler, Arthur Liesz, Karolina Scholtyschik, Leonie Stolz, Rajkumar Vutukuri, Robert Brunkhorst
Despite the efficacy of neuroprotective approaches in animal models of stroke, their translation has so far failed from bench to bedside. One reason is presumed to be a low quality of preclinical study design, leading to bias and a low a priori power. In this study, we propose that the key read-out of experimental stroke studies, the volume of the ischemic damage as commonly measured by free-handed planimetry of TTC-stained brain sections, is subject to an unrecognized low inter-rater and test-retest reliability with strong implications for statistical power and bias...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882613/improvements-of-procedural-results-with-a-new-generation-self-expanding-transfemoral-aortic-valve-prosthesis-in-comparison-to-the-old-generation-device
#20
Bruna Gomes, Nicolas A Geis, Emmanuel Chorianopoulos, Benjamin Meder, Florian Leuschner, Hugo A Katus, Raffi Bekeredjian
OBJECTIVES: In this study, we compare procedural results of our first Evolut R (Medtronic, Minneapolis, MN, USA) implantations with the last CoreValve implantations. Main endpoints include paravalvular regurgitation, major vascular complications, stroke, and pacemaker implantation. BACKGROUND: The evolution of transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) was possible due to various technical improvements, leading to better periprocedural and long-term outcome. The newly designed Evolut R valve has the potential to further improve TAVR's performance...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Interventional Cardiology
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