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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150510/characterization-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-and-vibrio-vulnificus-recovered-from-oysters-during-an-oyster-relay-study
#1
Sara Elmahdi, Salina Parveen, Sylvia Ossai, Ligia V DaSilva, Michael Jahncke, John Bowers, John Jacobs
Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) and Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) are naturally occurring estuarine bacteria and are the leading causes of seafood-associated infections and mortality in the USA. Though multiple-antibiotic resistant Vp and Vv have been reported resistance patterns in vibrios are not as well documented as other food-borne bacterial pathogens. Salinity relaying (SR) is a Post-Harvest Processing (PHP) treatment to reduce the abundance of these pathogens in shellfish harvested during the warmer months. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility (AMS), pathogenicity and genetic profiles of Vp and Vv recovered from oysters during an oyster relay study...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149917/treatment-outcome-with-a-short-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-regimen-in-nine-african-countries
#2
A Trébucq, V Schwoebel, Z Kashongwe, A Bakayoko, C Kuaban, J Noeske, S Hassane, B Souleymane, A Piubello, F Ciza, V Fikouma, M Gasana, M Ouedraogo, M Gninafon, A Van Deun, D M Cirillo, K G Koura, H L Rieder
<h2>SETTING:</h2>Nine countries in West and Central Africa.<h2>OBJECTIVE:</h2>To assess outcomes and adverse drug events of a standardised 9-month treatment regimen for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) among patients never previously treated with second-line drugs.<h2>DESIGN:</h2>Prospective observational study of MDR-TB patients treated with a standardised 9-month regimen including moxifloxacin, clofazimine, ethambutol (EMB) and pyrazinamide (PZA) throughout, supplemented by kanamycin, prothionamide and high-dose isoniazid during an intensive phase of a minimum of 4 to a maximum of 6 months...
November 17, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148575/effects-of-spot-parameters-in-pencil-beam-scanning-treatment-planning
#3
Aafke Christine Kraan, Nicolas Depauw, Ben Clasie, Marina Giunta, Tom Madden, Hanne M Kooy
BACKGROUND: Spot size σ (in-air at isocenter), inter-spot spacing d, and spot charge q influence dose delivery efficiency and plan quality in Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy (IMPT) treatment planning. The choice and range of parameters varies among different manufacturers. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the influence of the spot parameters on dose quality and delivery in IMPT treatment plans, to show their interdependence, and to make practitioners aware of the spot parameter values for a certain facility...
November 17, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145002/different-transport-behaviors-of-bacillus-subtilis-cells-and-spores-in-saturated-porous-media-implications-for-contamination-risks-associated-with-bacterial-sporulation-in-aquifer
#4
Qi Li, Jiakuan Yang, Wei Fan, Dandan Zhou, Xiaoyu Wang, Leilei Zhang, Mingxin Huo, John C Crittenden
In this study, we compared the transport characteristics of Bacillus subtilis cells and their spores in saturated porous media. Both the bacteria cells and spores were readily transported under lower ionic strengths (IS) (1mM), featuring high mass recovery rates (>75%). The bacteria cells recovery rate declined to 58.05% when the IS increased to 100mM; but the spores recovery rate remained at 74.54%. Spores appear to be more mobile than bacterial cells over wide range of IS. Surface properties and breakthrough curves analysis of the two bio-particles (cells and spores) indicated that attachment, straining and blocking mechanisms contribute differently to deposition processes...
November 11, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144416/environmental-risks-associated-with-symptoms-of-acute-respiratory-infection-among-preschool-children-in-north-western-and-south-southern-nigeria-communities
#5
Oluwafunmilade A Adesanya, Chi Chiao
The exposure-disease-stress model places young children in their physical and social contexts and considers the extent and intensity of associational links to symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), taking in to account a range of biological, social, and environment components. This study uses the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey to assess the individual and environmental risks present in the North-Western and South-Southern Nigerian communities and examines their associations with ARI symptoms...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142891/assessment-of-severity-of-malnutrition-in-peritoneal-dialysis-patients-via-malnutrition-inflammatory-score
#6
Afsoon Emami Naeeni, Nazila Poostiyan, Zahra Teimouri, Mojgan Mortazavi, Mojgan Soghrati, Elnaz Poostiyan, Zamzam Paknahad
Background: Regarding to the complications of malnutrition in dialysis patients, using an easy and reliable method for evaluating of malnutrition is important in patients with the end-stage renal disease. Based on the effect of inflammatory factors in malnutrition, A new scale has been designed which is called malnutrition-inflammatory scale (MIS). We designed current study to assess the severity of malnutrition in peritoneal dialysis patients in Isfahan via MIS. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional MIS was used for evaluation of malnutrition...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141510/gasification-of-algal-biomass-cladophora-glomerata-l-with-co2-h2o-o2-in-a-circulating-fluidized-bed
#7
Abdol Ghaffar Ebadi, Hikmat Hisoriev
Gasification is one of the most important thermochemical routes to produce both synthesis gas (syngas) and chars. The quality of produced syngas wieldy depends on the operating conditions (temperature, residence time, heating rate, and gasifying agent), hydrodynamic properties of gasifier (particle size, minimum fluidization velocity, and gasifier size), and type of feedstock (coal, biomass, oil, and municipal solid wastes). In the present study, simulation of syngas production via circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasification of algal biomass (Cladophora glomerata L...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141087/effect-of-granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating-factor-with-or-without-supervised-exercise-on-walking-performance-in-patients-with-peripheral-artery-disease-the-propel-randomized-clinical-trial
#8
Mary M McDermott, Luigi Ferrucci, Lu Tian, Jack M Guralnik, Donald Lloyd-Jones, Melina R Kibbe, Tamar S Polonsky, Kathryn Domanchuk, James H Stein, Lihui Zhao, Doris Taylor, Christopher Skelly, William Pearce, Harris Perlman, Walter McCarthy, Lingyu Li, Ying Gao, Robert Sufit, Christina L Bloomfield, Michael H Criqui
Importance: Benefits of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) for improving walking ability in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) are unclear. Walking exercise may augment the effects of GM-CSF in PAD, since exercise-induced ischemia enhances progenitor cell release and may promote progenitor cell homing to ischemic calf muscle. Objectives: To determine whether GM-CSF combined with supervised treadmill exercise improves 6-minute walk distance, compared with exercise alone and compared with GM-CSF alone; to determine whether GM-CSF alone improves 6-minute walk more than placebo and whether exercise improves 6-minute walk more than an attention control intervention...
November 15, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140292/anisotropic-failure-strength-of-shale-with-increasing-confinement-behaviors-factors-and-mechanism
#9
Cheng Cheng, Xiao Li, Haitao Qian
Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses...
November 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139560/the-mammalian-circadian-clock-exhibits-chronic-ethanol-tolerance-and-withdrawal-induced-glutamate-hypersensitivity-accompanied-by-changes-in-glutamate-and-trkb-receptor-proteins
#10
Jonathan H Lindsay, Rebecca A Prosser
BACKGROUND: Alcohol tolerance and withdrawal-induced effects are criteria for alcohol use disorders listed by the DSM-V. Although tolerance and withdrawal have been studied over many decades, there is still uncertainty regarding mechanistic distinctions that characterize these different forms of ethanol (EtOH)-induced plasticity. Previously, we demonstrated that the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian clock develops both acute and rapid tolerance to EtOH inhibition of glutamate-induced circadian phase shifts...
November 15, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134196/environmental-controls-on-modern-scleractinian-coral-and-reef-scale-calcification
#11
Travis A Courtney, Mario Lebrato, Nicholas R Bates, Andrew Collins, Samantha J de Putron, Rebecca Garley, Rod Johnson, Juan-Carlos Molinero, Timothy J Noyes, Christopher L Sabine, Andreas J Andersson
Modern reef-building corals sustain a wide range of ecosystem services because of their ability to build calcium carbonate reef systems. The influence of environmental variables on coral calcification rates has been extensively studied, but our understanding of their relative importance is limited by the absence of in situ observations and the ability to decouple the interactions between different properties. We show that temperature is the primary driver of coral colony (Porites astreoides and Diploria labyrinthiformis) and reef-scale calcification rates over a 2-year monitoring period from the Bermuda coral reef...
November 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127558/effect-of-dexamethasone-dose-and-route-on-the-duration-of-interscalene-brachial-plexus-block-for-outpatient-arthroscopic-shoulder-surgery-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#12
Darren Holland, Ryan J J Amadeo, Scott Wolfe, Linda Girling, Faylene Funk, Mark Collister, Emily Czaplinski, Celeste Ferguson, Jeff Leiter, Jason Old, Peter MacDonald, Brenden Dufault, Thomas C Mutter
PURPOSE: Dexamethasone prolongs the duration of interscalene block, but the benefits of higher doses and perineural vs intravenous administration remain unclear. METHODS: This factorial design, double-blinded trial randomized 280 adult patients undergoing ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery at a single centre in a 1:1:1:1 ratio. Patients received ultrasound-guided interscalene block with 30 mL 0.5% bupivacaine and 4 mg or 8 mg dexamethasone by either the perineural or intravenous route...
November 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124253/exploring-gyral-patterns-of-infant-cortical-folding-based-on-multi-view-curvature-information
#13
Dingna Duan, Shunren Xia, Yu Meng, Li Wang, Weili Lin, John H Gilmore, Dinggang Shen, Gang Li
The human cortical folding is intriguingly complex in its variability and regularity across individuals. Exploring the principal patterns of cortical folding is of great importance for neuroimaging research. The term-born neonates with minimum exposure to the complicated environments are the ideal candidates to mine the postnatal origins of principal cortical folding patterns. In this work, we propose a novel framework to study the gyral patterns of neonatal cortical folding. Specifically, first, we leverage multi-view curvature-derived features to comprehensively characterize the complex and multi-scale nature of cortical folding...
September 2017: Medical Image Computing and Computer-assisted Intervention: MICCAI ..
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122951/dive-heart-rate-in-harbour-porpoises-is-influenced-by-exercise-and-expectations
#14
Birgitte I McDonald, Mark Johnson, Peter T Madsen
The dive response, a decrease in heart rate (ƒH) and peripheral vasoconstriction, is the key mechanism allowing breath-hold divers to perform long duration dives. This pronounced cardiovascular response to diving has been investigated intensely in pinnipeds, but comparatively little is known for cetaceans, in particular in ecologically relevant settings. Here we studied the dive ƒH response in one the smallest cetaceans, the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). We used a novel multi-sensor data logger to record dive behaviour, ƒH, ventilations and feeding events in three trained porpoises, providing the first evaluation of cetacean ƒH regulation while performing a variety of natural behaviours, including prey capture...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122835/multiple-hotspot-mutations-scanning-by-single-droplet-digital-pcr
#15
Charles Decraene, Amanda Silveira, François-Clément Bidard, Audrey Vallee, Marc Michel, Samia Melaabi, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Adrien Saliou, Alexandre Houy, Maud Milder, Olivier Lantz, Marc Ychou, Marc G Denis, Jean-Yves Pierga, Marc-Henri Stern, Charlotte Proudhon
BACKGROUND: Progress in the liquid biopsy field, combined with the development of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR)(12), has enabled noninvasive monitoring of mutations with high detection accuracy. However, current assays detect a restricted number of mutations per reaction. ddPCR is a recognized method for detecting alterations previously characterized in tumor tissues, but its use as a discovery tool when the mutation is unknown a priori remains limited. METHODS: We established 2 ddPCR assays detecting all genomic alterations within KRAS() exon 2 and EGFR exon 19 mutation hotspots, which are of clinical importance in colorectal and lung cancer, with use of a unique pair of TaqMan® oligoprobes...
November 9, 2017: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122689/spatiotemporal-analysis-of-brucellosis-incidence-in-iran-from-2011-2014-using-gis
#16
Reza Pakzad, Iraj Pakzad, Ali Janati, Mohammad Reza Shirzadi, Marzieh Mohammadpour, Abbas Behroozi, Mark J M Sullman, Saeid Safiri
BACKGROUND: To investigate the distribution and trends associated with brucellosis incidences in Iran from 2011-2014. METHODS: The reported incidences of brucellosis were collected and entered into GIS 10.1 for the period 2011-2014. The Cochran-Armitage test for linear trends, choropleth maps, hot-spot analysis, and high-low clustering analysis were used to investigate patterns of the disease over the study period and season, as well as identifying high-risk areas and any clustering of the disease...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120632/is-spa-an-implicit-treatment-of-the-non-polar-component-to-solvation-for-simulating-molecular-aggregation
#17
Peter T Lake, Martin McCullagh
Non-polar solute-solvent interactions are the driving force for aggregation in important chemical and biological phenomena including protein-folding, peptide self-assembly and oil-water emulsion formation. Currently, the most accurate and computationally efficient description of these processes requires an explicit treatment of all solvent and solute atoms. Previous computationally feasible implicit solvent models, such as solute surface area approaches, are unsuccessful at capturing aggregation features including both structural and energetic trends while more theoretically rigorous approaches, such as Reference Interaction Site Model (RISM), are accurate but extremely computationally demanding...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120467/electrophoretic-cytometry-of-adherent-cells
#18
Elaine J Su, Amy E Herr
Cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions influence intracellular signalling and play an important role in physiologic and pathologic processes. Detachment of cells from the surrounding microenvironment alters intracellular signalling. Here, we demonstrate and characterise an integrated microfluidic device to culture single and clustered cells in tuneable microenvironments and then directly analyse the lysate of each cell in situ, thereby eliminating the need to detach cells prior to analysis. First, we utilise microcontact printing to pattern cells in confined geometries...
November 9, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119779/strategic-formulation-of-graphene-oxide-sheets-for-flexible-monoliths-and-robust-polymeric-coatings-that-embedded-with-durable-bio-inspired-wettability
#19
Avijit Das, Jumi Deka, Adil Majeed Rather, Bibhas K Bhunia, Partha Pratim Saikia, Biman B Mandal, Kalyan Raidongia, Uttam Manna
Artificial bio-inspired superhydrophobicity-that are generally developed through appropriate optimization of chemistry and hierarchical topography, is being recognized for its immense prospective applications related to environment and healthcare. Nevertheless, the week interfacial interaction that are associated in the fabrication of such special interfaces-makes the material often delicate, and embedded antifouling property collapses on exposures to harsh and complex aqueous phases, and also after regular physical deformations including bending, creasing etc...
November 9, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116512/magnetic-nanoparticle-based-semi-automated-panning-for-high-throughput-antibody-selection
#20
Angela Chiew Wen Ch'ng, Nurul Hamizah Binti Hamidon, Zoltán Konthur, Theam Soon Lim
The application of recombinant human antibodies is growing rapidly mainly in the field of diagnostics and therapeutics. To identify antibodies against a specific antigen, panning selection is carried out using different display technologies. Phage display technology remains the preferred platform due to its robustness and efficiency in biopanning experiments. There are both manual and semi-automated panning selections using polystyrene plastic, magnetic beads, and nitrocellulose as the immobilizing solid surface...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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