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Minimum important difference

Ruben Perez-Carrasco, Pilar Guerrero, James Briscoe, Karen M Page
During tissue development, patterns of gene expression determine the spatial arrangement of cell types. In many cases, gradients of secreted signalling molecules-morphogens-guide this process by controlling downstream transcriptional networks. A mechanism commonly used in these networks to convert the continuous information provided by the gradient into discrete transitions between adjacent cell types is the genetic toggle switch, composed of cross-repressing transcriptional determinants. Previous analyses have emphasised the steady state output of these mechanisms...
October 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
Manuel Wohde, Silvia Berkner, Thomas Junker, Sabine Konradi, Lisa Schwarz, Rolf-Alexander Düring
The spread of veterinary medicinal products (VMPs) and biocides via manure onto agriculturally used areas represents a very important emission into the environment for these product groups. Within this literature study, publicly available transformation studies with liquid manure are summarized. Transformation studies were evaluated regarding the transformation fate of tested substances, the origin and characteristics of used manure, the experimental setup, and the measured parameters. As main topics within the 42 evaluated transformation studies, the high dependency of transformation on temperature, redox potential, dry matter content, and other parameters is reported...
2016: Environmental Sciences Europe
Andrew P Jaciw, Li Lin, Boya Ma
BACKGROUND: Prior research has investigated design parameters for assessing average program impacts on achievement outcomes with cluster randomized trials (CRTs). Less is known about parameters important for assessing differential impacts. OBJECTIVES: This article develops a statistical framework for designing CRTs to assess differences in impact among student subgroups and presents initial estimates of critical parameters. RESEARCH DESIGN: Effect sizes and minimum detectable effect sizes for average and differential impacts are calculated before and after conditioning on effects of covariates using results from several CRTs...
October 18, 2016: Evaluation Review
Sophia L-Y Ling, David McD Taylor, Jeffery Robinson
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to determine the period prevalence, nature and causes of workplace chemical and toxin exposures reported to the Victorian Poisons Information Centre (VPIC). PATIENTS AND METHODS: All cases classified as 'workplace: acute' when entered into the VPIC database (June 2005-December 2013) were analysed. Data were collected on patient sex, the nature of the chemical or toxin, route of exposure and season. RESULTS: Overall, 4928 cases were extracted...
October 18, 2016: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
Sree Vamsee Chintapalli, Srinivas Jayanthi, Prema L Mallipeddi, Ravi Kumar Gundampati, Suresh Kumar Thallapuranam Krishnaswamy, Damian B van Rossum, Andriy Anishkin, Sean H Adams
Previous research has indicated that long-chain fatty acids can bind myoglobin (Mb) in an oxygen dependent manner. This suggests that Oxy-Mb may play an important role in fuel delivery in Mb-rich muscle fibers (e.g., type I fibers and cardiomyocytes), and raises the possibility that Mb also serves as an acylcarnitine binding protein. We report for the first time the putative interaction and affinity characteristics for different chain lengths of both fatty acids and acylcarnitines with Oxy-Mb using molecular dynamic simulations and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Fatemeh Tara, Marzieh Lotfalizadeh, Somayeh Moeindarbari
INTRODUCTION: The occurrence of early abortion after amniocentesis is a serious problem in the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, and it is always important to discover the factors influencing this phenomenon. The incidence rate has been reported in different studies, even up to about 10%. So far, no studies have been conducted in Iran on the effect of amniocentesis and related complications on early abortion. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of amniocentesis and relevant complications on the incidence of early abortion in pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Jacob L Moore, Romuald N Lipcius, Brandon Puckett, Sebastian J Schreiber
Structured population models, particularly size- or age-structured, have a long history of informing conservation and natural resource management. While size is often easier to measure than age and is the focus of many management strategies, age-structure can have important effects on population dynamics that are not captured in size-only models. However, relatively few studies have included the simultaneous effects of both age- and size-structure. To better understand how population structure, particularly that of age and size, impacts restoration and management decisions, we developed and compared a size-structured integral projection model (IPM) and an age- and size-structured IPM, using a population of Crassostrea gigas oysters in the northeastern Pacific Ocean...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Gregory J O Beran, Joshua D Hartman, Yonaton N Heit
Molecular crystals occur widely in pharmaceuticals, foods, explosives, organic semiconductors, and many other applications. Thanks to substantial progress in electronic structure modeling of molecular crystals, attention is now shifting from basic crystal structure prediction and lattice energy modeling toward the accurate prediction of experimentally observable properties at finite temperatures and pressures. This Account discusses how fragment-based electronic structure methods can be used to model a variety of experimentally relevant molecular crystal properties...
October 18, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
Joel Wells, Jeffrey J Nepple, Karla Crook, James R Ross, Asheesh Bedi, Perry Schoenecker, John C Clohisy
BACKGROUND: Hip dysplasia represents a spectrum of complex deformities on both sides of the joint. Although many studies have described the acetabular side of the deformity, to our knowledge, little is known about the three-dimensional (3-D) head and neck offset differences of the femora of dysplastic hips. A thorough knowledge of proximal femoral anatomy is important to prevent potential impingement and improve results after acetabular reorientation. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: (1) Are there common proximal femoral characteristics in patients with symptomatic hip dysplasia undergoing periacetabular osteotomy (PAO)? (2) Where is the location of maximal femoral head and neck offset deformity in hip dysplasia? (3) Do certain subgroups of dysplastic hips more commonly have cam-type femoral morphology? (4) Is there a relationship between hip ROM as well as impingement testing and 3-D head and neck offset deformity? METHODS: Using our hip preservation database, 153 hips (148 patients) underwent PAO from October 2013 to July 2015...
October 17, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Vibeke Strand, Eun Bong Lee, Roy Fleischmann, Rieke E Alten, Tamas Koncz, Samuel H Zwillich, David Gruben, Bethanie Wilkinson, Sriram Krishnaswami, Gene Wallenstein
OBJECTIVES: To compare patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in methotrexate (MTX)-naive patients (defined as no prior treatment or ≤3 doses) receiving tofacitinib versus MTX. METHODS: In the 24-month, phase III, randomised, controlled, ORAL Start trial (NCT01039688), patients were randomised 2:2:1 to receive tofacitinib 5 mg two times per day (n=373), tofacitinib 10 mg two times per day (n=397) or MTX (n=186). PROs assessed included Patient Global Assessment of disease (PtGA), pain, Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F) and health-related quality of life (Short Form-36 [SF-36])...
2016: RMD Open
Mansi Manish Oswal, Ulhas N Amasi, Manish S Oswal, Ashish S Bhagat
PURPOSE: Clinical success of implant prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of implant thread design. The selection of implant thread design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of stress distribution using a finite element analysis; hence, the area which would be bearing maximum load for a given design would be arrived. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three implants with different thread designs, namely V-thread, buttress, and reverse buttress thread designs were considered and dimensions were standardized...
October 2016: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society
Helen Anwander, Klaus A Siebenrock, Moritz Tannast, Simon D Steppacher
BACKGROUND: Since the importance of an intact labrum for normal hip function has been shown, labral reattachment has become the standard method for open or arthroscopic treatment of hips with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). However, no long-term clinical results exist evaluating the effect of labral reattachment. A 2-year followup comparing open surgical treatment of FAI with labral resection versus reattachment was previously performed at our clinic. The goal of this study was to report a concise followup of these patients at a minimum of 10 years...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Francesco Gaetano Casino, Carlo Basile
BACKGROUND: The recent interest in incremental haemodialysis (HD) is hindered by the current prescription based on a fixed target model (FTM) for the total (dialytic + renal) equivalent continuous clearance (ECC). The latter is expressed either as standard Kt/V (stdKt/V), i.e. the pre-dialysis averaged concentration of urea-based ECC, or EKRc, i.e. the time averaged concentration-based ECC, corrected for volume (V) = 40 L. Accordingly, there are two different targets: stdKt/V = 2.3 volumes per week (v/wk) and EKRc = 13 mL/min/40 L...
October 14, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Eva Balazcs, Joachim Sieper, Kara Bickham, Anish Mehta, Nancy Frontera, Paul Stryszak, Zoran Popmihajlov, Paul M Peloso
BACKGROUND: This study evaluated two doses of etoricoxib (60 and 90 mg) vs. naproxen 1000 mg in subjects with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). METHODS: This was a 2-part, double-blind, active comparator-controlled non-inferiority study in subjects ≥18 years of age with AS. In Part I, subjects were randomized to naproxen 1000 mg; etoricoxib 60 mg, and 90 mg. In Part II, naproxen and etoricoxib 90 mg subjects continued on the same treatment; subjects on etoricoxib 60 mg either continued on 60 mg or escalated to 90 mg...
October 13, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
Rui Yao, ZeQing Zeng, Ping Zhu
A priori signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimation and noise estimation are important for speech enhancement. In this paper, a novel modified decision-directed (DD) a priori SNR estimation approach based on single-frequency entropy, named DDBSE, is proposed. DDBSE replaces the fixed weighting factor in the DD approach with an adaptive one calculated according to change of single-frequency entropy. Simultaneously, a new noise power estimation approach based on unbiased minimum mean square error (MMSE) and voice activity detection (VAD), named UMVAD, is proposed...
2016: EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing
Alexander J Taylor, Josef Granwehr, Clémentine Lesbats, James L Krupa, Joseph S Six, Galina E Pavlovskaya, Neil R Thomas, Dorothee P Auer, Thomas Meersmann, Henryk M Faas
Due to low fluorine background signal in vivo, 19F is a good marker to study the fate of exogenous molecules by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using equilibrium nuclear spin polarization schemes. Since 19F MRI applications require high sensitivity, it can be important to assess experimental feasibility during the design stage already by estimating the minimum detectable fluorine concentration. Here we propose a simple method for the calibration of MRI hardware, providing sensitivity estimates for a given scanner and coil configuration...
2016: PloS One
Kenji Hanabusa, Takuya Ueda, Shingo Takata, Masahiro Suzuki
Fluorescein-, benzothiazole-, quinoline-, stilbene-, and carbazole-containing fluorescent gelators have been synthesized by connecting gelation-driving segments, including l-isoleucine, l-valine, l-phenylalanine, l-leucine residue, cyclo(l-asparaginyl-l-phenylalanyl), and trans-(1R,2R)-diaminocyclohexane. The emission behaviors of the gelators were investigated, and their gelation abilities studied against 15 solvents. The minimum gel concentration, variable-temperature spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, fluorescence microscopy (FM), and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were used to characterize gelation...
October 10, 2016: Chemistry: a European Journal
Duc D Nguyen, Guo-Wei Wei
This article explores the impact of surface area, volume, curvature, and Lennard-Jones (LJ) potential on solvation free energy predictions. Rigidity surfaces are utilized to generate robust analytical expressions for maximum, minimum, mean, and Gaussian curvatures of solvent-solute interfaces, and define a generalized Poisson-Boltzmann (GPB) equation with a smooth dielectric profile. Extensive correlation analysis is performed to examine the linear dependence of surface area, surface enclosed volume, maximum curvature, minimum curvature, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature for solvation modeling...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Computational Chemistry
Sarah Svenningsen, Fumin Guo, David G McCormack, Grace Parraga
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Evidence-based treatment and management for patients with bronchiectasis remain challenging. There is a need for regional disease measurements as focal distribution of disease is common. Our objective was to evaluate the ability of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect regional ventilation impairment and response to airway clearance therapy (ACT) in patients with noncystic fibrosis (CF) bronchiectasis, providing a new way to objectively and regionally evaluate response to therapy...
October 4, 2016: Academic Radiology
Erena Wikaire, Elana Curtis, Donna Cormack, Yannan Jiang, Louise McMillan, Rob Loto, Papaarangi Reid
BACKGROUND: Tertiary institutions are struggling to ensure equitable academic outcomes for indigenous and ethnic minority students in health professional study. This demonstrates disadvantaging of ethnic minority student groups (whereby Indigenous and ethnic minority students consistently achieve academic outcomes at a lower level when compared to non-ethnic minority students) whilst privileging non-ethnic minority students and has important implications for health workforce and health equity priorities...
October 7, 2016: BMC Medical Education
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