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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431162/risk-of-serious-bacterial-infection-associated-with-tumour-necrosis-factor-alpha-inhibitors-in-children-with-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#1
Wan-Ju Lee, Todd A Lee, Katie J Suda, Gregory S Calip, Leslie Briars, Glen T Schumock
Objectives.: TNF-α inhibitors (TNFIs) have a black box warning for increased risk of serious infection that was based on evidence from studies of adults. Evidence of the association is lacking for children. We aimed to examine the risk of infection posed by TNFIs compared with DMARDs in children with JIA. Methods.: We conducted a cohort study using the 2009-13 Truven MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters database. Children <16 years old with JIA who initiated monotherapy with TNFIs or DMARDs were identified and followed for occurrence of serious bacterial infection requiring hospitalization...
April 18, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403046/bacterial-osteomyelitis-or-nonbacterial-osteitis-in-children-a-study-involving-the-german-surveillance-unit-for-rare-diseases-in-childhood
#2
MULTICENTER STUDY
Veit Grote, Colen C G Silier, Agnes M Voit, Annette F Jansson
BACKGROUND: Although bacterial osteomyelitis (BO) is a commonly recognized diagnosis in pediatrics, it is often difficult to distinguish from nonbacterial osteitis (NBO). The goal of our study was to distinguish between the 2 disease entities and better define NBO. METHODS: Using the German Surveillance Unit for Rare Diseases in Childhood (Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Paediatrische Erkrankungen in Deutschland), this prospective study during a 5-year period captured 657 patients at first diagnosis of either BO (n = 378) or NBO (n = 279) while analyzing epidemiologic, clinical and radiologic data...
May 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396064/-erysipelas-without-fever-or-biologic-inflammation-during-tocilizumab-therapy
#3
M Yéléhé-Okouma, J Henry, N Petitpain, J-L Schmutz, P Gillet
BACKGROUND: Tocilizumab (TCZ) is a monoclonal antibody that inhibits the interleukin 6 (IL-6) signalling pathway. This treatment is extremely effective in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), which may well be accompanied by serious infections presenting misleading clinical pictures. Herein we report a case of a typical bacterial dermo-hypodermitis in a female patient treated with TCZ. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An 80-year-old woman treated with methotrexate (MTX) and TCZ for RA presented dermo-hypodermitis on her left leg 8 days after receiving her 13th infusion of TCZ...
April 7, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389414/niclosamide-beyond-an-antihelminthic-drug
#4
REVIEW
Wei Chen, Robert A Mook, Richard T Premont, Jiangbo Wang
Niclosamide is an oral antihelminthic drug used to treat parasitic infections in millions of people worldwide. However recent studies have indicated that niclosamide may have broad clinical applications for the treatment of diseases other than those caused by parasites. These diseases and symptoms may include cancer, bacterial and viral infection, metabolic diseases such as Type II diabetes, NASH and NAFLD, artery constriction, endometriosis, neuropathic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, sclerodermatous graft-versus-host disease, systemic sclerosis...
April 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385924/genotypic-analysis-of-tropheryma-whipplei-from-patients-with-whipple-disease-in-the-americas
#5
Dominique C Rollin, Christopher D Paddock, Bobbi S Pritt, Scott A Cunningham, Amy M Denison
Tropheryma whipplei, the agent of Whipple disease, causes a rare bacterial disease that may be fatal if not treated. The classical form of the disease includes diarrhoea, weight loss, arthritis, endocarditis and neurological manifestations. Genotyping studies done in Europe, Africa and Asia showed high genetic diversity with no correlation between genotypes and clinical features, but contributed to a better understanding of the epidemiology of the disease. More than 70 genotypes have been described. No similar assessment of T...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366221/septic-arthritis-of-native-joints
#6
REVIEW
John J Ross
Septic arthritis is a rheumatologic emergency that may lead to disability or death. Prompt evacuation of the joint, either by arthrocentesis at the bedside, open or arthroscopic drainage in the operating room, or imaging-guided drainage in the radiology suite, is mandatory. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become a major cause of septic arthritis in the United States. MRSA joint infection seems to be associated with worse outcomes. Antibiotic courses of 3 to 4 weeks in duration are usually adequate for uncomplicated bacterial arthritis...
March 30, 2017: Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357377/chlamydia-trachomatis-genital-infections
#7
REVIEW
Catherine M O'Connell, Morgan E Ferone
Etiology, transmission and protection: Chlamydia trachomatis is the leading cause of bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) globally. However, C. trachomatis also causes trachoma in endemic areas, mostly Africa and the Middle East, and is a leading cause of preventable blindness worldwide. Epidemiology, incidence and prevalence: The World Health Organization estimates 131 million new cases of C. trachomatis genital infection occur annually. Globally, infection is most prevalent in young women and men (14-25 years), likely driven by asymptomatic infection, inadequate partner treatment and delayed development of protective immunity...
September 5, 2016: Microbial Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348796/diagnostic-difficulty-identifying-apophysomyces-trapeziformis-septic-arthritis-in-a-patient-with-multiple-myeloma
#8
J Bradford Bertumen, Wiley A Schell, Maria Joyce, Christopher Alley, Christopher W Woods
INTRODUCTION: Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection, but can cause substantial morbidity and mortality in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. Apophysomyces is a mucormycetes species ubiquitous in nature, particularly in soil, decaying wood and other organic matter. Apophysomyces is known to cause cutaneous fungal infections, particularly after penetrating trauma. Septic arthritis is a rare clinical manifestation. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of Apophysomyces trapeziformis causing septic arthritis of the knee of a patient with multiple myeloma...
December 2016: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326455/neutralization-of-mmp-2-and-tnfr1-regulates-the-severity-of-s-aureus-induced-septic-arthritis-by-differential-alteration-of-local-and-systemic-proinflammatory-cytokines-in-mice
#9
Sahin Sultana, Rana Adhikary, Biswadev Bishayi
Despite advancement in the field of antibiotics septic arthritis remains a serious concern till date. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common bacterium that causes septic arthritis. Severity of this disease is directly correlated with chronic inflammation induced by proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and induction of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) including MMP-2. The objective of our study was to evaluate the role of MMP-2 and tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) in the pathogenesis of S...
March 22, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321852/active-matrix-metalloproteinase-8-and-periodontal-bacteria-depending-on-periodontal-status-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#10
A Kirchner, J Jäger, B Krohn-Grimberghe, S Patschan, T Kottmann, G Schmalz, R F Mausberg, R Haak, D Ziebolz
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this clinical cross-sectional study was to determine the level of active matrix metalloproteinase-8 (aMMP-8) and periodontal pathogenic bacteria in gingival crevicular fluid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) with varying periodontal conditions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In total, 103 patients with RA and 104 healthy controls (HC) were included. The assessment of periodontal status included periodontal probing depth, bleeding on probing and clinical attachment loss...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303129/there-is-a-method-to-the-madness-strategies-to-study-host-complement-evasion-by-lyme-disease-and-relapsing-fever-spirochetes
#11
REVIEW
Ashley L Marcinkiewicz, Peter Kraiczy, Yi-Pin Lin
Lyme disease and relapsing fever are caused by various Borrelia species. Lyme disease borreliae, the most common vector-borne pathogens in both the U.S. and Europe, are transmitted by Ixodes ticks and disseminate from the site of tick bites to tissues leading to erythema migrans skin rash, arthritis, carditis, and neuroborreliosis. Relapsing fever borreliae, carried by ticks and lice, trigger reoccurring fever episodes. Following transmission, spirochetes survive in the blood to induce bacteremia at the early stages of infection, which is thought to promote evasion of the host complement system...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298206/burden-and-spectrum-of-bacterial-infections-among-sickle-cell-disease-children-living-in-cameroon
#12
Anastasie Nicole Alima Yanda, Jobert Richie N Nansseu, Hubert Désiré Mbassi Awa, Sandra A Tatah, Judith Seungue, Charlotte Eposse, Paul Olivier N Koki
BACKGROUND: Although sickle cell disease (SCD) children are highly susceptible to bacterial infections (BIs), there is a dreadful lack of data related to the burden and spectrum of BIs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), the highest affected region with SCD. This study aimed to determine the burden and spectrum of BIs among SCD children hospitalized in a pediatric reference hospital in Cameroon, a SSA country. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of records of children hospitalized from November 2012 to August 2015 in the SCD unit of the Mother and Child Centre of the Chantal Biya Foundation, Cameroon...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264814/risk-of-serious-infections-associated-with-use-of-immunosuppressive-agents-in-pregnant-women-with-autoimmune-inflammatory-conditions-cohort-study
#13
Rishi J Desai, Brian T Bateman, Krista F Huybrechts, Elisabetta Patorno, Sonia Hernandez-Diaz, Yoonyoung Park, Sara Z Dejene, Jacqueline Cohen, Helen Mogun, Seoyoung C Kim
Objective To compare the risk of serious infections associated with use of systemic steroids, non-biologic agents, or tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) inhibitors in pregnancy.Design Observational cohort study.Setting Public (Medicaid, 2001-10) or private (Optum Clinformatics, 2004-15) health insurance programs in the US.Participants 4961 pregnant women treated with immunosuppressive drugs for rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ankylosing spondylitis, psoriatic arthritis, or inflammatory bowel disease...
March 6, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263993/analysis-of-the-human-monocyte-derived-macrophage-transcriptome-and-response-to-lipopolysaccharide-provides-new-insights-into-genetic-aetiology-of-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#14
J Kenneth Baillie, Erik Arner, Carsten Daub, Michiel De Hoon, Masayoshi Itoh, Hideya Kawaji, Timo Lassmann, Piero Carninci, Alistair R R Forrest, Yoshihide Hayashizaki, Geoffrey J Faulkner, Christine A Wells, Michael Rehli, Paul Pavli, Kim M Summers, David A Hume
The FANTOM5 consortium utilised cap analysis of gene expression (CAGE) to provide an unprecedented insight into transcriptional regulation in human cells and tissues. In the current study, we have used CAGE-based transcriptional profiling on an extended dense time course of the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages grown in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (CSF1) to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We propose that this system provides a model for the differentiation and adaptation of monocytes entering the intestinal lamina propria...
March 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255620/spontaneous-radioscapholunate-fusion-after-septic-arthritis-of-the-wrist-a-case-report
#15
S Quadlbauer, Ch Pezzei, J Jurkowitsch, T Keuchel, T Hausner, M Leixnering
Bacterial septic arthritis rarely occurs in the upper extremities. Yet, early diagnosis and treatment is important, as a delay in diagnosis results in pain, impaired hand function, and degenerative joint disease. Radioscapholunate (RSL) arthrodesis is a well-established procedure for treating inflammatory arthritis and osteoarthritis (primary or posttraumatic), primarily to achieve pain relief. The wrist deformity correction offers an alternative option to total wrist arthrodesis. Indications for a RSL arthrodesis are osteoarthritis of the radiolunate and radioscaphoid joint with a concomitant intact midcarpal joint...
March 2, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243466/update-on-interleukin-17-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-inflammatory-arthritis-and-implication-for-clinical-practice
#16
REVIEW
Pierre Miossec
Interleukin-17 (IL-17A) is a cytokine critical for the acute defence against extracellular bacterial and fungal infections. Excess production during chronic inflammation has been associated with many inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The present review describes the key molecules of the IL-17 pathway, which are or could be targeted for treatment. Since targeting of IL-17A may affect defence mechanisms, the pathogenesis of such possible adverse events is analysed. Then the contributions of IL-17 to bone changes in various forms of arthritis are discussed...
2017: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240756/assessment-and-therapeutic-choice-in-septic-arthritis-of-the-hip-in-an-intravenous-drug-abuser-case-report-at-14-years-follow-up-and-review-of-literature
#17
P Persiani, F M Ranaldi, O Mazza, A Calistri, M Bove, M Crostelli, C Villani
INTRODUCTION: Osteoarticular infections are found frequently in drug addicted individuals, representing one of the main reasons for their hospitalization. Through inoculation, the pathogenic agents can enter the individual's system directly through the skin or parenterally, transmitted, that is, through syringes and other objects used during such practice. In these particular conditions, or when the medical history is vague, a warranted suspicion and the execution of targeted research can help in the diagnosis of high-risk patients such as addicts...
January 2017: La Clinica Terapeutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199901/cd44-deficiency-enhanced-streptococcus-equi-ssp-zooepidemicus-dissemination-and-inflammation-response-in-a-mouse-model
#18
Qiang Fu, Pingping Xiao, Yaosheng Chen, Zigong Wei, Xiaohong Liu
Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (S. zooepidemicus) is responsible for peritonitis, septicemia, meningitis, arthritis and several other serious diseases in various species. Recent studies have demonstrated that CD44 is implicated in the process of host defense against pathogenic microorganisms. In the present study, the role of CD44 in the host response to S. zooepidemicus infection was investigated in a mouse model. Upon intraperitoneal infection with S. zooepidemicus, the expression of CD44 on the peritoneal exudate cells from wild-type (WT) mice was increased...
February 9, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187064/bacterial-osteomyelitis-or-nonbacterial-osteitis-in-children-a-study-involving-the-german-surveillance-unit-for-rare-diseases-in-childhood
#19
Veit Grote, Colen C G Silier, Agnes M Voit, Annette F Jansson
BACKGROUND: Although bacterial osteomyelitis (BO) is a commonly recognized diagnosis in pediatrics, it is often difficult to distinguish from nonbacterial osteitis (NBO). The goal of our study was to distinguish between the two disease entities and better define NBO. METHOD: Using the German Surveillance Unit for Rare Diseases in Childhood (Erhebungseinheit für Seltene Paediatrische Erkrankungen (ESPED) in Deutschland) this prospective study during a 5 five year period captured 657 patients at first diagnosis of either BO (n=378) or NBO (n=279) while analyzing epidemiologic, clinical and radiologic data...
December 13, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178428/effect-of-histophilus-somni-on-heart-and-brain-microvascular-endothelial-cells
#20
D O'Toole, R Hunter, T Allen, B Zekarias, J Lehmann, K S Kim, D Grab, L B Corbeil
Histophilus somni is a pathogenic gram-negative bacterium responsible for pneumonia and septicemia in cattle. Sequelae include infectious thrombotic meningoencephalitis (ITME), myocarditis, arthritis, and abortion. These syndromes are associated with widespread vasculitis and thrombosis, implicating a role for endothelium in pathogenesis. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigation of 10 natural cases of bovine H. somni myocarditis and 1 case of ITME revealed intravascular H. somni in large biofilm-like aggregates adherent to the luminal surface of microvascular endothelium...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
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