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Knee cerebral palsy

Meta N Eek, Kate Himmelmann
Spasticity and muscle weakness is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Spasticity can be treated with botulinum neurotoxin-A (BoNT-A), but this drug has also been reported to induce muscle weakness. Our purpose was to describe the effect on muscle strength in the lower extremities after BoNT-A injections in children with CP. A secondary aim was to relate the effect of BoNT-A to gait pattern and range of motion. Twenty children with spastic CP were included in the study, 8 girls and 12 boys (mean age 7...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Robert P Lamberts, Marlette Burger, Jacques du Toit, Nelleke G Langerak
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is commonly used to assess the effect of orthopedic single-event multilevel surgery (SEMLS) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP). PURPOSE: The purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of different orthopedic SEMLS interventions and their effects on 3DGA parameters in children with spastic CP. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search within six databases revealed 648 records, from which 89 articles were selected for the full-text review and 24 articles (50 studies) included for systematic review...
2016: PloS One
Ebru Alemdaroğlu, Sibel Demir Özbudak, Sibel Mandiroğlu, Seda Alakoç Biçer, Neşe Özgirgin, Halil Uçan
: Inpatient falls are of significant concern. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the predictors of inpatient falls among children with cerebral palsy in a rehabilitation hospital. DESIGN AND METHODS: A total of 93 patients with cerebral palsy were assessed based on history, physical findings, the Selective Motor Control Test, the Gross Motor Functional Classification System, the Berg Balance Scale and the Manual Ability Classification System. Previous history of falls/frequent falls, and any falls which occurred during hospitalization, were recorded...
September 12, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Hwan Choi, Tishya Anne Leong Wren, Katherine Muterspaugh Steele
BACKGROUND: Many individuals with cerebral palsy wear ankle foot orthoses during daily life. Orthoses influence joint motion, but how they impact muscle remains unclear. In particular, the gastrocnemius is commonly stiff in cerebral palsy. Understanding whether orthoses stretch or shorten this muscle during daily life may inform orthosis design and rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the impact of different ankle foot orthoses on gastrocnemius operating length during walking in children with cerebral palsy...
September 9, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Stina Oftedal, Peter S W Davies, Roslyn N Boyd, Richard D Stevenson, Robert S Ware, Piyapa Keawutan, Katherine A Benfer, Kristie L Bell
OBJECTIVES: To describe the longitudinal relationship between height-for-age z score (HZ), growth velocity z score, energy intake, habitual physical activity (HPA), and sedentary time across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I to V in preschoolers with cerebral palsy (CP). METHODS: Children with CP (n = 175 [109 (62.2%) boys]; mean recruitment age 2 years, 10 months [SD 11 months]; GMFCS I = 83 [47.2%], II = 21 [11.9%], III = 28 [15.9%], IV = 19 [10...
September 7, 2016: Pediatrics
Cecilia Lidbeck, Åsa Bartonek, Priti Yadav, Kristina Tedroff, Per Åstrand, Kerstin Hellgren, Elena M Gutierrez-Farewik
BACKGROUND: In children with bilateral cerebral palsy (CP) maintaining a standing position can be difficult. The fundamental motor task of standing independently is achieved by an interaction between the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems. In CP, the motor disorders are commonly accompanied by sensory and perceptual disturbances. Our aims were to examine the influence of visual stimuli on standing posture in relation to standing ability. METHODS: Three dimensional motion analysis with surface electromyography was recorded to describe body position, body movement, and muscle activity during three standing tasks: in a self-selected position, while blindfolded, and during an attention-demanding task...
2016: BMC Neurology
Zachary Lerner, Diane Damiano, Hyung-Soon Park, Andrew Gravunder, Thomas Bulea
Crouch gait, a pathological pattern of walking characterized by excessive knee flexion, is one of the most common gait disorders observed in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Effective treatment of crouch during childhood is critical to maintain mobility into adulthood, yet current interventions do not adequately alleviate crouch in most individuals. Powered exoskeletons provide an untapped opportunity for intervention. The multiple contributors to crouch, including spasticity, contracture, muscle weakness, and poor motor control make design and control of such devices challenging in this population...
July 27, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Marjolein Margaretha van der Krogt, Lynn Bar-On, Thalia Kindt, Kaat Desloovere, Jaap Harlaar
BACKGROUND: Increased resistance in muscles and joints is an important phenomenon in patients with cerebral palsy (CP), and is caused by a combination of neural (e.g. spasticity) and non-neural (e.g. contracture) components. The aim of this study was to simulate instrumented, clinical assessment of the hamstring muscles in CP using a conceptual model of contracture and spasticity, and to determine to what extent contracture can be explained by altered passive muscle stiffness, and spasticity by (purely) velocity-dependent stretch reflex...
2016: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
Sarah Trager Ridge, John Henley, Kurt Manal, Freeman Miller, James G Richards
In populations where walking and/or stopping can be difficult, such as in children with cerebral palsy, the ability to quickly stop walking may be beyond the child's capabilities. Gait termination may be improved with physical therapy. However, without a greater understanding of the mechanical requirements of this skill, treatment planning is difficult. The purpose of this study was to understand how healthy children successfully terminate gait in one step when walking quickly, which can be challenging even for healthy children...
October 2016: Human Movement Science
Susan A Rethlefsen, Gideon Blumstein, Robert M Kay, Frederick Dorey, Tishya A L Wren
AIM: To examine the impact of age, surgery, and Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) level on the prevalence of gait problems in children with cerebral palsy (CP). METHOD: Gait analysis records were retrospectively reviewed for ambulatory patients with CP. Gait abnormalities were identified using physical exam and kinematic data. Relationships among age, sex, previous surgery, GMFCS level, and prevalence of gait abnormalities associated with crouch and out-toeing, and equinus and in-toeing were assessed using univariable and multivariable logistic regression...
July 15, 2016: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
Abir Massaad, Ayman Assi, Ziad Bakouny, Christophe Sauret, Nour Khalil, Wafa Skalli, Ismat Ghanem
Skeletal abnormalities, affecting posture and walking pattern, increase with motor impairment in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, it is not known whether these skeletal malalignments occur in children with slight motor impairment. Our aim was to evaluate skeletal malalignment at the level of the pelvis and lower limbs in ambulant children with CP, with slight motor impairment, using a low dose biplanar X-ray technique. Twenty-seven children with spastic CP (mean age: 10.9±4years, 7 Hemiplegia, 20 Diplegia, GMFCS levels I:17, II:10), with no previous treatments at the hips and knees, underwent EOS(®) biplanar X-rays...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
Daveda Taylor, Justin Connor, Chris Church, Nancy Lennon, John Henley, Tim Niiler, Freeman Miller
Crouched gait is common in children with cerebral palsy (CP), and there are various treatment options. This study evaluated the effectiveness of single-event multilevel surgery including posterior knee capsulotomy or distal femoral extension osteotomy to correct knee flexion contracture in children with CP. Gait analyses were carried out to evaluate gait preoperatively and postoperatively. Significant improvements were found in physical examination and kinematic measures, which showed that children with CP and crouched gait who develop knee flexion contractures can be treated effectively using single-event multilevel surgery including a posterior knee capsulotomy or distal femoral extension osteotomy...
November 2016: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics. Part B
Yasuaki Kusumoto, Kenji Takaki, Tadamitsu Matsuda, Osamu Nitta
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate differences in selective voluntary motor control of the lower extremities by objective assessment and determine the relationship between selective voluntary motor control and knee extensor strength in children with spastic diplegia. [Subjects and Methods] Forty individuals who had spastic cerebral palsy, with Gross Motor Function Classification System levels ranging from I to III, were assessed using the Selective Control Assessment of the Lower Extremity and by testing the maximum knee extensor strength...
June 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Amy K Hegarty, Max J Kurz, Wayne Stuberg, Anne K Silverman
The goal of this pilot study was to characterize the effects of gait training on the capacity of muscles to produce body accelerations and relate these changes to mobility improvements seen in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Five children (14 years ± 3 y; GMFCS I-II) with spastic diplegic CP participated in a 6-week gait training program. Changes in 10-m fast-as-possible walking speed and 6-minute walking endurance were used to assess changes in mobility. In addition, musculoskeletal modeling was used to determine the potential of lower-limb muscles to accelerate the body's center of mass vertically and forward during stance...
October 2016: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
Maria Del Pilar Duque Orozco, Oussama Abousamra, Chris Church, Nancy Lennon, John Henley, Kenneth J Rogers, Julieanne P Sees, Justin Connor, Freeman Miller
Assessment of gait abnormalities in cerebral palsy (CP) is challenging, and access to instrumented gait analysis is not always feasible. Therefore, many observational gait analysis scales have been devised. This study aimed to evaluate the interobserver reliability, intraobserver reliability, and validity of Edinburgh visual gait score (EVGS). Video of 30 children with spastic CP were reviewed by 7 raters (10 children each in GMFCS levels I, II, and III, age 6-12 years). Three observers had high level of experience in gait analysis (10+ years), two had medium level (2-5 years) and two had no previous experience (orthopedic fellows)...
September 2016: Gait & Posture
Sally Le Cras, Kelly Greve
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Marc Degelaen, Ludo De Borre, Ronald Buyl, Eric Kerckhofs, Linda De Meirleir, Bernard Dan
BACKGROUND: Children with cerebral palsy show dysfunctional postural control which interferes with their functional performance and daily-life activities. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to identify the effect of a 3D supporting garment on trunk postural control and interjoint coordination during gait in children with bilateral cerebral palsy. METHODS: We analyzed tridimensional trunk motion, trunk-thigh and interjoint coordination in 15 4-10 year-old children with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (GMFCS I or II) and 16 4-10 year-old typically developing children while walking with or without a supporting garment...
June 23, 2016: NeuroRehabilitation
Chang-Kyo Yun, Won-Hyo Kim, Seong-Gil Kim
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between lower extremity muscle thickness and gait ability through the 10-meter walk and timed up and go tests. [Subjects and Methods] A total of 28 children (20 males and 8 females) with spastic cerebral palsy undergoing physical therapy at D hospital in D city, South Korea participated in this study. Partial correlation analysis was performed to analyze the correlation between lower extremity muscle thickness and gait ability (10-meter walk test and timed up and go test)...
May 2016: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Aakash Mugalur, Aditya C Pathak, Sunil M Shahane, Ashwin Samant
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral Flexion Deformity commonly results secondary to cerebral palsy, poliomyelitis, haemophilia etc. It is accompanied by valgus deformity and external rotation at knee in long standing cases secondary to the contracture of the iliotibial tract. Flexion deformity at knees is an impediment to the normal ambulation and is difficult to address. CASE REPORT: A 34 year old male presented with bilateral knee stiffness. He had multifocal tuberculosis and was bed ridden for almost a year and consequently developed bilateral knee flexion deformity of 60o with further flexion upto 120o...
January 2015: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
Ebru Alemdaroğlu, İnci Yanıkoğlu, Öznur Öken, Halil Uçan, Murat Ersöz, Belma Füsun Köseoğlu, Mehmet İsmail Safa Kapıcıoğlu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term effects of horseback riding therapy in addition to a conventional rehabilitation program in children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: Nine children receiving horseback riding therapy in addition to conventional rehabilitation (Group 1) and seven children receiving conventional rehabilitation alone (Group 2) were assessed at baseline and 5 weeks later. Assessed were: modified functional reach test (MFRT), hip abduction angle, the Ashworth Scale for hip adductor muscle spasticity, knee distance test, and the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS)...
May 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
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