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Pituitary insufficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907849/association-between-dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate-and-attention-in-long-term-survivors-of-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-treated-with-only-chemotherapy
#1
Yin Ting Cheung, Wassim Chemaitilly, Daniel A Mulrooney, Tara M Brinkman, Wei Liu, Pia Banerjee, Deokumar Srivastava, Ching-Hon Pui, Leslie L Robison, Melissa M Hudson, Kevin R Krull
Long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are at risk for neurocognitive impairment, as well as compromised hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function. Dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) is an adrenal androgen commonly used as a marker of HPA function. In the general population, a low level of DHEAS has been associated with poorer cognition. At ≥2years post-treatment, we examined the association of DHEAS with attention outcomes in 35 male and 34 female long-term survivors of childhood ALL (mean[standard deviation] age at evaluation 14...
November 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869423/-progressive-moderate-mitral-regurgitation-in-a-children-with-axenfeld-rieger-syndrome-the-importance-of-cardiologic-follow-up
#2
Francisco Sánchez Ferrer, María D Grima Murcia
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is a congenital disease with an estimated prevalence of one in 200,000 individuals. This is an ophthalmic disorder related to anterior segment dysgenesis, which may be present from the neonatal period. It is associated with extraocular affectations such as cranial dimorphism, maxillofacial or dental anomalies. Cardiological or pituitary manifestations are less common. The congenital heart disease in Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome has been described in very few cases in the literature. We report a 7-year-old patient with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome and mild mitral insufficiency since the age of 3 years, which is progressing to moderate mitral regurgitation at the present time...
December 1, 2016: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821225/understanding-oral-stereotypies-in-calves-alternative-strategies-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-re-activity-and-gene-by-environment-interactions
#3
L E Webb, C G van Reenen, B Engel, H Berends, W J J Gerrits, E A M Bokkers
Stereotypies are used as indicators of poor animal welfare and it is, therefore, important to understand underlying factors mediating their development. In calves, two oral stereotypies, that is, tongue playing and object manipulation, result mostly from insufficient structure in the diet. Three hypotheses were studied: (1) oral stereotypies in calves are one of two alternative strategies, the alternative being hypo-activity; (2) stereotyping and non-stereotyping calves differ in terms of cortisol secretion; (3) oral stereotypy development in calves rests on a gene by environment interaction...
November 8, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803964/adrenal-crisis-while-on-high-dose-steroid-treatment-what-rheumatologist-should-consider
#4
REVIEW
Döndü Üsküdar Cansu, Güven Barış Cansu, Deniz Arik, Cengiz Korkmaz
Steroid treatment is commonly recommended for autoimmune disorders in rheumatology practice. While adrenal crisis may occur upon existence of an inducing factor in patients with known or unknown adrenal insufficiency as well as in those with a suppressed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis due to chronic steroid use, addisonian crisis rarely develops in patients on supraphysiological doses of steroid and, when emerged, it might be very difficult to recognize. Here, we present a patient who developed adrenal crisis while receiving high-dose methylprednisolone treatment due to retroperitoneal fibrosis and we also discuss possible mechanisms with a brief literature review...
November 1, 2016: Rheumatology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795552/efficacy-and-safety-of-bariatric-surgery-for-craniopharyngioma-related-hypothalamic-obesity-a-matched-case-control-study-with-two-years-of-follow-up
#5
M Wijnen, D S Olsson, M M van den Heuvel-Eibrink, V Wallenius, Jamjl Janssen, P J D Delhanty, A J van der Lely, G Johannsson, Sjcmm Neggers
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic obesity is a devastating consequence of craniopharyngioma. Bariatric surgery could be a promising therapeutic option. However, its efficacy and safety in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the efficacy of bariatric surgery for inducing weight loss in patients with craniopharyngioma-related hypothalamic obesity. Additionally, we studied the safety of bariatric surgery regarding its effects on hormone replacement therapy for pituitary insufficiency...
October 31, 2016: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791524/reoperative-endoscopic-endonasal-surgery-for-residual-or-recurrent-pituitary-adenomas
#6
Hazem M Negm, Rafid Al-Mahfoudh, Manish Pai, Harminder Singh, Salomon Cohen, Sivashanmugam Dhandapani, Vijay K Anand, Theodore H Schwartz
OBJECTIVE Regrowth of the lesion after surgical removal of pituitary adenomas is uncommon unless subtotal resection was originally achieved in the first surgery. Treatment for recurrent tumor can involve surgery or radiotherapy. Locations of residual tumor may vary based on the original approach. The authors evaluated the specific sites of residual or recurrent tumor after different transsphenoidal approaches and describe the surgical outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal reoperation. METHODS The authors analyzed a prospectively collected database of a consecutive series of patients who had undergone endoscopic endonasal surgeries for residual or recurrent pituitary adenomas after an original transsphenoidal microscopic or endoscopic surgery...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784851/postpartum-hypothalamic-adrenal-insufficiency-with-remission-a-rare-case
#7
Yuko Akehi, Yoko Hashimoto, Junko Meren, Makito Tanabe, Takashi Nomiyama, Toshihiko Yanase
A 37-year-old female patient was hospitalized because of general fatigue and loss of axillary and pubic hair after massive bleeding at delivery of her third child. The basal levels of both plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and serum cortisol were very low, 5.2 pg/mL and 1.9 μg/dL, respectively. Based on the fact that ACTH showed a low response to insulin tolerance test and a normal response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), she was diagnosed with hypothalamic adrenal insufficiency. No organic lesions were found in the hypothalamic-pituitary region by pituitary MRI and hydrocortisone therapy was instituted...
October 25, 2016: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778105/can-early-clinical-parameters-predict-post-traumatic-pituitary-dysfunction-in-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
O Nemes, N Kovacs, Sz Szujo, B Bodis, L Bajnok, A Buki, T Doczi, E Czeiter, E Mezosi
BACKGROUND: Post-traumatic hypopituitarism is a major complication after severe head trauma. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible role of early clinical parameters in the development of endocrine deficits. METHODS: Data on endocrine function, on-admission clinical-, laboratory-, and ICU-monitored parameters were available in 63 patients of the surviving 86 severe head injury patients (post-resuscitation GCS under 8) treated at one neurosurgical center during a 10-year period...
October 25, 2016: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777166/rathke-cleft-cyst-with-evidence-of-rupture-into-subarachnoid-space
#9
Hiroshi Yokota, Yuki Ida, Daisuke Wajima, Fumihiko Nishimura, Hiroyuki Nakase
BACKGROUND: A Rathke cleft cyst (RCC) with non-hemorrhagic rupture mimicking pituitary apoplexy has been rarely reported. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 52-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with asymptomatic RCC, came to us with a severe headache, along with visual dysfunction and symptoms of pituitary insufficiency. Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated diffuse hyper-intensity in the cerebral cisterns, while watery clear cerebrospinal fluid was obtained by lumbar puncture...
October 21, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762491/resolution-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-after-growth-hormone-replacement-in-a-pediatric-liver-transplant-patient-with-panhypopituitarism
#10
Thomas Gilliland, Sylvie Dufour, Gerald I Shulman, Kitt Falk Petersen, Sukru H Emre
NAFLD is a common condition linked to obesity, type 2 diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. Simple hepatic steatosis is a risk factor for inflammatory reactions in the liver (NASH), which may lead to cirrhosis. While the mechanism is unclear, NAFLD and NASH are associated with panhypopituitarism, which in the pediatric population often results from craniopharyngioma or pituitary adenoma and the sequelae of treatment, causing hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and GH deficiency...
December 2016: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751870/diverse-action-of-lipoteichoic-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide-on-neuroinflammation-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-and-anxiety-in-mice
#11
Raphaela Mayerhofer, Esther E Fröhlich, Florian Reichmann, Aitak Farzi, Nora Kogelnik, Eleonore Fröhlich, Wolfgang Sattler, Peter Holzer
Microbial metabolites are known to affect immune system, brain, and behavior via activation of pattern recognition receptors such as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Unlike the effect of the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS), the role of other TLR agonists in immune-brain communication is insufficiently understood. We therefore hypothesized that the TLR2 agonist lipoteichoic acid (LTA) causes immune activation in the periphery and brain, stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and has an adverse effect on blood-brain barrier (BBB) and emotional behavior...
October 14, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27751733/the-link-between-aberrant-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-activity-during-development-and-the-emergence-of-aggression-animal-studies
#12
Sophie E Walker, Aurélie Papilloud, Damien Huzard, Carmen Sandi
Aggressive behavior is not uniform, including proactive and reactive forms of aggression. Aberrant functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently associated with abnormal aggression. Here, we review the rodent literature in order to assess whether developmental abnormalities in the HPA axis can be causally linked with the emergence of abnormal aggression. We examine studies that involve genetic models and life challenges (e.g., early life stress, drug exposure) that course with developmental alterations in the HPA axis...
October 14, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750352/dynamics-of-adrenocorticotropin-after-application-of-metyrapone
#13
S Noe, A von Werder, R Iakoubov, H Schneider, M Thaler, P Luppa, B Neu
Purpose: To investigate the kinetics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) following oral metyrapone administration and describe differences between ACTH-deficient and non-ACTH-deficient subjects. Methods: Patients from a tertiary endocrine center at a University Hospital in Munich, Germany, were tested for secondary adrenal insufficiency in a regular patient care setting. Metyrapone (Metopirone, HRA Pharma, France) was administered with a dosage of 40 mg/kg bodyweight at 8 a.m. Consecutive levels of ACTH were determined at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745723/-psychological-processes-of-stress-management-and-neuroendocrine-regulation-in-incarcerated-adolescent-offenders-a-pilot-study
#14
L Guillod, S Habersaat, M Suter, T Jeanneret, C Bertoni, P Stéphan, S Urben
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a stressful period where important biological, psychological and social changes occur. Adolescents are particularly vulnerable during this developmental period and can use various strategies to deal with daily stress, such as substance use or externalizing behaviors. In previous studies, stress in adolescents with externalizing behaviors was often linked to ineffective cognitive coping strategies (i.e., constructive thinking) and overlooking the biological aspects involved in stress management such as neuroendocrine regulation...
October 10, 2016: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743172/time-trends-of-mortality-in-patients-with-non-functioning-pituitary-adenoma-a-swedish-nationwide-study
#15
Daniel S Olsson, Ing-Liss Bryngelsson, Oskar Ragnarsson
PURPOSE: Patients with non-functioning pituitary adenomas (NFPA), especially women, have increased mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate whether mortality in NFPA patients has changed during the last two decades. METHODS: This was a nationwide population-based study including 2795 patients (1502 men, 1293 women) diagnosed with NFPA between 1997 and 2011. Patients were identified and followed in Swedish National Health Registries. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for three time periods at first NFPA diagnosis using the general population as reference...
October 14, 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710986/the-epidemiology-of-pituitary-adenomas-in-a-community-based-hospital-a-retrospective-single-center-study-in-saudi-arabia
#16
Khalid S Aljabri, Samia A Bokhari, Faisal Y Assiri, Muneera A Alshareef, Patan M Khan
BACKGROUND: Data on pituitary adenoma (PA) prevalence in Saudi Arabia are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the epidemiology of PA in a well-defined population. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Departments of Endocrinology and Radiology at King Fahad Armed Forces Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Radiological and hormonal data of patients with pituitary adenoma by MRI were reviewed for the period January 2008 to December 2015...
September 2016: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668526/the-response-of-c19-%C3%AE-5-steroids-to-acth-stimulation-and-hypoglycemia-in-insulin-tolerance-test-for-adrenal-insufficiency
#17
Michaela Dušková, Lucie Kolátorová Sosvorová, Martin Hill, Kateřina Šimůnková, Hana Jandíková, Hana Pospíšilová, Monika Šrámková, Mikuláš Kosák, Michal Kršek, Václav Hána, Luboslav Stárka
Studies on the time course of ACTH- or insulin-induced hypoglycemia stimulating adrenal androgens are usually limited to dehydroepiandrosterone and/or its sulphate. Our data on dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its hydroxylated metabolites clearly show that measurements of DHEA and its sulphate (DHEAS) are valuable markers of the integrity of the HPA (hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal) axis. Assessments of HPA function should rely on measurements of baseline and/or stimulated serum cortisol concentrations, and C19 Δ5-steroids may provide additional information...
2016: Prague Medical Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635964/congress-of-neurological-surgeons-systematic-review-and-evidence-based-guideline-on-posttreatment-follow-up-evaluation-of-patients-with-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas
#18
Mateo Ziu, Ian F Dunn, Christopher Hess, Maria Fleseriu, Mary E Bodach, Luis M Tumialan, Nelson M Oyesiku, Kunal S Patel, Renzhi Wang, Bob S Carter, James Y Chen, Clark C Chen, Chirag G Patil, Zachary Litvack, Gabriel Zada, Manish K Aghi
BACKGROUND: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are the most frequent pituitary tumors. Due to the lack of hormonal hypersecretion, posttreatment follow-up evaluation of NFPAs is challenging. OBJECTIVE: To create evidence-based guidelines in an attempt to formulate guidance for posttreatment follow-up in a consistent, rigorous, and cost-effective way. METHODS: An extensive literature search was performed. Only clinical articles describing postoperative follow-up of adult patients with NFPAs were included...
October 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635962/congress-of-neurological-surgeons-systematic-review-and-evidence-based-guideline-on-surgical-techniques-and-technologies-for-the-management-of-patients-with-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas
#19
John S Kuo, Garni Barkhoudarian, Christopher J Farrell, Mary E Bodach, Luis M Tumialan, Nelson M Oyesiku, Zachary Litvack, Gabriel Zada, Chirag G Patil, Manish K Aghi
BACKGROUND: Numerous technological adjuncts are used during transsphenoidal surgery for nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs), including endoscopy, neuronavigation, intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion, and dural closure techniques. OBJECTIVE: To generate evidence-based guidelines for the use of NFPA surgical techniques and technologies. METHODS: An extensive literature search spanning January 1, 1966, to October 1, 2014, was performed, and only articles pertaining to technological adjuncts for NFPA resection were included...
October 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27635959/congress-of-neurological-surgeons-systematic-review-and-evidence-based-guideline-for-pretreatment-endocrine-evaluation-of-patients-with-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas
#20
Maria Fleseriu, Mary E Bodach, Luis M Tumialan, Vivien Bonert, Nelson M Oyesiku, Chirag G Patil, Zachary Litvack, Manish K Aghi, Gabriel Zada
BACKGROUND: Nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are among the most common pituitary lesions and may present with hypopituitarism and/or hyperprolactinemia. OBJECTIVE: To review the existing literature as it pertains to preoperative endocrine assessment in the workup for NFPAs. METHODS: A systematic review methodology was utilized to identify and screen articles assessing the role and results of preoperative laboratory assessment in patients with NFPAs...
October 2016: Neurosurgery
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