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Behavioural medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214724/where-biomedicalisation-and-magic-meet-therapeutic-innovations-of-elite-sports-injury-in-british-professional-football-and-cycling
#1
Alex Faulkner, Michael McNamee, Catherine Coveney, Jonathan Gabe
Injury is a conspicuous feature of the practice and public spectacle of contemporary elite sports. The paper argues that the 'biomedicalisation' thesis (medico-industrial nexus, techno-scientific drivers, medical optimisation, biologisation, the rise of evidence and health surveillance) goes some way to capturing the use in elite sports injury of some highly specialised mainstream therapies and some highly maverick biological therapies, which are described. Nevertheless, these main strands of biomedicalisation do not capture the full range of these phenomena in the contexts of sports medicine and athletes' practices in accessing innovative, controversial therapies...
February 9, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208851/2d-4d-ratio-and-its-implications-in-medicine
#2
Saravanakumar Jeevanandam, Prathibha K Muthu
Digit ratios, especially 2D:4D ratio, a potential proxy marker for prenatal androgen exposure shows sexual dimorphism. Existing literature and recent research show accumulating evidence on 2D:4D ratio showing correlations with various phenotypic traits in humans. Ratio of 2D:4D is found to correlate negatively to testosterone and positively to oestrogen in the foetus. Interestingly, it is constant since birth and not influenced by the adult hormone levels. Usually, males have lower ratios when compared to females...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188561/patient-specific-prescriber-feedback-can-increase-the-rate-of-osteoporosis-screening-and-treatment-results-from-two-national-interventions
#3
Lisa M Kalisch Ellett, N L Pratt, J K Sluggett, E N Ramsay, M Kerr, V T LeBlanc, J D Barratt, E E Roughead
: Osteoporosis interventions targeting older Australians and clinicians were conducted in 2008 and 2011 as part of a national quality improvement program underpinned by behavioural theory and stakeholder engagement. Uptake of bone mineral density (BMD) tests among targeted men and women increased after both interventions and sustained increases in osteoporosis treatment were observed among men targeted in 2008. PURPOSE: Educational interventions incorporating patient-specific prescriber feedback have improved osteoporosis screening and treatment among at-risk patients in clinical trials but have not been evaluated nationally...
December 2017: Archives of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187718/an-education-programme-influencing-health-professionals-to-recommend-exercise-to-their-type-2-diabetes-patients-understanding-the-processes-a-case-study-from-oxfordshire-uk
#4
Anne Matthews, Natasha Jones, Alastair Thomas, Perdy van den Berg, Charlie Foster
BACKGROUND: Increasing levels of physical activity decreases the risk of premature mortality associated with chronic diseases e.g., coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke. Despite this, most adults in England do not meet physical activity guidelines. Physical activity advice and signposting offered to at-risk patients by primary care providers is recommended. However, exercise medicine education is sparse, leading to poor practitioner knowledge of the risk reduction evidence and strategies to implement effective patient behaviour change...
February 11, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183656/facile-synthesis-of-carbon-dot-and-residual-carbon-nanobeads-implications-for-ion-sensing-medicinal-and-biological-applications
#5
Rohit Ranganathan Gaddam, Sudip Mukherjee, Neelambaram Punugupati, D Vasudevan, Chitta Ranjan Patra, Ramanuj Narayan, Raju Vsn Kothapalli
Synthesis of carbon dots (Cdots) via chemical route involves disintegration of carbon materials into nano-domains, wherein, after extraction of Cdots, the remaining carbon material is discarded. The present work focuses on studying even the leftover carbon residue namely, carbon nanobeads (CNBs) as an equally important material for applications on par with that of carbon dot. It employs oxidative treatment of carbonised gum olibanum resin (GOR) to produce the carbons namely Cdots and CNBs (as the residue). The Cdots (~5-10nm) exhibit blue-green fluorescence with an optical absorption at ~300nm unlike the CNBs (40-50nm) which fail to exhibit fluorescence...
April 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#6
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183240/pharmacotherapy-of-persons-with-dementia-in-long-term-care-in-australia-a-descriptive-audit-of-central-nervous-system-medications
#7
Wendy Moyle, Najwan El Saifi, Brian Draper, Cindy Jones, Elizabeth Beattie, David Shum, Lukman Thalib, Cindy Mervin, Siobhan O Dwyer
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia are often treated through the prescription of one or more psychotropic medications. However, limited efficacy and potential harmful side-effects has resulted in efforts to reduce the use of psychotropic medication in this population, particularly for those living in long-term care. OBJECTIVES: This study sought to describe the pattern of central nervous system medication usage in older adults with dementia living in long-term care; assess the appropriateness of prescribing against Beers criteria; and detect potential drug interactions from co-administered medications...
February 9, 2017: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181616/na-k-atpase-as-a-target-for-anticancer-metal-based-drugs-insights-into-molecular-interactions-with-selected-gold-iii-complexes
#8
Aleksandra M Bondžić, Goran V Janjić, Miroslav D Dramićanin, Luigi Messori, Lara Massai, Tatjana N Parac Vogt, Vesna M Vasić
Na/K-ATPase is emerging as an important target for a variety of anticancer metal-based drugs. The interactions of Na/K-ATPase (in its E1 state) with three representative and structurally related cytotoxic gold(iii) complexes, i.e. [Au(bipy)(OH)2][PF6], bipy = 2,2'-bipyridine; [Au(py(dmb)-H)(CH3COO)2], py(dmb)-H = deprotonated 6-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-pyridine and [Au(bipy(dmb)-H)(OH)][PF6], bipy(c)-H = deprotonated 6-(1,1-dimethylbenzyl)-2,2'-bipyridine, are investigated here in depth using a variety of spectroscopic methods, in combination with docking studies...
February 9, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178949/selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-versus-placebo-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis
#9
Janus Christian Jakobsen, Kiran Kumar Katakam, Anne Schou, Signe Gade Hellmuth, Sandra Elkjær Stallknecht, Katja Leth-Møller, Maria Iversen, Marianne Bjørnø Banke, Iggiannguaq Juhl Petersen, Sarah Louise Klingenberg, Jesper Krogh, Sebastian Elgaard Ebert, Anne Timm, Jane Lindschou, Christian Gluud
BACKGROUND: The evidence on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for major depressive disorder is unclear. METHODS: Our objective was to conduct a systematic review assessing the effects of SSRIs versus placebo, 'active' placebo, or no intervention in adult participants with major depressive disorder. We searched for eligible randomised clinical trials in The Cochrane Library's CENTRAL, PubMed, EMBASE, PsycLIT, PsycINFO, Science Citation Index Expanded, clinical trial registers of Europe and USA, websites of pharmaceutical companies, the U...
February 8, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178920/learning-health-safety-within-non-technical-skills-interprofessional-simulation-education-a-qualitative-study
#10
Morris Gordon, Christopher W R Fell, Helen Box, Michael Farrell, Alison Stewart
BACKGROUND: Healthcare increasingly recognises and focusses on the phenomena of 'safe practice' and 'patient safety.' Success with non-technical skills (NTS) training in other industries has led to widespread transposition to healthcare education, with communication and teamwork skills central to NTS frameworks. OBJECTIVE: This study set out to identify how the context of interprofessional simulation learning influences NTS acquisition and development of 'safety' amongst learners...
2017: Medical Education Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174917/dop049-inflammatory-dyskinesis-defects-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dynamic-behaviour-as-a-new-potential-biomarker-for-personalized-medicine-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
G Sellge, S Papoutsopoulou, J Verdier, C Trautwein, F Bergey, M Burkitt, M Burkitt, R Sheibani, M Pierik, D Jonkers, M White, P Paszek, V Martins Dos Santos, P Rosenstiel, W Müller, C Probert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174182/contribution-of-industry-funded-post-marketing-studies-to-drug-safety-survey-of-notifications-submitted-to-regulatory-agencies
#12
Angela Spelsberg, Christof Prugger, Peter Doshi, Kerstin Ostrowski, Thomas Witte, Dieter Hüsgen, Ulrich Keil
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the practice of post-marketing studies in Germany during a three year period and to evaluate whether these trials meet the aims specified in the German Medicinal Products Act. DESIGN:  Survey of notifications submitted to German regulatory agencies before post-marketing studies were carried out, 2008-10. SETTING:  Notifications obtained through freedom of information requests to the three authorities responsible for registering post-marketing studies in Germany...
February 7, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164429/rethinking-empathy-decline-results-from-an-osce
#13
Valerie Chan Teng, Cathina Nguyen, Karen Thomson Hall, Tracy Rydel, Amelia Sattler, Erika Schillinger, Eva Weinlander, Steven Lin
BACKGROUND: The phenomenon of empathy decline among medical students during training is widely accepted, with evidence based largely on studies using self-administered instruments. Recently, researchers have called into question this phenomenon, in light of new findings that suggest a discrepancy between self-administered empathy scores and observed empathic behaviours: for example, during objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs). Our objective was to compare observed empathy among medical students in different clerkship years using an OSCE...
February 6, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149323/the-european-network-on-psychosomatic-medicine-enpm-history-and-future-directions
#14
REVIEW
Hans-Christian Deter, Kristina Orth-Gomér, Bohdan Wasilewski, Ramiro Verissimo
BACKGROUND: Within national and international societies of psychosomatic medicine the idea has emerged of bringing together and coordinating psychosomatic, behavioural, psychological and medical actions with common interests throughout Europe as a way to increase their scientific and political influence. METHODS: It was felt that there was a strong need and opportunity of a common and unifying forum for scientific exchange. RESULTS: It was considered desirable to exchange scientific thoughts and experiences in an open minded and boundless way, among individuals and societies, between disciplines and across borders...
2017: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148303/variation-in-human-dental-pulp-stem-cell-ageing-profiles-reflect-contrasting-proliferative-and-regenerative-capabilities
#15
Amr Alraies, Nadia Y A Alaidaroos, Rachel J Waddington, Ryan Moseley, Alastair J Sloan
BACKGROUND: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) are increasingly being recognized as a viable cell source for regenerative medicine. Although significant variations in their ex vivo expansion are well-established, DPSC proliferative heterogeneity remains poorly understood, despite such characteristics influencing their regenerative and therapeutic potential. This study assessed clonal human DPSC regenerative potential and the impact of cellular senescence on these responses, to better understand DPSC functional behaviour...
February 2, 2017: BMC Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28143942/bridging-the-education-action-gap-a-near-peer-case-based-undergraduate-ethics-teaching-programme
#16
Wing May Kong, Selena Knight
Undergraduate ethics teaching has made significant progress in the past decade, with evidence showing that students and trainee doctors feel more confident in identifying and analysing ethical issues. There is general consensus that ethics education should enable students and doctors to take ethically appropriate actions, and nurture moral integrity. However, the literature reports that doctors continue to find it difficult to take action when faced with perceived unethical behaviour. This has been evident in recent healthcare scandals, in which care has fallen below acceptable ethical standards, despite the presence of professional ethical guidelines and competencies...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138662/targeted-tumor-detection-guidelines-for-developing-biotinylated-diagnostics
#17
Joo Hee Jang, Woo Ri Kim, Amit Sharma, Suk Hee Cho, Tony D James, Chulhun Kang, Jong Seung Kim
The challenge in achieving precision medicine relies on how to advance and/or enhance new as well as old therapeutic strategies. Here, we highlight the significant role hydrophilicity of biotinylated fluorescent probe's plays on their cellular uptake behaviour.
February 9, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131024/-too-much-medicine-insights-and-explanations-from-economic-theory-and-research
#18
Martin Hensher, John Tisdell, Craig Zimitat
Increasing attention has been paid in recent years to the problem of "too much medicine", whereby patients receive unnecessary investigations and treatments providing them with little or no benefit, but which expose them to risks of harm. Despite this phenomenon potentially constituting an inefficient use of health care resources, it has received limited direct attention from health economists. This paper considers "too much medicine" as a form of overconsumption, drawing on research from health economics, behavioural economics and ecological economics to identify possible explanations for and drivers of overconsumption...
January 18, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130506/evaluation-of-hepatitis-c-testing-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-associated-risk-behaviours-in-manchester-uk
#19
G Ireland, S Higgins, B Goorney, C Ward, S Ahmad, C Stewart, R Simmons, S Lattimore, V Lee
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of newly diagnosed hepatitis C virus (HCV) and associated risk behaviours among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Manchester. METHOD: A survey among MSM attending four genitourinary medicine clinics in Manchester was carried out over 9 months in 2013. Participants were asked about recent sexual behaviour, recreational drug use and HIV status. All men were offered an HCV test. RESULTS: Overall, 2030 MSM completed a questionnaire and accepted an HCV test...
January 27, 2017: Sexually Transmitted Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127663/mechanical-performance-of-poly-implant-prosthesis-pip-breast-implants-a-comparative-study
#20
Nilza Alexandra Gomes Ramião, Pedro Alexandre Lopes de Sousa Martins, Maria da Luz Barroso, Diana Costa Santos, Francisco Bulhosa da Rocha Pereira, António Augusto Fernandes
BACKGROUND: There is societal concern regarding potential health problems associated with breast implants. Much of this distrust climate was a reaction to the Poly Implant Prosthesis (PIP) scandal. Studying the mechanisms of implant rupture is an important step for their improvement. The mechanical behaviour of breast implant shells was studied on explanted and virgin implants. Implants from both PIP and another brand (brand X), currently in the market, were considered. METHODS: To study the mechanical behaviour of the shell, a total of 940 samples from 11 explants and 5 control implants were analysed...
January 27, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
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