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Behavioural medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651112/behavioural-medicine-and-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-promise-of-positive-psychology
#1
REVIEW
Laurie Keefer
Psychosocial risk factors linked to brain-gut dysregulation are prevalent across the spectrum of gastrointestinal disorders and are associated with poor patient outcomes. Robust and reproducible data in the areas of behavioural intervention science and the brain-gut axis have led to major advances in patient care, including the routine use of brain-gut psychotherapies to manage digestive symptoms and optimize coping. The logical next step for the emerging field of psychogastroenterology is to develop a scientific framework that enables the identification of those individual characteristics and coping styles that buffer patients against the negative psychological effects of chronic gastrointestinal disorders...
April 12, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649684/the-rome-retrospective-observational-multicenter-study-on-eslicarbazepine-study-efficacy-and-behavioural-effects-of-eslicarbazepine-acetate-as-adjunctive-therapy-for-adults-with-partial-onset-seizures-in-real-life
#2
G Assenza, O Mecarelli, J Lanzone, F Assenza, M Tombini, V Di Lazzaro, P Pulitano
PURPOSE: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) is a third-generation member of the dibenzazepine family approved in 2009 by the European Medicines Agency with the indication of adjunctive therapy in adult people with partial-onset seizures (PPOS). We aimed at assessing the ESL impact on seizure frequency and quality of life in PPOS with a particular attention to sleepiness and depression. METHODS: We evaluated 50 adult PPOS (>18 years; 48 ± 14 years-old; 23 males) treated with adjunctive ESL for ≥2months with a retrospective multi-centric design...
March 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618347/undergraduate-medical-students-perceptions-and-intentions-regarding-patient-safety-during-clinical-clerkship
#3
Hoo-Yeon Lee, Myung-Il Hahm, Sang Gyu Lee
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to examine undergraduate medical students' perceptions and intentions regarding patient safety during clinical clerkships. METHODS: Cross-sectional study administered in face-to-face interviews using modified the Medical Student Safety Attitudes and Professionalism Survey (MSSAPS) from three colleges of medicine in Korea. We assessed medical students' perceptions of the cultures ('safety', 'teamwork', and 'error disclosure'), 'behavioural intentions' concerning patient safety issues and 'overall patient safety'...
April 4, 2018: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616363/a-comparative-in-vivo-scrutiny-of-biosynthesized-copper-and-zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-by-intraperitoneal-and-intravenous-administration-routes-in-rats
#4
Ashajyothi C, Harish K Handral, Chandrakanth Kelmani R
During the present time, anti-microbial features of copper (Cu) and zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) are extensively used to combat the growth of pathogenic microbes. CuNPs and ZnONPs are recurrently used in cosmetics, medicine and food additives, and their potential for toxic impacts on human and ecosystem is of high concern. In this study, the fate and toxicity of 16- to 96-nm-ranged biosynthesized copper (Bio-CuNPs) and zinc oxide (Bio-ZnONPs) was assessed in male Wistar rats. In vivo exposures of the two nanoparticles are achieved through two different administration routes namely, intraperitoneal (i/p) and intravenous (i/v) injections...
April 3, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609613/use-of-analgesics-in-france-following-dextropropoxyphene-withdrawal
#5
E Van Ganse, M Belhassen, M Ginoux, E Chrétien, C Cornu, C Ecoffey, F Aubrun
BACKGROUND: In 2009, the European Medicines Agency recommended withdrawal of dextropropoxyphene (DXP); in March 2011 it was withdrawn from the market in France. Up until that time the combination dextropropoxyphene-paracetamol (DXP/PC) was widely used for analgesia. At withdrawal, French regulators recommended that DXP/PC be replaced by other step 2 analgesics, i.e. tramadol, codeine, or opium-containing drugs, or by PC for a weak level of pain. To investigate prescribing behaviours after DXP/PC withdrawal, dispensations of analgesics before and after withdrawal were analysed...
April 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609592/a-systematic-review-of-health-status-health-seeking-behaviour-and-healthcare-utilisation-of-low-socioeconomic-status-populations-in-urban-singapore
#6
REVIEW
Catherine Qiu Hua Chan, Kheng Hock Lee, Lian Leng Low
INTRODUCTION: It is well-established that low socioeconomic status (SES) influences one's health status, morbidity and mortality. Housing type has been used as an indicator of SES and social determinant of health in some studies. In Singapore, home ownership is among the highest in the world. Citizens who have no other housing options are offered heavily subsidised rental housings. Residents staying in such rental housings are characterised by low socioeconomic status. Our aim is to review studies on the association between staying in public rental housing in Singapore and health status...
April 2, 2018: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608738/improving-access-and-provision-of-pre-travel-healthcare-for-travellers-visiting-friends-and-relatives-a-review-of-the-evidence
#7
Anita E Heywood, Nicholas Zwar
Background: Travellers visiting friends and relatives (VFR travellers) in their country of origin are at increased risk of a range of preventable infections. Risks are broadly related to circumstances of travel, risk misconceptions and access to health services. Despite nearly two decades of literature highlighting these increased risks little impact has been made on their risk disparity. Methods: This review draws on evidence from travel medicine literature, supplemented by evidence from the broader field of immigrant health, and is structured to include strategies that aim to reduce barriers at the patient, provider and health system level...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606127/stand-by-emergency-treatment-sbet-of-malaria-in-spanish-travellers-a-cohort-study
#8
Pietro Ferrara, Cristina Masuet-Aumatell, Fernando Agüero, Josep Maria Ramon-Torrell
BACKGROUND: Among strategies for malaria prevention, stand-by emergency treatment (SBET) is a possible approach, but scarce evidences exists investigating travellers' adherence and behaviours toward its use; therefore, the presented study aimed to determine travellers' compliance toward the SBET when prescribed in travel clinics. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed at the Travel Health Clinic of the Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Barcelona, Spain, during 2017...
April 2, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605834/electromagnetic-radiation-and-behavioural-response-of-ticks-an-experimental-test
#9
Blažena Vargová, Igor Majláth, Juraj Kurimský, Roman Cimbala, Michal Kosterec, Piotr Tryjanowski, Łukasz Jankowiak, Tomáš Raši, Viktória Majláthová
Factors associated with the increased usage of electronic devices, wireless technologies and mobile phones nowadays are present in increasing amounts in our environment. All living organisms are constantly affected by electromagnetic radiation which causes serious environmental pollution. The distribution and density of ticks in natural habitats is influenced by a complex of abiotic and biotic factors. Exposure to radio-frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) constitutes a potential cause altering the presence and distribution of ticks in the environment...
March 31, 2018: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600930/-report-of-the-dutch-national-health-council-on-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#10
J W M van der Meer, M E Roerink, E M van de Putte
In our opinion, the recent report of the Dutch National Health Council on myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) lacks balance: it is very critical on the quality of evidence regarding behavioural interventions, but lacks a critical attitude regarding the presumed somatic components of the disorder. Without solid evidence, the report coins ME/CFS as a severe multisystem disease, and it embraces the diagnostic criteria of the American Institute of Medicine. We underscore the remarks in the report that physicians should not be reluctant to make diagnosis in patients with the disorder, and that these patients should be approached with empathy and respect...
2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600582/promoting-interdisciplinary-shared-mental-models
#11
Lisa E Herrmann, Lenore Jarvis, Priti Bhansali, Pavan Zaveri
BACKGROUND: Emergency Medicine (EM) and Hospital Medicine (HM) providers frequently interact when transitioning patients from the emergency department (ED) to the inpatient unit; however, there is infrequent collaboration between these subspecialties, and effective communication in EM-HM provider handover is an area for improvement. Shared mental models can enhance communication and safety. The purpose of this article is to describe the implementation of an interdisciplinary conference to allow providers to create shared mental models, and to assess the impact on attitudes and behaviours towards communication and collaboration outside the competing attentions of patient care environments...
March 30, 2018: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599970/medication-practice-in-hospitals-are-nanosimilars-evaluated-and-substituted-correctly
#12
Josefien Knoeff, Beat Flühmann, Stefan Mühlebach
Introduction: This study investigates the drug selection and dispensing behaviour of hospital pharmacists of intravenous iron products including iron sucrose and iron sucrose similar, with special emphasis on substitution and interchangeability in France and Spain. Iron-carbohydrate complex drugs represent different available intravenous iron drugs and are part of the non-biological complex drug (NBCD) class, an expanding drug class with up to 30 brands available in intravenous pharmacotherapy and over 50 in clinical development...
March 2018: European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy. Science and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599637/undergraduate-medical-students-perceptions-on-feedback-seeking-behaviour
#13
Dwita Oktaria, Diantha Soemantri
Background: The concept of feedback-seeking behaviour has been widely studied, but there is still a lack of understanding of this phenomenon, specifically in an Indonesian medical education setting. The aim of this research was to investigate medical students' feedback-seeking behaviour in depth in one Indonesian medical school. Methods: A qualitative method was employed to explore the feedback-seeking behaviour of undergraduate medical students in the Faculty of Medicine at Universitas Lampung...
February 2018: Malaysian Journal of Medical Sciences: MJMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29592950/the-ontogeny-activation-and-function-of-the-epicardium-during-heart-development-and-regeneration
#14
REVIEW
Filipa C Simões, Paul R Riley
The epicardium plays a key role during cardiac development, homeostasis and repair, and has thus emerged as a potential target in the treatment of cardiovascular disease. However, therapeutically manipulating the epicardium and epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) requires insights into their developmental origin and the mechanisms driving their activation, recruitment and contribution to both the embryonic and adult injured heart. In recent years, studies of various model systems have provided us with a deeper understanding of the microenvironment in which EPDCs reside and emerge into, of the crosstalk between the multitude of cardiovascular cell types that influence the epicardium, and of the genetic programmes that orchestrate epicardial cell behaviour...
March 28, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590156/factors-influencing-long-term-medication-non-adherence-among-diabetes-and-hypertensive-patients-in-ghana-a-qualitative-investigation
#15
Roger A Atinga, Lily Yarney, Narissa Minta Gavu
BACKGROUND: Evidence remains limited on why diabetes and hypertensive patients admitted to long-term drug therapy miss doses or discontinue medication taking. We examined this phenomenon from the perspective of diabetes and hypertension patients at a Ghanaian teaching hospital. METHODS: Between July and December 2015, we conducted a qualitative study targeting caregivers and their patients with chronic diabetes and hypertensive on re-admission at the Korle Bu Teaching Hospital due to non-adherence to prescribed medication...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588090/-influenza-vaccination-and-cystic-fibrosis-impact-of-an-incentivisation-campaign-about-influenza-vaccination-for-patients-attending-the-dunkerque-cystic-fibrosis-treatment-centre-and-their-health-care-workers
#16
M Scalbert-Dujardin, A Boldron, E Leroy, J Bazin, E Froment-Leclercq
INTRODUCTION: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions regarding influenza in the studied populations. The secondary objective is to analyze and understand the mechanisms which bring about a behavioural change regarding influenza vaccination. METHODS: The interventional and prospective study was undertaken in the form of an anonymous questionnaire about influenza vaccination coverage and about the reasons for vaccinating or not vaccinating...
March 24, 2018: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581559/improvement-of-physical-properties-of-calcium-phosphate-cement-by-elastin-like-polypeptide-supplementation
#17
Ji-Hyun Jang, Sumi Shin, Hyun-Jung Kim, Jinyoung Jeong, Hyo-Eon Jin, Malav S Desai, Seung-Wuk Lee, Sun-Young Kim
Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are synthetic bioactive cements widely used as hard tissue substitutes. Critical limitations of use include their poor mechanical properties and poor anti-washout behaviour. To address those limitations, we combined CPC with genetically engineered elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs). We investigated the effect of the ELPs on the physical properties and biocompatibility of CPC by testing ELP/CPC composites with various liquid/powder ratios. Our results show that the addition of ELPs improved the mechanical properties of the CPC, including the microhardness, compressive strength, and washout resistance...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575987/network-meta-analysis-in-health-psychology-and-behavioural-medicine-a-primer
#18
G J Molloy, C Noone, D Caldwell, N J Welton, J Newell
Progress in the science and practice of health psychology depends on the systematic synthesis of quantitative psychological evidence. Meta-analyses of experimental studies have led to important advances in understanding health-related behaviour change interventions. Fundamental questions regarding such interventions have been systematically investigated through synthesising relevant experimental evidence using standard pairwise meta-analytic procedures that provide reliable estimates of the magnitude, homogeneity and potential biases in effects observed...
March 25, 2018: Health Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29569964/zanthoxylum-alatum-abrogates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-depression-like-behaviours-in-mice-by-modulating-neuroinflammation-and-monoamine-neurotransmitters-in-the-hippocampus
#19
Chandana Choudhury Barua, Prakash Haloi, Beenita Saikia, Kunjbihari Sulakhiya, Debesh Chandra Pathak, Shantanu Tamuli, Hooriah Rizavi, Xinguo Ren
CONTEXT: Depression is an inflammatory, commonly occurring and lethal psychiatric disorder having high lifetime prevalence. Zanthoxylum alatum Roxb. (Rutaceae), commonly called Timur, has high medicinal value and is used ethnomedicinally for the treatment of various diseases. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of hexane extract of Z. alatum seeds (ZAHE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced depression-like behaviour in Swiss albino mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were treated with ZAHE (100 and 200 mg/kg, p...
December 2018: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565107/white-book-on-physical-and-rehabilitation-medicine-prm-in-europe-chapter-6-knowledge-and-skills-of-prm-physicians
#20
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the fundamentals of PRM from a physiological perspective, looking at the human mechanisms both physical and behavioral which are at the base of PRM physicians' work. After a discussion on the development and evolution of PRM that leads to its unique and specific approach, the mechanisms considered include: - repairing processes (and potential of recovery evaluation): repairing processes are mainly related to the quantity and natural history of diseases and impairments, while potential of recovery is also linked to the individual and environmental factors; PRM physicians work on impairments to favor healing or recovery, and propose rehabilitation if there is a potential of recovery: this is related to the prognostic role of PRM physicians; - learning processes: PRM is the specialty of teaching new physical ways and behavioral approaches to make patients participate at best through improvement of impairments and modification of activities; in this perspective, during repair and rehabilitation processes, PRM physicians and the rehabilitation team are teachers of new motor and behavioral strategies; - compensatory processes (adaptation/habilitation/rehabilitation): PRM physicians teach patients how to adapt to the new (acquired) health condition using compensatory mechanisms based on other body structures/functions, behavioral changes and/or assistive devices (or technical aids) (prosthesis and orthosis); during growth PRM physicians aim at allowing a complete (and compensatory) development of the intact function, not to be impaired by the original disease; compensatory processes are related to activities; - management skills: PRM physicians are managers of people and resources; they manage patients and their caregivers, to teach and allow them to reach the best possible participation, also focusing on maintenance; they lead the team, with the aim to make it function at best for the sake of the patient; finally, they manage resource allocation for the functioning of patients and team; - communication skills: PRM physicians need to develop very good communication skills, so to teach, inform and educate patients and their caregivers: this will allow the proper behavioural changes and also the correct physical compensations...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
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