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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049049/treatable-traits-of-chronic-airways-disease
#1
James Fingleton, Jo Hardy, Richard Beasley
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe the rationale on which the treatable traits approach to the management of airways disease is based and the issues that need to be considered for its implementation in clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: In clinical practice, treatable traits can be classified according to both endotypes and phenotypes, broadly grouped within pulmonary, extrapulmonary, environmental and behavioural factors. Specific investigations and treatments are undertaken for each of the traits rather than a 'one size fits all' stepwise approach to pharmacological treatment which currently represents the core of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) guidelines...
October 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048447/strategies-for-disease-prevention-and-health-promotion-in-urban-areas-the-erice-50-charter
#2
D D'Alessandro, S Arletti, A Azara, M Buffoli, L Capasso, A Cappuccitti, A Casuccio, A Cecchini, G Costa, A M De Martino, M Dettori, E Di Rosa, G M Fara, M Ferrante, G Giammanco, A Lauria, G Melis, U Moscato, I Oberti, C Patrizio, M G Petronio, A Rebecchi, V Romano Spica, G Settimo, C Signorelli, S Capolongo
The Erice 50 Charter titled "Strategies for Diseases Prevention and Health Promotion in Urban Areas" was unanimously approved at the conclusion of the 50th Residential Course "Urban Health. Instruments for promoting health and for assessing hygienic and sanitary conditions in urban areas", held from 29th March to 2nd April 2017 in Erice, at the "Ettore Majorana" Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture and promoted by the International School of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine "G. D'Alessandro" and the Study Group "Building Hygiene" of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (SItI)...
November 2017: Annali di Igiene: Medicina Preventiva e di Comunità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039668/targets-for-drug-therapy-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-challenges-and-future-directions
#3
Enza Lacivita, Roberto Perrone, Lucia Margari, Marcello Leopoldo
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction, and restricted, repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Various factors are involved in the etiopathogenesis of ASD, including genetic factors, environmental toxins and stressors, impaired immune responses, mitochondrial dysfunction, neuroinflammation. The heterogeneity in the phenotype among ASD patients and the complex etiology of the condition have long impeded the advancement of the development of pharmacological therapies...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038378/current-status-and-future-challenges-for-molecular-imaging
#4
REVIEW
Carolyn J Anderson, Jason S Lewis
Molecular imaging (MI), used in its wider sense of biology at the molecular level, is a field that lies at the intersection of molecular biology and traditional medical imaging. As advances in medicine have exponentially expanded over the last few decades, so has our need to better understand the fundamental behaviour of living organisms in a non-invasive and timely manner. This commentary draws from topics the authors addressed in their presentations at the 2017 Royal Society Meeting 'Challenges for chemistry in molecular imaging', as well as a discussion of where MI is today and where it is heading in the future...
November 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037242/malaria-risk-factors-and-care-seeking-behaviour-within-the-private-sector-among-high-risk-populations-in-vietnam-a-qualitative-study
#5
Ingrid Chen, Huong Ngo Thi Thanh, Andrew Lover, Phung Thi Thao, Tang Viet Luu, Hoang Nghia Thang, Ngo Duc Thang, Josselyn Neukom, Adam Bennett
BACKGROUND: Vietnam has successfully reduced malaria incidence by more than 90% over the past 10 years, and is now preparing for malaria elimination. However, the remaining malaria burden resides in individuals that are hardest to reach, in highly remote areas, where many malaria cases are treated through the informal private sector and are not reported to public health systems. This qualitative study aimed to contextualize and characterize the role of private providers, care-seeking behaviour of individuals at high risk of malaria, as well as risk factors that should be addressed through malaria elimination programmes in Vietnam...
October 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#6
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033364/-recurrent-cystisis-no-medicine-preventive-means
#7
J Armelle
OBJECTIVE: To estimate from the literature review, the interest of hygienic and behavioural measures and the use of food supplements (herbal) to prevent female urinary tract infection. METHODS: Pubmed research was focused on the efficiency of prophylactic measures in recurrent cystisis management. RESULTS: Due to many predisposing factors such as anatomical charasteristics, hydration and lifestyle, cystisis is more common in female subjects than in male...
October 12, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032054/role-of-ethanolic-extract-of-bacopa-monnieri-against-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-mice-model-via-inhibition-of-apoptotic-pathways-of-dopaminergic-neurons
#8
Babita Singh, Shivani Pandey, Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Verma, Surya Pratap Singh, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM) were evaluated in a Parkinsonian mice model induced by the MPTP. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by BM, an herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic extract of BM was co-treated with the MPTP induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue the motor behaviour (Rotarod, Grip Strength and Foot Printing test)...
October 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026646/binary-titanium-alloys-as-dental-implant-materials-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Xiaotian Liu, Shuyang Chen, James K H Tsoi, Jukka Pekka Matinlinna
Titanium (Ti) has been used for long in dentistry and medicine for implant purpose. During the years, not only the commercially pure Ti but also some alloys such as binary and tertiary Ti alloys were used. The aim of this review is to describe and compare the current literature on binary Ti alloys, including Ti-Zr, Ti-In, Ti-Ag, Ti-Cu, Ti-Au, Ti-Pd, Ti-Nb, Ti-Mn, Ti-Mo, Ti-Cr, Ti-Co, Ti-Sn, Ti-Ge and Ti-Ga, in particular to mechanical, chemical and biological parameters related to implant application. Literature was searched using the PubMed and Web of Science databases, as well as google without limiting the year, but with principle key terms such as ' Ti alloy', 'binary Ti ', 'Ti-X' (with X is the alloy element), 'dental implant' and 'medical implant'...
October 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017473/australian-consumer-perspectives-attitudes-and-behaviours-on-antibiotic-use-and-antibiotic-resistance-a-qualitative-study-with-implications-for-public-health-policy-and-practice
#10
Elaine P M Lum, Katie Page, Lisa Nissen, Jenny Doust, Nicholas Graves
BACKGROUND: Consumers receive over 27 million antibiotic prescriptions annually in Australian primary healthcare. Hence, consumers are a key group to engage in the fight against antibiotic resistance. There is a paucity of research pertaining to consumers in the Australian healthcare environment. This study aimed to investigate the perspectives, attitudes and behaviours of Australian consumers on antibiotic use and antibiotic resistance, to inform national programs for reducing inappropriate antibiotic consumption...
October 10, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994295/thermodynamics-of-polypeptide-supramolecular-assembly-in-the-short-chain-limit
#11
Thomas O Mason, Thomas C T Michaels, Aviad Levin, Christopher M Dobson, Ehud Gazit, Tuomas P J Knowles, Alexander K Buell
The self-assembly of peptides into ordered supramolecular structures, such as fibrils and crystals, is of relevance in such diverse areas as molecular medicine and materials science. However, little information is available about the fundamental thermodynamic driving forces of these types of self-assembly processes. Here we investigate in detail the thermodynamics of assembly of diphenylalanine. This dipeptide forms the central motif of the Aβ polypeptides which are associated with Alzheimer's disease through their presence in amyloid plaques in the nervous systems of affected individuals...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993396/sensing-interstitial-glucose-to-nudge-active-lifestyles-signal-feasibility-of-combining-novel-self-monitoring-technologies-for-persuasive-behaviour-change
#12
Maxine E Whelan, Andrew P Kingsnorth, Mark W Orme, Lauren B Sherar, Dale W Esliger
INTRODUCTION: Increasing physical activity (PA) reduces the risk of developing diabetes, highlighting the role of preventive medicine approaches. Changing lifestyle behaviours is difficult and is often predicated on the assumption that individuals are willing to change their lifestyles today to reduce the risk of developing disease years or even decades later. The self-monitoring technologies tested in this study will present PA feedback in real time, parallel with acute physiological data...
October 8, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990336/peer-teaching-of-the-physical-exam-a-pilot-study
#13
Valeria C Pazo, Susan Frankl, Subha Ramani, Joel Katz
BACKGROUND: Mastery of the physical exam (PE), and the ability to teach it to peers and medical students, are important milestones for residents (junior doctors); however, several reports indicate that PE skills are in decline. To address this need, we explored the use of peer observation of teaching (POT) as a conceptual framework to develop an innovative approach to PE teaching at the postgraduate medical education level. INNOVATION: We designed a PE POT session to be conducted at the patient bedside, and piloted four sessions in April 2014...
October 9, 2017: Clinical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989794/a-marker-of-biological-age-explains-individual-variation-in-the-strength-of-the-adult-stress-response
#14
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Maria Larriva, Robert Gillespie, Sophie Reichert, Ben O Brilot, Thomas Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Karen A Spencer, Melissa Bateson
The acute stress response functions to prioritize behavioural and physiological processes that maximize survival in the face of immediate threat. There is variation between individuals in the strength of the adult stress response that is of interest in both evolutionary biology and medicine. Age is an established source of this variation-stress responsiveness diminishes with increasing age in a range of species-but unexplained variation remains. Since individuals of the same chronological age may differ markedly in their pace of biological ageing, we asked whether biological age-measured here via erythrocyte telomere length-predicts variation in stress responsiveness in adult animals of the same chronological age...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989308/rate-based-structural-health-monitoring-using-permanently-installed-sensors
#15
Joseph Corcoran
Permanently installed sensors are becoming increasingly ubiquitous, facilitating very frequent in situ measurements and consequently improved monitoring of 'trends' in the observed system behaviour. It is proposed that this newly available data may be used to provide prior warning and forecasting of critical events, particularly system failure. Numerous damage mechanisms are examples of positive feedback; they are 'self-accelerating' with an increasing rate of damage towards failure. The positive feedback leads to a common time-response behaviour which may be described by an empirical relation allowing prediction of the time to criticality...
September 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986942/management-of-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-bpsd-by-an-aroma-massage-with-acupressure-treatment-protocol-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#16
Jo Kamen Ka-Man Fung, Hector Wing-Hong Tsang
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the clinical effectiveness of a multi-component aroma-massage with an acupressure treatment protocol and compared it to cognitive training for the management of BPSD. BACKGROUND: Pharmacological interventions have been unsatisfactory in managing BPSD; thus, complementary and alternative medicine has been extensively researched to identify an adjunct safe and cost-effective intervention. DESIGN: This RCT utilized a three-arm parallel group design...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986197/studying-of-drug-solubility-in-water-and-alcohols-using-drug-ammonium-ionic-liquid-compounds
#17
Mohammad Halayqa, Aneta Pobudkowska, Urszula Domańska, Maciej Zawadzki
Synthesis of three mefenamic acid (MEF) derivatives - ionic liquid compounds composed of MEF in an anionic form and ammonium cation (choline, MEF1), or {di(2-hydroxyethyl)dimethyl ammonium (MEF2)}, or {tri(2-hydroxyethyl)methyl ammonium compound (MEF3)} is presented. The basic thermal properties of pure compounds i.e. fusion temperatures, and the enthalpy of fusion of these compounds have been measured with differential scanning microcalorimetry technique (DSC). Molar volumes have been calculated with the Barton group contribution method...
October 3, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982217/yoga-for-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Mariangela Panebianco, Kalpana Sridharan, Sridharan Ramaratnam
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of the original Cochrane Review published in the Cochrane Library, Issue 5, 2015.Yoga may induce relaxation and stress reduction, and influence the electroencephalogram and the autonomic nervous system, thereby controlling seizures. Yoga would be an attractive therapeutic option for epilepsy if proved effective. OBJECTIVES: To assess whether people with epilepsy treated with yoga:(a) have a greater probability of becoming seizure free;(b) have a significant reduction in the frequency or duration of seizures, or both; and(c) have a better quality of life...
October 5, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981546/recapitulation-of-ayurveda-constitution-types-by-machine-learning-of-phenotypic-traits
#19
Pradeep Tiwari, Rintu Kutum, Tavpritesh Sethi, Ankita Shrivastava, Bhushan Girase, Shilpi Aggarwal, Rutuja Patil, Dhiraj Agarwal, Pramod Gautam, Anurag Agrawal, Debasis Dash, Saurabh Ghosh, Sanjay Juvekar, Mitali Mukerji, Bhavana Prasher
In Ayurveda system of medicine individuals are classified into seven constitution types, "Prakriti", for assessing disease susceptibility and drug responsiveness. Prakriti evaluation involves clinical examination including questions about physiological and behavioural traits. A need was felt to develop models for accurately predicting Prakriti classes that have been shown to exhibit molecular differences. The present study was carried out on data of phenotypic attributes in 147 healthy individuals of three extreme Prakriti types, from a genetically homogeneous population of Western India...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980370/systematic-review-of-behaviour-change-techniques-to-promote-participation-in-physical-activity-among-people-with-dementia
#20
Samuel R Nyman, Natalia Adamczewska, Neil Howlett
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to systematically review the evidence for the potential promise of behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to increase physical activity among people with dementia (PWD). METHODS: PsychINFO, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched 01/01/2000-01/12/2016. Randomized controlled/quasi-randomized trials were included if they recruited people diagnosed/suspected to have dementia, used at least one BCT in the intervention arm, and had at least one follow-up measure of physical activity/adherence...
October 4, 2017: British Journal of Health Psychology
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