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Behavioural medicine

Mayadah B Shehadeh, Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Eman A Hammad
Misconception about antibiotics use among the public has been widely outlined to be a main reason for inappropriate use of antibiotics including failure to complete treatment, skipping of doses, re-use of leftover medicines and overuse of antibiotics. The study was devised to evaluate whether education might be a potential strategy to promote safer use of antibiotics and reducing self-medication. Two hundred seventy one adults were asked to complete two questionnaires; a pre and posteducation. The questionnaires comprised of three parts consisting of 17 statements assessing the knowledge on: appropriate use, safe use and resistance of antibiotics...
September 2016: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
Felix Neumaier, Mario Paterno, Serdar Alpdogan, Etienne E Tevoufouet, Toni Schneider, Jürgen Hescheler, Walid Albanna
Brain surgery to promote behavioural or affective changes in men remains one of the most controversial topics at the interface of medicine, psychiatry, neuroscience and bioethics. Rapid expansion of neuropsychiatric deep brain stimulation has recently revived the field and warrants a careful appraisal of its two sides, namely the promise to help severely devastated patients on the one hand and the dangers of premature application without appropriate justification on the other. Here, we reconstruct the vivid history of the field and examine its present status to delineate the progression from crude free-hand operations into a multi-disciplinary treatment of last resort...
October 13, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Jovana Trifunović, Vladan Borčić, Momir Mikov
Some biological properties of bile acids and their oxo derivatives have not been sufficiently investigated, although the interest for bile acids as signaling molecules is rising. The aim of this work was to evaluate physico-chemical parametar b (slope) that represents lipophilicity of the examined molecules and to investigate interactions of bile acids with carbonic anhydrase I, II, androgen receptor and CYP450s. 13 candidates were investigated using normal phase thin layer chromatography in two solvent systems...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Dominic Way, Hortense Blazsin, Ragnar Löfstedt, Frederic Bouder
This paper reviews the main tools for communicating benefit-risk medicines information to patients that are used, or could be used, by pharmaceutical regulators. One highly successful tool from the food safety sector (front-of-package traffic-light labelling) and the mental models approach (which provides a framework for developing new tools) are also reviewed as they show great promise for being usefully adapted to the pharmaceutical context. The evolution of benefit-risk medicines communication is first contextualised within the broader risk communication literature...
October 14, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Tilman Steinert, Andreas Heinz, Felix Hohl-Radke, Manfred Koller, Jürgen Müller, Sabine Müller, Martin Zinkler
The term of a "considerable damage to one's health" is central in German guardianship law with respect to judge's decisions on involuntary commitment and coercive treatment. A legal definition has not been provided, and up to now no explanations from the part of medicine have been available what a "considerable damage to one's health" is in the case of mental illness and how it can be determined. A consensus paper of the German Association of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy (DGPPN) explains four possible scenarios of manifestation of such kind of damage, corresponding to somatic illnesses: evidence of structural brain lesions (rare), subjective suffering (sufficient, but not necessary), impairment of functioning in important areas of life, and severe impairment of social participation (e...
October 2016: Psychiatrische Praxis
Rachel Nicholls, Lin Perry, Christine Duffield, Robyn Gallagher, Heather Pierce
BACKGROUND: There is growing recognition of the influence of the workplace environment on the eating habits of the workforce, which in turn may contribute to increased overweight and obesity. Overweight and obesity exact enormous costs in terms of reduced well-being, worker productivity and increased risk of non-communicable diseases. The workplace is an ideal place to intervene and support healthy behaviours. This review aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to nurses' healthy eating in the workplace...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Germain Sotoing Taiwe, Thierry Bang Tchoya, Joseph Renaud Menanga, Bernard Dabole, Michel De Waard
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The leaf extract of Crinum jagus L. (Amaryllidaceae) is widely used in traditional Cameroonian medicine as antiepileptic remedy and for the treatment of convulsion, depression and mood disorders associated with epilepsy. AIM OF THE STUDY: Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of an active fraction extracted from the leaves of Crinum jagus against seizures, depression-like behaviour and oxidative stress in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced kindling in mice...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Lamiece Hassan, Jane Senior, Roger T Webb, Martin Frisher, Mary P Tully, David While, Jenny J Shaw
BACKGROUND: Mental illness is highly prevalent among prisoners. Although psychotropic medicines can ameliorate symptoms of mental illness, prescribers in prisons must balance clinical needs against risks to safety and security. Concerns have been raised at the large number of prisoners reportedly receiving psychotropic medicines in England. Nonetheless, unlike for the wider community, robust prescribing data are not routinely available for prisons. We investigated gender-specific patterns in the prevalence and appropriateness of psychotropic prescribing in English prisons...
October 10, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Elizabeth Craig, Neal Kerr, Gabrielle McDonald
AIM: In New Zealand, there is a paucity of information on children with chronic conditions and disabilities (CCD). One reason is that many are managed in hospital outpatients where diagnostic coding of health-care events does not occur. This study explores the feasibility of coding paediatric outpatient data to provide health planners with information on children with CCD. METHODS: Thirty-seven clinicians from six District Health Boards (DHBs) trialled coding over 12 weeks...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ryo Atsuta, Yasuo To, Susumu Sakamoto, Isao Mukai, Akihiro Kobayashi, Arisa Kinoshita, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Maintaining high treatment adherence levels is critical for effective management of chronic diseases. The Adherence Starts with Knowledge 20 (ASK-20) questionnaire is the only linguistically validated patient-reported treatment adherence tool available in Japan. We conducted additional analyses on ASK-20 data from Japanese adults with asthma. METHODS: This was a prospective, non-interventional, single-visit, multi-centre study in Japanese adults (n = 300) with asthma receiving long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS/long-acting beta-agonists...
October 3, 2016: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Carrie Llewellyn, Harriet Martin, Eileen Nixon
People who repeatedly present for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for prevention of HIV following a high-risk sexual exposure are of concern according to the British HIV Association PEP guidelines. The aim of this audit was to determine the extent of repeat PEP prescriptions for men who have sex with men (MSM) by conducting a retrospective review of patient notes from a 5-year period at one genitourinary medicine clinic. Over the 5 years, 107 of 929 MSM (11.5%; 95% confidence interval: 9.45-13.55) received more than one PEP prescription (repeat range 1-8; mean=3...
October 7, 2016: Sexual Health
Peter V Coveney, Edward R Dougherty, Roger R Highfield
The current interest in big data, machine learning and data analytics has generated the widespread impression that such methods are capable of solving most problems without the need for conventional scientific methods of inquiry. Interest in these methods is intensifying, accelerated by the ease with which digitized data can be acquired in virtually all fields of endeavour, from science, healthcare and cybersecurity to economics, social sciences and the humanities. In multiscale modelling, machine learning appears to provide a shortcut to reveal correlations of arbitrary complexity between processes at the atomic, molecular, meso- and macroscales...
November 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Walter Chingwaru, Jerneja Vidmar
Zimbabwe is going through a generalised acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The first five years of the epidemic (1985-1990) were characterised by lack of medicines against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and an exponential increase in prevalence (65-fold) and incidence (13-fold), which were fuelled by high-risk sexual behaviour. The high HIV prevalence, mortality and stigma yielded great fear and panic in the population, which are thought to have led to confusion and hopelessness, and, in turn, increased risky sexual behaviour...
August 11, 2016: Global Public Health
Christoffer Torgaard Thomsen, Michael Eriksen Benros, Lene Halling Hastrup, Per Kragh Andersen, Domenico Giacco, Merete Nordentoft
INTRODUCTION: Patient-controlled hospital admission for individuals with severe mental disorders is a novel approach in mental healthcare. Patients can admit themselves to a hospital unit for a short stay without being assessed by a psychiatrist or contacting the emergency department. Previous studies assessing the outcomes of patient-controlled hospital admission found trends towards reduction in the use of coercive measures and length of hospital stay; however, these studies have methodological shortcomings and small sample sizes...
2016: BMJ Open
Mark A Green, Emma Little, Richard Cooper, Clare Relton, Mark Strong
OBJECTIVES: Prescribed and over-the-counter (non-prescribed) medicine usage has increased in recent years; however, there has been less investigation of the socioeconomic predictors of use. This has been due to a lack of data, especially for over-the-counter medicines. Our study aims to understand how prescribed and over-the-counter medicine patterns vary by demographic, social and health characteristics within a large population cohort. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data analysis...
2016: BMJ Open
Lakshminath Kundanati, Saket K Singh, Biman B Mandal, Tejas G Murthy, Namrata Gundiah, Nicola M Pugno
Development and characterization of porous scaffolds for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine is of great importance. In recent times, silk scaffolds were developed and successfully tested in tissue engineering and drug release applications. We developed a novel composite scaffold by mechanical infusion of silk hydrogel matrix into a highly porous network silk scaffold. The mechanical behaviour of these scaffolds was thoroughly examined for their possible use in load bearing applications. Firstly, unconfined compression experiments show that the denser composite scaffolds displayed significant enhancement in the elastic modulus as compared to either of the components...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jean-Marie Beis, Morgane Renard
OBJECTIVE: Anti-NMDA (N-Methyl-D-Aspartate) receptor encephalitis (NMDA-E) is the second cause of autoimmune encephalitis in adults. The objectives of this presentation are to describe the main clinical elements and rehabilitation specificities. OBSERVATIONS: Three female inpatients (mean age: 25) present with moderate to severe behavioural and/or psychiatric disorders, seizures and presence of associated tumor in one patient. Presence of anti-NMDA antibodies in the cerebrospinal liquid confirmed diagnosis...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Stefanie I Siebler, Ursula Gresser, Barbara M Richartz
Objective. This study aims to evaluate the effect of daily dietary nutritional supplement on somatic, psychological, and urogenital symptoms in postmenopausal women. Material and Methods. In this study 28 healthy, symptomatic, peri- and postmenopausal women of 47-67 years of age were allocated to use the nutritional supplement JuicePLUS+®. Primary research parameters: Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess menopausal symptoms at baseline and after 8 and 16 weeks of treatment. Secondary parameters: proliferation behaviour of vaginal smear was scored at baseline and after treatment...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Andreas Weltin, Steffen Hammer, Fozia Noor, Yeda Kaminski, Jochen Kieninger, Gerald A Urban
3D hepatic microtissues, unlike 2D cell cultures, retain many of the in-vivo-like functionalities even after long-term cultivation. Such 3D cultures are increasingly applied to investigate liver damage due to drug exposure in toxicology. However, there is a need for thorough metabolic characterization of these microtissues for mechanistic understanding of effects on culture behaviour. We measured metabolic parameters from single human HepaRG hepatocyte spheroids online and continuously with electrochemical microsensors...
July 28, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Clara Crunkhorn, Mieke van Driel, Van Nguyen, Treasure McGuire
AIM: This study explored consumer knowledge gaps and concerns regarding medication use in children. METHODS: Calls concerning or made by people under 18 to the pharmacist-operated, national consumer medicines call centre National Prescribing Service Medicines Line (2002 to June 2010) were analysed. Calls were classified and narratively explored by age group: <1, 1-4, 5-14 and 15-17 years. Consumer Medication Information (CMI) and evidence-based resources were examined to determine information concordance for common questions...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
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