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Behavioural medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440236/the-consequences-of-patient-charges-for-prescription-drugs-in-canada-a-cross-sectional-survey
#1
Michael R Law, Lucy Cheng, Ashra Kolhatkar, Laurie J Goldsmith, Steven G Morgan, Anne M Holbrook, Irfan A Dhalla
BACKGROUND: Many Canadians face substantial out-of-pocket charges for prescription drugs. Prior work suggests that this causes some patients to not take their medications as prescribed; however, we have little understanding of whether charges for prescription medicines lead patients to forego basic needs or to use more health care services. Our study aimed to quantify the consequences of patient charges for medicines in Canada. METHODS: As part of the 2016 Canadian Community Health Survey, we designed and fielded cross-sectional questions to 28 091 Canadians regarding prescription drug affordability, consequent use of health care services and trade-offs with other expenditures...
February 5, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429430/review-of-implementation-strategies-to-change-healthcare-provider-behaviour-in-the-emergency-department
#2
Kerstin de Wit, Janet Curran, Brent Thoma, Shawn Dowling, Eddy Lang, Nebojsa Kuljic, Jeffrey J Perry, Laurie Morrison
OBJECTIVES: Advances in emergency medicine research can be slow to make their way into clinical care, and implementing a new evidence-based intervention can be challenging in the emergency department. The Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians (CAEP) Knowledge Translation Symposium working group set out to produce recommendations for best practice in the implementation of a new science in Canadian emergency departments. METHODS: A systematic review of implementation strategies to change health care provider behaviour in the emergency department was conducted simultaneously with a national survey of emergency physician experience...
February 12, 2018: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428954/tumour-heterogeneity-of-breast-cancer-from-morphology-to-personalised-medicine
#3
Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Michel E Vandenberghe, Caterina Marchiò, Ian O Ellis, Anna Sapino, Emad A Rakha
Breast cancer (BC) displays striking clinical, morphological, and behavioural diversity within a single tumour and between tumours. Currently, mounting evidence indicates that the morphological heterogeneity of BC reflects an underlying spectrum of genetic and epigenetic portraits that control BC behaviour. Further understanding of BC heterogeneity will have an impact, not only on the routine diagnostic practices but also on patients' management decisions. Phenomena like diagnostic inconsistencies and therapeutic resistance, both primary and acquired, could be attributed, at least in part, to tumour heterogeneity within the same cancer and between the primary disease and subsequent recurrences...
February 10, 2018: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423878/ginger-rhizome-enhances-the-anti-inflammatory-and-anti-nociceptive-effects-of-paracetamol-in-an-experimental-mouse-model-of-fibromyalgia
#4
Sergio Montserrat-de la Paz, Maria Dolores Garcia-Gimenez, Ana Maria Quilez, Rocio De la Puerta, Angeles Fernandez-Arche
BACKGROUND: The dried rhizome of ginger has been widely used for more than 2500 years in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases that involve inflammation or are caused by oxidative stress. AIMS: This study was designed to compare the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effect of dried powdered ginger rhizome (GR) and paracetamol (APAP) on an experimental mouse model of fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) induced by intermittent cold stress (ICS). METHODS: Forty-eight female C57BL/6 J mice were used for the experiments...
February 8, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423581/hypoglycaemia-in-type-1-diabetes-technological-treatments-their-limitations-and-the-place-of-psychology
#5
REVIEW
Pratik Choudhary, Stephanie A Amiel
Advances in technology allowing improved insulin delivery and glucose monitoring can significantly reduce the burden of hypoglycaemia when used appropriately. However, limitations of the current technology, and the skills, commitment and motivation required to use them, mean that it does not work for all people. Education and informed professional support are key to success. In the context of problematic hypoglycaemia, data suggest that newer technology has lower efficacy and uptake in those with most need...
February 8, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421996/role-of-abc-transporters-in-veterinary-medicine-pharmaco-toxicological-implications
#6
Guillermo Virkel, Mariana Ballent, Carlos Lanusse, Adrian Lifschitz
Unlike physicians, veterinary practitioners must deal with a number of animal species with crucial differences in anatomy, physiology and metabolism. Accordingly, the pharmacokinetic behaviour, the clinical efficacy and the adverse or toxic effects of drugs may differ across domestic animals. Moreover, the use of drugs in food-producing species may impose a risk for humans due to the generation of chemical residues in edible products, a major concern for public health and consumer's safety. As is clearly known in human beings, the ATP binding cassette (ABC) of transport proteins may influence the bioavailability and elimination of numerous drugs and other xenobiotics in domestic animals as well...
January 31, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415614/prevalence-and-attitude-of-university-students-towards-mobile-phone-use-while-driving-in-jeddah-saudi-arabia
#7
Mukhtiar Baig, Zohair Jamil Gazzaz, Hazem Atta, Mujtaba Ahmed Alyaseen, Ammar Jameel Albagshe, Haidar Ghalib Alattallah
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and attitude of university students towards mobile phone use while driving. The present study was conducted at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Five hundred and ninety-three participants were recruited for this study. Attitude, consequences and their involvement in various reckless behaviours pertaining to the use of mobile phone while driving were checked by a questionnaire. Overall, the majority of the respondents (90%) use a mobile phone while driving...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411615/protein-nanosheet-mechanics-controls-cell-adhesion-and-expansion-on-low-viscosity-liquids
#8
Dexu Kong, William V Megone, Khai D Q Nguyen, Stefania Di Cio, Madeleine Ramstedt, Julien E Gautrot
Adherent cell culture typically requires cell spreading at the surface of solid substrates to sustain the formation of stable focal adhesions and assembly of a contractile cytoskeleton. However, a few reports have demonstrated that cell culture is possible on liquid substrates such as silicone and fluorinated oils, even displaying very low viscosities (0.77 cSt). Such behaviour is surprising as low viscosity liquids are thought to relax much too fast (< ms) to enable the stabilisation of focal adhesions (with lifetimes on the order of minutes to hours)...
February 7, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410989/pneumatically-actuated-cell-stretching-array-platform-for-engineering-cell-patterns-in-vitro
#9
Harshad Kamble, Raja Vadivelu, Matthew Barton, Muhammad J A Shiddiky, Nam-Trung Nguyen
Cellular response to mechanical stimuli is a well-known phenomenon known as mechanotransduction. It is widely accepted that mechanotransduction plays an important role in cell alignment which is critical for cell homeostasis. Although many approaches have been developed in recent years to study the effect of external mechanical stimuli on cell behaviour, most of them have not explored the ability of mechanical stimuli to engineer cell alignment to obtain patterned cell cultures. This paper introduces a simple, yet effective pneumatically actuated 4 × 2 cell stretching array for concurrently inducing a range of cyclic normal strains onto cell cultures to achieve predefined cell alignment...
February 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399852/effects-of-training-physicians-in-electronic-prescribing-in-the-outpatient-setting-on-clinical-learning-and-behavioural-outcomes-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#10
F van Stiphout, J E F Zwart-van Rijkom, J Versmissen, H Koffijberg, J E C M Aarts, I H van der Sijs, T van Gelder, R A de Man, C B Roes, A C G Egberts, E W M T Ter Braak
AIMS: Electronic prescribing systems may improve medication safety, but only when used appropriately. Effects of a task-analysis based training were evaluated in the outpatient setting on clinical, learning and behavioral outcomes, compared with usual educational approach. METHODS: Multicenter, cluster-randomized trial (MEDUCATE trial) with physicians as unit of analysis. SETTING: Outpatient clinics of two academic hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: Specialist and residents of internal medicine and their patients...
February 4, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394388/protecting-the-health-of-medical-students-on-international-electives-in-low-resource-settings
#11
Niall Johnston, Nichola Sandys, Rosemary Geoghegan, Diarmuid O'Donovan, Gerard Flaherty
Background: Increasingly, medical students from developed countries are undertaking international medical electives in developing countries. Medical students understand the many benefits of these electives, such as the opportunity to develop clinical skills, to gain insight into global health issues and to travel to interesting regions of the world. However, they may be much less aware of the risk to their health and wellbeing while abroad. Compounding this problem, medical students may not seek advice from travel medicine practitioners and often receive inadequate or no information from their medical school prior to departure...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385180/differential-determination-of-perceived-stress-in-medical-students-and-high-school-graduates-due-to-private-and-training-related-stressors
#12
Rebecca Erschens, Anne Herrmann-Werner, Katharina Eva Keifenheim, Teresa Loda, Till Johannes Bugaj, Christoph Nikendei, Maria Lammerding-Köppel, Stephan Zipfel, Florian Junne
OBJECTIVE: Numerous studies from diverse contexts have confirmed high stress levels and stress-associated health impairment in medical students. This study aimed to explore the differential association of perceived stress with private and training-related stressors in medical students according to their stage of medical education. METHODS: Participants were high-school graduates who plan to study medicine and students in their first, third, sixth, or ninth semester of medical school or in practical medical training...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382668/the-relation-between-publication-rate-and-financial-conflict-of-interest-among-physician-authors-of-high-impact-oncology-publications-an-observational-study
#13
Victoria Kaestner, Jonathan B Edmiston, Vinay Prasad
BACKGROUND: Despite the abundant research on financial conflict of interest regarding provider behaviour and the interpretation and results of research, little is known about the relation between these conflicts in academia and the trajectory of one's academic career. We performed a study to examine whether the presence of financial ties to drug makers among academics is associated with research productivity. METHODS: We hand-searched 3 high-impact general medical journals (New England Journal of Medicine, JAMA and The Lancet) and 3 high-impact oncology journals that publish original science (The Lancet Oncology, Journal of Clinical Oncology and Journal of the National Cancer Institute) to identify physicians based in the United States who were first or last authors on original papers on hematologic or oncologic topics that appeared in 2015...
January 30, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371263/tulsa-1000-a-naturalistic-study-protocol-for-multilevel-assessment-and-outcome-prediction-in-a-large-psychiatric-sample
#14
Teresa A Victor, Sahib S Khalsa, W Kyle Simmons, Justin S Feinstein, Jonathan Savitz, Robin L Aupperle, Hung-Wen Yeh, Jerzy Bodurka, Martin P Paulus
INTRODUCTION: Although neuroscience has made tremendous progress towards understanding the basic neural circuitry underlying important processes such as attention, memory and emotion, little progress has been made in applying these insights to psychiatric populations to make clinically meaningful treatment predictions. The overall aim of the Tulsa 1000 (T-1000) study is to use the NIMH Research Domain Criteria framework in order to establish a robust and reliable dimensional set of variables that quantifies the positive and negative valence, cognition and arousal domains, including interoception, to generate clinically useful treatment predictions...
January 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368117/beyond-v40-31-narrative-phenomenology-of-wandering-in-autism-and-dementia
#15
Olga Solomon, Mary C Lawlor
Research on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and on Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other types of dementia describes a behaviour called 'wandering', a term that denotes movement through space lacking intention or exact destination, as when a person is disoriented or not self-aware. In the U.S., 'wandering' in both ASD and AD has been examined mostly from a management and prevention perspective. It prioritizes safety while primarily overlooking personal experiences of those who 'wander' and their families, thus limiting the range of potentially effective strategies to address this issue...
January 24, 2018: Culture, Medicine and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365105/three-plural-medical-systems-in-east-asia-interpenetrative-pluralism-in-china-exclusionary-pluralism-in-korea-and-subjugatory-pluralism-in-japan
#16
Jae-Mahn Shim
Amid persistent interest in and concerns about traditional, complementary and alternative medicine (TCAM) in low-, middle- and high-income countries, the global community of healthcare is in need of learning ways to institutionalize TCAM with biomedicine. By investigating how traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM), one of the most popular forms of TCAM in the world, is institutionalized in China, Korea and Japan, this study finds three different ways of instituting a plural medical system in which TCAM and biomedicine intersect with each other...
January 19, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364797/anaesthesia-in-dental-medicine-with-local-infiltrative-anaesthetic-technique-versus-diploe-anaesthesia-delivery-systems-efficacy-and-behaviour-an-experimental-study
#17
Manuel Marques-Ferreira, Eunice Carrilho, Siri Paulo, Teresa Carrilho, José Pedro Figueiredo, Ricardo Macedo
INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to compare the analgesic efficacy and the influence of local infiltrative anesthesia techniques, with diploe anesthesia, on the cardiac rhythmMaterial and Methods: We selected 32 healthy volunteers who were given both anaesthetic techniques on tooth 1.4 (0.45 mL of lidocaine with adrenaline, 1:80 000). In the first phase, the volunteers underwent periapical infiltrative anaesthesia. In the second phase, diploe anaesthesia was performed with a QuickSleeper® device...
December 29, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356440/adherence-and-medication-belief-in-patients-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-or-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension-a-nationwide-population-based-cohort-survey
#18
Bodil Ivarsson, Roger Hesselstrand, Göran Rådegran, Barbro Kjellström
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) are rare diseases with a gradual decline in physical health. Adherence to treatment is crucial in these very symptomatic and life threatening diseases. OBJECTIVE: To describe PAH and CTEPH patients experience of their self-reported medication adherence, beliefs about medicines and information about treatment. METHODS: A quantitative, descriptive, national cohort survey that included adult patients from all PAH-centres in Sweden...
January 22, 2018: Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353203/the-water-extract-of-tutsan-hypericum-androsaemum-l-red-berries-exerts-antidepressive-like-effects-and-in-vivo-antioxidant-activity-in-a-mouse-model-of-post-stroke-depression
#19
Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Antoni Sureda, Giovanni Caprioli, Romilde Iannarelli, Arold Jorel Tsetegho Sokeng, Nady Braidy, Sedigheh Khanjani, Akbar Hajizadeh Moghaddam, Atanas G Atanasov, Maria Daglia, Filippo Maggi
Hypericum androsaemum L., commonly known as 'tutsan' or 'shrubby St. John's Wort', is a member of the Hypericum genus found growing spontaneously in the Mediterranean area and is cultivated extensively as an ornamental plant due to the showy color variation in its fresh berry-like capsules, which turn from red to shiny black as they ripen. Tutsan has also been used in Portuguese and Spanish folk medicine to treat depression. In this study, we assessed the beneficial role of the water extract of H. androsaemum red berries (WE) in an experimental animal model of post-stroke depression...
January 16, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349812/drug-promotion-practices-a-review
#20
Nilan T Jacob
Over the years, the pharmaceutical industry has been at the forefront of research and innovation in drug discovery and development. The process of drug discovery extending from pre-clinical studies to multi-centric clinical trials and post-marketing phase is a costly affair running into billions of dollars. On the flip side, not all investigational molecules clear the trial phases and get approved; which puts pressure on the manufacturers to maximise the profit from approved drugs. It is in this key area, the practice of drug promotion plays its role...
January 18, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
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