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Behavioural medicine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315384/the-absorption-enhancer-sodium-deoxycholate-promotes-high-gene-transfer-in-skeletal-muscles
#1
Christian Leborgne, Debborah Alimi-Guez, Nelly El Shafey, Laetitia van Wittenberghe, Pascal Bigey, Daniel Scherman, Antoine Kichler
Gene delivery to skeletal muscle is a promising strategy for the treatment of muscle disorders and for the systemic secretion of therapeutic proteins. In addition, muscle is an attractive target tissue because it is easily accessible. However, very few synthetic vectors proved capable of surpassing naked DNA mediated muscle gene transfer. In fact, only neutral copolymers, in particular poloxamers, demonstrated capacities to increase transgene expression in skeletal muscles. Here, we studied in vitro and in vivo behaviour of different bile salts...
March 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295466/effect-of-kaempferia-parviflora-on-sexual-performance-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-male-rats
#2
T Lert-Amornpat, C Maketon, W Fungfuang
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. Ex.Baker or Krachidum (KP) has been used locally in medicine and food. It has been claimed that KP has aphrodisia properties; however, no scientific data in support of this function in diabetic model have been reported. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of KP on sexual behaviour and sperm parameter in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic male rats. Diabetes was induced in twenty male rats by STZ and divided into four groups: diabetic control group, and 3 treatment groups where KP was dose at 140, 280 and 420 mg/kg orally once a day for 6 weeks...
March 10, 2017: Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294320/nursing-clinical-practice-changes-to-improve-self-management-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#3
J M Padilha, P A F Sousa, F M S Pereira
AIM: To propose nursing clinical practice changes to improve the development of patient self-management. BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is one of the main causes of chronic morbidity, loss of quality of life and high mortality rates. INTRODUCTION: Control of the disease's progression, the preservation of autonomy in self-care and maintenance of quality of life are extremely challenging for patients to execute in their daily living...
March 13, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292816/leadership-training-in-a-family-medicine-residency-program-cross-sectional-quantitative-survey-to-inform-curriculum-development
#4
Erin Gallagher, Ainsley Moore, Inge Schabort
OBJECTIVE: To assess the current status of leadership training as perceived by family medicine residents to inform the development of a formal leadership curriculum. DESIGN: Cross-sectional quantitative survey. SETTING: Department of Family Medicine at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ont, in December 2013. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 152 first- and second-year family medicine residents. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Family medicine residents' attitudes toward leadership, perceived level of training in various leadership domains, and identified opportunities for leadership training...
March 2017: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290319/consumer-perception-of-balsamic-vinegar-a-cross-cultural-study-between-korea-and-italy
#5
Luisa Torri, Seon-Young Jeon, Maria Piochi, Gabriella Morini, Kwang-Ok Kim
Understanding cross-cultural differences in food perception is a key issue of food research in order to understand consumer behaviour in different countries. The objective of this study was to explore potential cultural differences of balsamic vinegar perception between Korean and Italian consumers using the sorted napping method. Nine balsamic vinegars different in terms of ingredients, aging time, and origin were evaluated by Korean (n=50) and Italian (n=49) consumers using sorted napping. Familiarity and food matching were also examined...
January 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289150/lifestyle-medicine-course-for-family-medicine-residents-preliminary-assessment-of-the-impact-on-knowledge-attitudes-self-efficacy-and-personal-health
#6
Lilach Malatskey, Yael Bar Zeev, Adva Tzuk-Onn, Rani Polak
PURPOSE: The WHO estimates that by 2020 two-thirds of the diseases worldwide will be the result of unhealthy lifestyle habits. Less than half of primary care physician graduates feel prepared to give lifestyle behaviour counselling. Our objective was to evaluate the impact of lifestyle medicine (LM) course on self-reported knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy and health behaviour of family medicine residents. METHODS: Based on the Israeli syllabus for the study of LM, we delivered five face to face 20 H courses...
March 13, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276841/effectiveness-of-an-interprofessional-education-model-based-on-the-transtheoretical-model-of-behaviour-change-to-improve-interprofessional-collaboration
#7
Fatemeh Keshmiri, Mahdi Rezai, Reza Mosaddegh, Kamran Moradi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam, Mohammad Amin Zare, Nader Tavakoli, Mohammad Ali Cheraghi, Mandana Shirazi
This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an interprofessional education model (IPE) based on the transtheoretical model to improve the participants' interprofessional collaborative practice. The study was conducted in Iran using a controlled before-and-after study design. The participants (n = 91) were the residents of emergency medicine and nurses of the emergency units from two teaching hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences. The participants in the intervention group (n = 40) were 22 residents and 18 nurses...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270541/safety-culture-the-nottingham-veterinary-safety-culture-survey-nvscs
#8
C Oxtoby, L Mossop, K White, E Ferguson
Safety culture is a vital concept in human healthcare because of its influence on staff behaviours in relation to patient safety. Understanding safety culture is essential to ensure the acceptance and sustainability of changes, such as the introduction of safe surgery checklists. While widely studied and assessed in human medicine, there is no tool for its assessment in veterinary medicine. This paper therefore presents initial data on such an assessment: the Nottingham Veterinary Safety Culture Survey (NVSCS)...
March 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265036/preclinical-models-in-the-study-of-sex-differences
#9
REVIEW
Maria Buoncervello, Matteo Marconi, Alessandra Carè, Paola Piscopo, Walter Malorni, Paola Matarrese
The biology of sex differences deals with the study of the disparities between females and males and the related biological mechanisms. Gender medicine focuses on the impact of gender and sex on human physiology, pathophysiology and clinical features of diseases that are common to women and men. The term gender refers to a complex interrelation and integration of sex-as a biological and functional determinant-and psychological and cultural behaviours (due to ethnical, social or religious background). The attention to the impact of gender differences on the pathophysiology and, therefore, on the clinical management of the most common diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases (CVD), neurodegenerative disorders, immune and autoimmune diseases as well as several tumours, is in fact often neglected...
March 1, 2017: Clinical Science (1979-)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261901/discussing-prognosis-and-treatment-goals-with-patients-with-advanced-cancer-a-qualitative-analysis-of-oncologists-language
#10
Wen-Ying Sylvia Chou, Lauren M Hamel, Chan L Thai, David Debono, Robert A Chapman, Terrance L Albrecht, Louis A Penner, Susan Eggly
BACKGROUND: The National Academy of Medicine recommends that cancer patients be knowledgeable of their prognosis to enable them to make informed treatment decisions, but research suggests few patients receive this information. OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study describes oncologists' language during discussions of prognosis and treatment goals in clinical interactions with African American patients diagnosed with cancer. DESIGN: We analysed transcripts from video recordings of clinical interactions between patients with Stage III or IV cancer (n=26) and their oncologists (n=9)...
March 5, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28260280/teaching-rational-prescribing-to-general-practice-registrars-a-guide-for-supervisors
#11
Simon Morgan
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceuticals play an important role in modern day healthcare, and prescribing is a very common activity in Australian general practice. However, there are significant harms associated with medicine use. Vocational training is a critical period in the development of clinical practice patterns for the future general practitioner (GP), including prescribing behaviour. The general practice supervisor, therefore, has a key role to play in educating registrars about rational prescribing...
March 2017: Australian Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257573/towards-understanding-the-cold-hot-and-neutral-nature-of-chinese-medicines-using-in-silico-mode-of-action-analysis
#12
Xianjun Fu, Lewis H Mervin, Xuebo Li, Huayun Yu, Jiaoyang Li, Siti Zuraidah Mohamad Zobir, Azedine Zoufir, Yang Zhou, Yongmei Song, Zhenguo Wang, Andreas Bender
One important, however poorly understood, concept of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is that of hot, cold and neutral nature of its bioactive principles. In order to advance the field, in this study we analyzed Compound-nature pairs from TCM on a large scale (>23,000 structures) via chemical space visualizations to understand its physicochemical domain, and in silico target prediction to understand differences related to their Modes-of-Action (MoA) against proteins. We found that overall TCM natures spread into different sub-clusters with specific molecular patterns, as opposed to forming coherent global groups...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256255/the-evaluation-stage-of-the-hoeven-outcome-monitor-hom-towards-an-evidence-based-groundwork-in-forensic-mental-health
#13
Lobke H Keune, Vivienne de Vogel, Hjalmar J C van Marle
This study examined if a macro-, meso-, and micro outcome measurement instrument that constitutes the evaluation stage of a Dutch forensic psychiatric outcome monitor, the Hoeven Outcome Monitor (HOM), can provide a first step towards a more evidence based groundwork in forensic mental health. General, serious, very serious, special, and tbs meriting recidivism during treatment, after treatment, and overall were charted for forensic psychiatric patients discharged from a Dutch forensic psychiatric centre between 1999 and 2008 (N=164)...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253540/payment-methods-for-outpatient-care-facilities
#14
REVIEW
Beibei Yuan, Li He, Qingyue Meng, Liying Jia
BACKGROUND: Outpatient care facilities provide a variety of basic healthcare services to individuals who do not require hospitalisation or institutionalisation, and are usually the patient's first contact. The provision of outpatient care contributes to immediate and large gains in health status, and a large portion of total health expenditure goes to outpatient healthcare services. Payment method is one of the most important incentive methods applied by purchasers to guide the performance of outpatient care providers...
March 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250915/the-reset-mindset-model-applied-on-decreasing-antibiotic-usage-in-dairy-cattle-in-the-netherlands
#15
REVIEW
T J G M Lam, J Jansen, R J Wessels
BACKGROUND: Prudent use of antibiotics is important to prevent antibiotic resistance in humans and in animals. For this reason politicians demanded a decrease of total antibiotic use and of use of critically important antibiotics in animal husbandry in the Netherlands. In the dairy sector the use of antibiotics almost halved in the years 2009-2015, with a decrease of the use of critically important antibiotics to very low levels. THEORY OF BEHAVIOUR CHANGE: To realize a sustainable decrease in antibiotic usage, the mindset towards the subject was considered crucial...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246265/considering-benefits-and-harms-of-duloxetine-for-treatment-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-a-meta-analysis-of-clinical-study-reports
#16
Emma Maund, Louise Schow Guski, Peter C Gøtzsche
BACKGROUND: The European Medicines Agency makes clinical study reports publicly available and publishes reasons for not approving applications for marketing authorization. Duloxetine has been approved in Europe for the treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women. The reported adverse effects of duloxetine include mental health problems and suicidality. We obtained clinical study reports from the European Medicines Agency concerning use of this drug for stress urinary incontinence...
February 6, 2017: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241130/nardostachys-jatamansi-targets-bdnf-trkb-to-alleviate-ketamine-induced-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-in-rats
#17
Anjali Janardhanan, Anjana Sadanand, Arambakkam Janardhanam Vanisree
OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia, a common neurological disorder appearing in the late teens or early adulthood, is characterized by disorganized thinking, behaviour, and perception of emotions. Aberrant N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor-mediated synaptic plasticity is a major pathological event here due to dysfunction of dopamine and glutamate transmission at NMDA receptors. De-regulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), i.e., its signalling through the tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, is a major feature of schizophrenia...
February 28, 2017: Neuropsychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230154/compiler-aided-systematic-construction-of-large-scale-dna-strand-displacement-circuits-using-unpurified-components
#18
Anupama J Thubagere, Chris Thachuk, Joseph Berleant, Robert F Johnson, Diana A Ardelean, Kevin M Cherry, Lulu Qian
Biochemical circuits made of rationally designed DNA molecules are proofs of concept for embedding control within complex molecular environments. They hold promise for transforming the current technologies in chemistry, biology, medicine and material science by introducing programmable and responsive behaviour to diverse molecular systems. As the transformative power of a technology depends on its accessibility, two main challenges are an automated design process and simple experimental procedures. Here we demonstrate the use of circuit design software, combined with the use of unpurified strands and simplified experimental procedures, for creating a complex DNA strand displacement circuit that consists of 78 distinct species...
February 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229903/acute-and-subchronic-toxicity-studies-of-methanol-extract-of-polygonum-minus-leaves-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#19
Parayil Varghese Christapher, Subramani Parasuraman, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah
Medicinal plant preparations may contain high levels of toxic chemical constituents to potentially cause serious harm to animals and/or humans. Thus, toxicity studies are important to assess the toxic effects of plant derived products. Polygonum minus is used traditionally for different ailments in Southeast Asia. This study was conducted to establish the acute and subchronic toxicity profile of the methanol extract of P. minus leaves. The acute toxicity study showed that the methanol extract of P. minus is safe even at the highest dose tested of 2000 mg/kg in female Sprague Dawley rats...
February 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225035/deep-sequencing-and-transcriptome-analyses-to-identify-genes-involved-in-secoiridoid-biosynthesis-in-the-tibetan-medicinal-plant-swertia-mussotii
#20
Yue Liu, Yi Wang, Fengxian Guo, Lin Zhan, Toni Mohr, Prisca Cheng, Naxin Huo, Ronghui Gu, Danning Pei, Jiaqing Sun, Li Tang, Chunlin Long, Luqi Huang, Yong Q Gu
Swertia mussotii Franch. is an important traditional Tibetan medicinal plant with pharmacological properties effective in the treatment of various ailments including hepatitis. Secoiridoids are the major bioactive compounds in S. mussotii. To better understand the secoiridoid biosynthesis pathway, we generated transcriptome sequences from the root, leaf, stem, and flower tissues, and performed de novo sequence assembly, yielding 98,613 unique transcripts with an N50 of 1,085 bp. Putative functions could be assigned to 35,029 transcripts (35...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
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