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prehospital battlefield medicine

Frank K Butler, Brad Bennett, Colonel Ian Wedmore
Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. Military units that have trained all of their unit members in TCCC have now documented the lowest incidence of preventable deaths in the history of modern warfare and TCCC is now the standard for battlefield trauma care in the US Military. TCCC and wilderness medicine share the goal of optimizing care for patients with trauma in austere environments that impose significant challenges in both equipment and evacuation capability...
May 2017: Emergency Medicine Clinics of North America
Frank K Butler
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago, the original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) article was published in this journal. Since TCCC is essentially a set of best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield, the presence of a journal with a specific focus on military medicine was a profound benefit to the initial presentation of TCCC to the U.S. Military. METHODS: In the two ensuing decades, which included the longest continuous period of armed conflict in our nation's history, TCCC steadily evolved as the prehospital trauma care evidence base was augmented and as feedback from user medics, corpsmen, and pararescuemen was obtained...
March 2017: Military Medicine
Frank K Butler
Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences...
March 8, 2017: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Myles R McKenzie, Ernest W Parrish, Ethan A Miles, James C Spradling, Lanny F Littlejohn, Mark D Quinlan, George A Barbee, David R King
During an assault on an extremely remote target, a US Special Operations Soldier sustained multiple gunshot and fragmentation wounds to the thorax, resulting in a traumatic arrest and subsequent survival. His care, including care under fire, tactical field care, tactical evacuation care, and Role III, IV, and V care, is presented. The case is used to illustrate the complex dynamics of Special Operations care on the modern battlefield and the exceptional outcomes possible when evidence-based medicine is taken to the warfighter with effective, farforward, expeditionary medical-force projection...
2016: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Hadi Khoshmohabat, Shahram Paydar, Hossein Mohammad Kazemi, Behnam Dalfardi
CONTEXT: In today's modern world, despite the multiple advances made in the field of medicine, hemorrhagic shock is still the main cause of battlefield mortality and the second most prevalent cause of mortality in civilian trauma. Hemostatic agents can play a key role in establishing hemostasis in prehospital situations and preventing hemorrhage-associated death. In this respect, this article aims to review different aspects of known hemostatic agents. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A comprehensive search of the academic scientific databases for relevant keywords was conducted; relevant articles were compiled and assessed...
February 2016: Trauma Monthly
John F Kragh, Michael A Dubick
Bleeding prevention and control by tourniquet use by out-of-hospital caregivers is a major breakthrough in military medicine of current wars. The present review documents developments in tourniquet practices since 2001 among the US military services for aid in improving doctrine, policy, and especially care in wars to come. Tourniquets are an adjunct for resuscitation in self-care and buddy aid and today are issued to all military servicepersons who deploy into a combat zone. In the US Army, virtually every Soldier is trained in first aid tourniquet use; since 2009 they are instructed early and often to use them early and often...
April 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
Nehemiah T Liu, George C Kramer, Muzna N Khan, Michael P Kinsky, José Salinas
BACKGROUND: This study was a first step to facilitate the development of automated decision support systems using cardiac output (CO) for combat casualty care. Such systems remain a practical challenge in battlefield and prehospital settings. In these environments, reliable CO estimation using blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) may provide additional capabilities for diagnosis and treatment of trauma patients. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that continuous BP and HR from the arterial BP waveform coupled with machine learning (ML) can reliably estimate CO in a conscious sheep model of multiple hemorrhages and resuscitation...
October 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Frank K Butler, David J Smith, Richard H Carmona
Thirteen years of continuous combat operations have enabled the US Military and its coalition partners to make a number of major advances in casualty care. The coalition nations have developed a superb combat trauma system and achieved unprecedented casualty survival rates. There remains, however, a need to accelerate the translation of new battlefield trauma care information, training, and equipment to units and individuals deploying in support of combat operations. In addition, the US Military needs to ensure that these advances are sustained during peace intervals and that we continue to build upon our successes as we prepare for future conflicts...
August 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Adil H Haider, Lydia C Piper, Cheryl K Zogg, Eric B Schneider, Jean A Orman, Frank K Butler, Robert T Gerhardt, Elliott R Haut, Jacques P Mather, Ellen J MacKenzie, Diane A Schwartz, David W Geyer, Joseph J DuBose, Todd E Rasmussen, Lorne H Blackbourne
BACKGROUND: Historic improvements in operative trauma care have been driven by war. It is unknown whether recent battlefield innovations stemming from conflicts in Iraq/Afghanistan will follow a similar trend. The objective of this study was to survey trauma medical directors (TMDs) at level 1-3 trauma centers across the United States and gauge the extent to which battlefield innovations have shaped civilian practice in 4 key domains of trauma care. METHODS: Domains were determined by the use of a modified Delphi method based on multiple consultations with an expert physician/surgeon panel: (1) damage control resuscitation (DCR), (2) tourniquet use, (3) use of hemostatic agents, and (4) prehospital interventions, including intraosseous catheter access and needle thoracostomy...
December 2015: Surgery
Nehemiah T Liu, George C Kramer, Muzna N Khan, Michael P Kinsky, José Salinas
BACKGROUND: Despite its medical utility, continuous cardiac output (CO) monitoring remains a practical challenge on the battlefield and in the prehospital environment. Measuring a CO surrogate, perhaps heart-rate complexity (HRC), might be a viable solution when no direct monitoring of CO is available. Changes in HRC observed before and during hemorrhagic shock may be able to track the simultaneous changes in CO. The goal of this study was to test whether HRC is a surrogate measure of CO before, during, and after hemorrhage in a conscious sheep model of multiple hemorrhages and resuscitation...
October 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Homer Tien, Andrew Beckett, Naisan Garraway, Max Talbot, Dylan Pannell, Thamer Alabbasi
Medical support to deployed field forces is increasingly becoming a shared responsibility among allied nations. National military medical planners face several key challenges, including fiscal restraints, raised expectations of standards of care in the field and a shortage of appropriately trained specialists. Even so, medical services are now in high demand, and the availability of medical support may become the limiting factor that determines how and where combat units can deploy. The influence of medical factors on operational decisions is therefore leading to an increasing requirement for multinational medical solutions...
June 2015: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Adam P Rago, Andreas Larentzakis, John Marini, Abby Picard, Michael J Duggan, Rany Busold, Marc Helmick, Greg Zugates, John Beagle, Upma Sharma, David R King
BACKGROUND: Noncompressible abdominal hemorrhage is a significant cause of battlefield and civilian mortality. We developed a self-expanding polyurethane foam intended to provide temporary hemorrhage control and enable evacuation to a definitive surgical capability, for casualties who would otherwise die. We hypothesized that foam treatment would be efficacious over a wide range of out-of-hospital operational conditions. METHODS: The foam was tested in an established lethal, closed-cavity hepatoportal injury model in four groups as follows...
February 2015: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Steven G Schauer, Michael A Bellamy, Robert L Mabry, Vikhyat S Bebarta
Airway management is a critical skill of emergency medicine physicians and prehospital providers. Airway compromise is the cause of 1.8% of battlefield deaths. Cricothyrotomy is a critical, lifesaving procedure. In this study, we conducted a retrospective descriptive analysis comparing the incidence of cricothyrotomies in the deployed setting versus the incidence in a military level 1 trauma center emergency department (ED) setting in San Antonio, Texas. The deployed/in-theater procedures were performed from September 2007 to July 2009...
March 2015: Military Medicine
Lanny Littlejohn, Brad L Bennett, Brendon Drew
Decade-long advances in battlefield medicine have revolutionized the treatment of traumatic hemorrhage and have led to a significant reduction in mortality. Part one of this review covered the use of tourniquets on the extremities and the newer devices for use in junctional areas. Part two focuses on the use of hemostatic agents or dressings, pelvic binders, and tranexamic acid. Field applicable hemostatic dressings are safe and effective in controlling hemorrhage not amenable to extremity tourniquet application, and newer agents with increasing efficacy continue to be developed...
June 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Brendon Drew, Brad L Bennett, Lanny Littlejohn
Decade-long advancements in battlefield medicine have revolutionized the treatment of traumatic hemorrhage and have led to a significant reduction in mortality. Older methods such as limb elevation and pressure points are no longer recommended. Tourniquets have had a profound effect on lives saved without the commonly feared safety issues that have made them controversial. Unique tourniquet designs for inguinal and abdominal regions are now available for areas not amenable to current fielded extremity tourniquets...
June 2015: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Jean-louis Daban, Elisabeth Falzone, Mathieu Boutonnet, Vincent Peigne, Bernard Lenoir
In the battlefield, the majority of casualties die within ten minutes of the trauma. Most injuries result from an explosion and haemorrhage plays a central role. To improve survival rates, the French Army Health Service has developed a chain of survival from the battlefield to France based on prehospital combat casualty care, forward medical support during the first hour and damage control surgery.
September 2014: Soins; la Revue de Référence Infirmière
Steven J Gaydos, Amanda M Kelley, Catherine M Grandizio, Jeremy R Athy, P Lynne Walters
BACKGROUND: When providing care under combat or hostile conditions, it may be necessary for a casualty to remain engaged in military tasks after being wounded. Prehospital care under other remote, austere conditions may be similar, whereby an individual may be forced to continue purposeful actions despite traumatic injury. Given the adverse side-effect profile of intramuscular (i.m.) morphine, alternative analgesics and routes of administration are of interest. Ketamine may be of value in this capacity...
March 2015: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Donald Jenkins, James Stubbs, Steve Williams, Kathleen Berns, Martin Zielinski, Geir Strandenes, Scott Zietlow
Remote damage control resuscitation is a recently defined term used to describe techniques and strategies to provide hemostatic resuscitation to injured patients in the prehospital setting. In the civilian setting, unlike the typical military setting, patients who require treatment for hemorrhage come in all ages with all types of comorbidities and have bleeding that may be non-trauma related. Thus, in the austere setting, addressing the needs of the patient is no less challenging than in the military environment, albeit the caregivers are typically not putting their lives at risk to provide such care...
May 2014: Shock
Michael J Duggan, Adam Rago, John Marini, John Beagle, Miroslav Peev, George Velmahos, Upma Sharma, David R King
BACKGROUND: Prehospital treatment for noncompressible abdominal bleeding, particularly due to large vascular injury, represents a significant unmet medical need on the battlefield and in civilian trauma. To date, few large animal models are available to assess new therapeutic interventions and hemostatic agents for prehospital hemorrhage control. METHODS: We developed a novel, lethal, closed-abdomen injury model in noncoagulopathic swine by strategic placement of a cutting wire around the external iliac artery...
April 2014: Journal of Surgical Research
Timothy James Hooper, Marc De Pasquale, Geir Strandenes, Geir Sunde, Kevin R Ward
The environmental and logistical constraints of the prehospital setting make it a challenging place for the treatment of trauma patients. This is perhaps more pronounced in the management of battlefield casualties before extraction to definitive care. In seeking solutions, interest has been renewed in implementing damage control resuscitation principles in the prehospital setting, a concept termed remote damage control resuscitation. These developments, while improving conflict survival rates, are not exclusive to the military environment, with similar situations existing in the civilian setting...
May 2014: Shock
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