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Rods and rings

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665440/mri-compatible-ms2-nanoparticles-designed-to-cross-the-blood-brain-barrier-providing-a-path-towards-tinnitus-treatment
#1
Aaron K Apawu, Stephanie M Curley, Angela R Dixon, Mirabela Hali, Moaz Sinan, Rod D Braun, James Castracane, Anthony T Cacace, Magnus Bergkvist, Avril Genene Holt
Fundamental challenges of targeting specific brain regions for treatment using pharmacotherapeutic nanoparticle (NP) carriers include circumventing the blood-brain-barrier (BBB) and tracking delivery. Angiopep-2 (AP2) has been shown to facilitate the transport of large macromolecules and synthetic nanoparticles across the BBB. Thus, conjugation of AP2 to an MS2 bacteriophage based NP should also permit transport across the BBB. We have fabricated and tested a novel MS2 capsid-based NP conjugated to the ligand AP2...
April 14, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656527/self-assembly-of-rod-coil-block-copolymers-on-carbon-nanotubes-a-route-toward-diverse-surface-nanostructures
#2
Yang Han, Chunhua Cai, Jiaping Lin, Shuting Gong, Wenheng Xu, Rui Hu
In this work, it is reported that poly(γ-benzyl-l-glutamate)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PBLG-b-PEG) rod-coil block copolymers (BCPs) can disperse carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in solution and form various surface nanostructures on the CNTs via solution self-assembly. In an organic solvent that dissolves the BCPs, the PBLG rod blocks adsorb on CNT surfaces, and the BCPs form conformal coatings. Then, by the introduction of water, a selective solvent for PEG blocks, the BCPs in the coatings further self-assemble into diverse surface nanostructures, such as helices (left-handed or right-handed), gyros, spheres, and rings...
April 14, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610277/the-cell-division-protein-mind-from-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-dominates-the-assembly-of-the-minc-mind-copolymers
#3
Haiyan Huang, Ping Wang, Li Bian, Masaki Osawa, Harold P Erickson, Yaodong Chen
Cell division of rod-shaped bacteria requires the Z ring, a ring of FtsZ filaments associated with the inner-membrane wall. The MinCDE proteins help localize the Z ring to the center of the Escherichia coli cell. MinC, which inhibits Z-ring assembly, is a passenger on MinD. Previous studies have shown that MinC-MinD from E. coli and Aquifex aeolicus assemble in vitro into extended filaments with a 1:1 stoichiometry. However, a recent study has raised questions about the function of the MinC-MinD copolymer in vivo , since its assembly appears to require a high concentration of these two proteins, has a long lag time, and its blockade does not affect in vivo activities...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604020/ultra-fast-all-optical-decoder-based-on-nonlinear-photonic-crystal-ring-resonators
#4
Tina Daghooghi, Mohammad Soroosh, Karim Ansari-Asl
In this paper, a 2-to-4 all-optical decoder based on photonic crystal ring resonators is introduced. The photonic crystal structure has a 2D square chalcogenide rod lattice whose maximum response time is 2 ps. Three ring resonators including nonlinear rods with 9×10-17   m2 /W for a Kerr coefficient carry out a switching operation at 1550 nm wavelength. The switching speed of the device is 500 GHz, which is more than that in previously presented works. Also, the small size of the structure is sufficient for optical integrated circuits...
March 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565439/ph-induced-evolution-of-surface-patterns-in-micelles-assembled-from-dirhamnolipids-dissipative-particle-dynamics-simulation
#5
Jianchang Xu, Shuangqing Sun, Zhikun Wang, Shiyuan Peng, Songqing Hu, Lijuan Zhang
Dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation is used to study the effect of pH on the morphological transition in micelles assembled from dirhamnolipids (diRLs), and analyze the pH-driven mechanism and influence factors of micellar surface patterns. At pH < 4.0, various multilayer structures with homogeneous surface patterns are observed, whereas diRLs can self-assemble into novel anisotropic morphologies with phase-separated surface patterns at pH > 7.4, such as patchy spherical micelles, rod-like micelles with helical surface patterns and a lamellar phase with anisotropic surface patterns...
March 22, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550188/a-distinct-phenotype-of-eyes-shut-homolog-eys-retinitis-pigmentosa-is-associated-with-variants-near-the-c-terminus
#6
Jesse D Sengillo, Winston Lee, Takayuki Nagasaki, Kaspar Schuerch, Lawrence A Yannuzzi, K Bailey Freund, Janet Sparrow, Rando Allikmets, Stephen H Tsang
PURPOSE: Mutations in the eyes shut homolog (EYS) gene are a frequent cause of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP). This study used multi-modal retinal imaging to elucidate genotype-phenotype relationships in EYS-related RP (EYS-RP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: Multimodal retinal imaging and electrophysiologic testing was assessed for 16 patients with genetic confirmation of EYS-RP. RESULTS: A total of 27 unique EYS variants were identified in 16 patients...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538241/factors-associated-with-spinopelvic-fixation-mechanical-failure-after-total-sacrectomy
#7
Xiaodong Tang, Rongli Yang, Huayi Qu, Zhenyu Cai, Wei Guo
STUDY DESIGN: We retrospectively analyzed factors associated with spinopelvic mechanical failure after total sacrectomy. OBJECTIVE: To find the rate and type of mechanical fixation failure after total sacrectomy and to identify the associated risk factors. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Although rigid fixation has been achieved, mechanical failure is sometimes encountered in reconstruction after total sacrectomy. The incidence and factors associated with spinopelvic fixation mechanical failure after total sacrectomy are still not clear...
March 13, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523708/stochastically-pumped-adaptation-and-directional-motion-of-molecular-machines
#8
R Dean Astumian
Recent developments in synthetic molecular motors and pumps have sprung from a remarkable confluence of experiment and theory. Synthetic accomplishments have facilitated the ability to design and create molecules, many of them featuring mechanically bonded components, to carry out specific functions in their environment-walking along a polymeric track, unidirectional circling of one ring about another, synthesizing stereoisomers according to an external protocol, or pumping rings onto a long rod-like molecule to form and maintain high-energy, complex, nonequilibrium structures from simpler antecedents...
March 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478040/reference-standards-for-the-detection-of-anti-mitochondrial-and-anti-rods-rings-autoantibodies
#9
S John Calise, Bing Zheng, Tomoko Hasegawa, Minoru Satoh, Natasa Isailovic, Angela Ceribelli, Luis E C Andrade, Katherine Boylan, Ilaria Cavazzana, Marvin J Fritzler, Ignacio Garcia de la Torre, Falk Hiepe, Kathryn Kohl, Carlo Selmi, Yehuda Shoenfeld, Angela Tincani, Edward K L Chan
BACKGROUND: Anti-mitochondrial antibodies (AMA) are found in >90% of primary biliary cholangitis patients. Anti-rods/rings antibodies (anti-RR) are most commonly associated with interferon-α and ribavirin treatment in hepatitis C patients. Clinical laboratories routinely screen for AMA and anti-RR using indirect immunofluorescence on HEp-2 cells (HEp-2-IFA). Therefore, we sought to establish reference materials for use in AMA and anti-RR testing. METHODS: AMA-positive and anti-RR-positive human plasma samples (AMA-REF and RR-REF), identified as potential reference materials based on preliminary data, were further validated by multiple laboratories using HEp-2-IFA, immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting, IP-western, line immunoassay (LIA), addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453250/retinal-chitosan-conjugates-effectively-deliver-active-chromophores-to-retinal-photoreceptor-cells-in-blind-mice-and-dogs
#10
Songqi Gao, Shirin Kahremany, Jianye Zhang, Beata Jastrzebska, Janice Querubin, Simon M Petersen-Jones, Krzysztof Palczewski
The retinoid (visual) cycle consists of a series of biochemical reactions needed to regenerate the visual chromophore, 11-cis-retinal and sustain vision. Genetic or environmental factors affecting chromophore production can lead to blindness. Using animal models that mimic human retinal diseases, we previously demonstrated that mechanism-based pharmacological interventions can maintain vision in otherwise incurable genetic diseases of the retina. Here, we report that after 9-cis-retinal administration to lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-deficient (Lrat-/-) mice, the drug was rapidly absorbed and then cleared within 1-2 h...
February 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443967/peptidoglycan-synthesis-drives-an-ftsz-treadmilling-independent-step-of-cytokinesis
#11
João M Monteiro, Ana R Pereira, Nathalie T Reichmann, Bruno M Saraiva, Pedro B Fernandes, Helena Veiga, Andreia C Tavares, Margarida Santos, Maria T Ferreira, Vânia Macário, Michael S VanNieuwenhze, Sérgio R Filipe, Mariana G Pinho
Peptidoglycan is the main component of the bacterial wall and protects cells from the mechanical stress that results from high intracellular turgor. Peptidoglycan biosynthesis is very similar in all bacteria; bacterial shapes are therefore mainly determined by the spatial and temporal regulation of peptidoglycan synthesis rather than by the chemical composition of peptidoglycan. The form of rod-shaped bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis or Escherichia coli, is generated by the action of two peptidoglycan synthesis machineries that act at the septum and at the lateral wall in processes coordinated by the cytoskeletal proteins FtsZ and MreB, respectively...
February 14, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429654/ultrasonic-assisted-synthesis-and-the-structural-characterization-of-novel-the-zig-zag-cd-ii-metal-organic-polymer-and-their-nanostructures
#12
Faeze Mojtabazade, Babak Mirtamizdoust, Ali Morsali, Pejman Talemi
A sonochemical method was used to synthesize nano-rods of a novel cadmium(II) metal-organic coordination polymer, [Cd(p-2yeinh)(NO2)]n (1) (p-2yeinh = pyridin-2-yl ethylidene-isonicotinohydrazide). The effect of the synthesis parameters such as time, concentrations and irradiation power has been studied and optimized. It was shown that the thickness of rods has changed from 27 nm to 45 nm. The compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction (XPRD), and single crystal X-ray analysis...
April 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424530/helical-rod-like-phenylene-cages-via-ruthenium-catalyzed-diol-diene-benzannulation-a-cord-of-three-strands
#13
Hiroki Sato, Jon A Bender, Sean T Roberts, Michael J Krische
p-Bromo-terminated oligo(p-phenylenevinylenes) emanating from a 1,3,5-benzene core are dihydroxylated and subjected to ruthenium catalyzed diol-diene benzannulation to form tripodal oligo(phenylenes). Copper- or nickel-mediated 3-fold reductive biaryl homocoupling delivers a series of triple-stranded phenylene cages of helical rod-like topology bearing 14, 17, and 20 benzene rings.
February 9, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422517/role-of-precursor-carbides-for-graphene-growth-on-ni-111
#14
Raffael Rameshan, Vedran Vonk, Dirk Franz, Jakub Drnec, Simon Penner, Andreas Garhofer, Florian Mittendorfer, Andreas Stierle, Bernhard Klötzer
Surface X-ray Diffraction was used to study the transformation of a carbon-supersaturated carbidic precursor toward a complete single layer of graphene in the temperature region below 703 K without carbon supply from the gas phase. The excess carbon beyond the 0.45  monolayers of C atoms within a single Ni2C layer is accompanied by sharpened reflections of the |4772| superstructure, along with ring-like diffraction features resulting from non-coincidence rotated Ni2C-type domains. A dynamic Ni2C reordering process, accompanied by slow carbon loss to subsurface regions, is proposed to increase the Ni2C 2D carbide long-range order via ripening toward coherent domains, and to increase the local supersaturation of near-surface dissolved carbon required for spontaneous graphene nucleation and growth...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408597/clostridial-diviva-and-mind-interact-in-the-absence-of-minj
#15
Romana Valenčíková, Eva Krascsenitsová, Naďa Labajová, Jana Makroczyová, Imrich Barák
One of the key regulators ensuring proper Z-ring placement in rod-shaped bacteria is the Min system. It does so by creating a concentration gradient of the MinC septation inhibitor along the cell axis. In Escherichia coli, this gradient is established by a MinE-mediated pole-to-pole oscillation of the MinCDE complex. In Bacillus subtilis, the creation of an inhibitory gradient relies on the MinJ and DivIVA pair of topological determinants, which target MinCD to the newly formed cell poles. Introducing the E...
January 30, 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386879/full-field-erg-as-a-predictor-of-the-natural-course-of-abca4-associated-retinal-degenerations
#16
Marion Schroeder, Ulrika Kjellström
Purpose: To assess retinal function in combination with the retinal structure in ABCA4-associated retinal degenerations. Moreover, to evaluate the possibility of predicting the natural course of these disorders. Methods: 34 patients with Stargardt disease or cone rod dystrophy carrying confirmed mutations in ABCA4 were selected from our retinitis pigmentosa (RP) register. Sequence analysis of the entire coding region of the ABCA4 gene was performed. The patients were subdivided into three groups based on their most recent visual fields...
2018: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352994/topical-drug-delivery-devices-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Christian J F Bertens, Marlies Gijs, Frank J H M van den Biggelaar, Rudy M M A Nuijts
For the treatment and prevention of ocular diseases, most patients are treated with conventional drug delivery formulations such as eye drops or ointments. However, eye drops and ointments suffer from low patient compliance and low effective drug concentration at the target site. Therefore, new medical devices are being explored to improve drug delivery to the eye. Over the years, various delivery devices have been developed including resorbable devices, oval- and ring-shaped devices, rod-shaped devices, punctum plugs, contact lenses and corneal shields...
March 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349841/novel-mof-derived-co-n-c-bifunctional-catalysts-for-highly-efficient-zn-air-batteries-and-water-splitting
#18
Mingdao Zhang, Quanbin Dai, Hegen Zheng, Mindong Chen, Liming Dai
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and MOF-derived materials have recently attracted considerable interest as alternatives to noble-metal electrocatalysts. Herein, the rational design and synthesis of a new class of Co@N-C materials (C-MOF-C2-T) from a pair of enantiotopic chiral 3D MOFs by pyrolysis at temperature T is reported. The newly developed C-MOF-C2-900 with a unique 3D hierarchical rodlike structure, consisting of homogeneously distributed cobalt nanoparticles encapsulated by partially graphitized N-doped carbon rings along the rod length, exhibits higher electrocatalytic activities for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions (ORR and OER) than that of commercial Pt/C and RuO2 , respectively...
March 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349462/self-assembly-of-bis-salphen-compounds-from-semiflexible-chains-to-webs-of-nanorings
#19
Sergey V Pyrlin, Nicholas D M Hine, Arjan W Kleij, Marta M D Ramos
The recently-observed self-assembly of certain salphen-based compounds into neuron-like networks of microrings interconnected with nano-thin strings may suggest a new highly-potent tool for nanoscale patterning. However, the mechanism behind such phenomena needs to be clarified before they can be applied in materials design. Here we show that, in contrast with what was initially presumed, the emergence of a "rings-and-rods" pattern is unlikely to be explained by merging, collapse and piercing of vesicles as in previously reported cases of nanorings self-assembly via non-bonding interactions...
February 14, 2018: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322211/-within-ring-based-sacroiliac-rod-fixation-may-overcome-the-weakness-of-spinopelvic-fixation-for-unstable-pelvic-ring-injuries-technical-notes-and-clinical-outcomes
#20
Kentaro Futamura, Tomonori Baba, Atsuhiko Mogami, Akio Kanda, Osamu Obayashi, Hideaki Iwase, Kazuo Kaneko
PURPOSE: Spinopelvic fixation and triangular osteosynthesis give firm internal fixation for unstable pelvic ring injuries (UPRI), but with sacrifice of mobility of the lumbar spine. Here, we describe the procedure and outcomes of a new approach, which we refer to as "within ring"-based sacroiliac rod fixation (SIRF). METHODS: The patient was placed in a prone position and longitudinal skin incisions were made at the medial margins of the bilateral posterior superior iliac spines (PSIS)...
January 10, 2018: International Orthopaedics
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