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Gut inflammation

Leonie S Taams, Kathryn J A Steel, Ushani Srenathan, Lachrissa A Burns, Bruce W Kirkham
Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a term that refers to a group of inflammatory diseases that includes psoriatic arthritis, axial SpA and nonradiographic axial SpA, reactive arthritis, enteropathic arthritis and undifferentiated SpA. The disease subtypes share clinical and immunological features, including joint inflammation (peripheral and axial skeleton); skin, gut and eye manifestations; and the absence of diagnostic autoantibodies (seronegative). The diseases also share genetic factors. The aetiology of SpA is still the subject of research by many groups worldwide...
July 13, 2018: Nature Reviews. Rheumatology
Lingyu Yang, Chao Liu, Wenjing Zhao, Chuan He, Jinmei Ding, Ronghua Dai, Ke Xu, Lu Xiao, Lingxiao Luo, Shuyun Liu, Wei Li, He Meng
Establishing and maintaining beneficial interactions between the host and associated gut microbiota are pivotal requirements for host health. Autophagy is an important catabolic recycling pathway that degrades long-lived proteins and some organelles by lysosome to maintain cellular homeostasis. Although impaired autophagy is thought to be closely correlated with Crohn's disease (CD), the functional role of autophagy in the maintenance of gut microbiota is poorly understood. As autophagy-related 5 ( Atg5 ) is a key gene associated with the extension of the phagophoric membrane in autophagic vesicles, we established a gut-specific Atg5 knockout mouse model, and found that the disruption of autophagic flux in the intenstinal epithelium cells dramatically altered the composition of the gut microbiota and reduced alpha diversity...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
María Florencia Zacarías, María Carmen Collado, Carlos Gómez-Gallego, Heini Flinck, Janne Aittoniemi, Erika Isolauri, Seppo Salminen
The obesity epidemic is a global challenge, and the velocity of propagation is high in the population at reproductive age. Overweight and obesity during pregnancy have been associated with high birth weight and an increased risk of childhood obesity, reinforcing the risk of other non-communicable diseases. Obesity involves chronic low-grade systemic inflammation. New biomarkers for early detection of obesity risk are urgently required. The aim of this study was to identify the connection between pregestational BMI (pre-BMI) status and inflammatory biomarkers during the third trimester of pregnancy and their association with intestinal microbiota composition...
2018: PloS One
Ranmali Ranasinghe, Rajaraman Eri
C-C chemoattractant cytokine (chemokine) receptor 6 (CCR6) and its exclusive binding molecule CCL20 is an extremely important chemokine receptor-ligand pair which controls cell migration and immune induction during inflammatory disease. Not many scientific studies have been undertaken to study its immune mechanisms in detail, but its unique contribution to steady state cell chemotaxis in upholding immune tolerance and regulating immune homeostasis during inflammation is evident in multiple systems in the human body, including skin, liver, lung, kidney, brain, eye, joints, gonads and the gut...
July 2, 2018: Medicines (Basel, Switzerland)
Charikleia Stefanaki, Flora Bacopoulou, Athanasios Michos
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that a significant proportion of adolescents exhibit abdominal obesity in early-middle adolescence, and impaired glucose metabolism. Dysregulation of glucose metabolism is aggravated by the existing osteosarcopenia not only in obese but also in overweight youth. Biochemical inflammation, derived from glucose metabolism dysregulation, in combination with increased stress levels lead to the accumulation of reactive oxygen species, also known as ROS, which seem to afflict the integrity of the gastrointestinal wall, gut mucosa, and commensal, intestinal gut microflora...
September 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
Ruth K Dudek-Wicher, Adam Junka, Marzenna Bartoszewicz
The gut microbiota acts as a real organ. It exerts important metabolic functions, and regulates the inflammatory response by stimulating the immune system. Gut microbial imbalance (dysbiosis) has been linked to important human diseases and inflammation-related disorders. The symbiotic interactions between resident microorganisms and the gastrointestinal tract significantly contribute to maintaining gut homeostasis. The present review summarizes our knowledge regarding the impact of different antibiotics causing such long-term consequences as decreased microbial diversity, modulation of the Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio, Clostridium difficile overgrowth , and increased expansion of the opportunistic pathogens Salmonella typhimurium , Escherichia spp...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Shih-Yi Huang, Li-Han Chen, Ming-Fu Wang, Chih-Chieh Hsu, Ching-Hung Chan, Jia-Xian Li, Hui-Yu Huang
Probiotic supplements are potential therapeutic agents for age-related disorders due to their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of probiotics on age-related brain dysfunction remains unclear. To investigate the effects of Lactobacillus paracasei PS23 (LPPS23) on the progression of age-related cognitive decline, male and female senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice were divided into two groups ( n = 6 each): the control and PS23 groups. From the age of 16 weeks, these groups were given saline and LPPS23, respectively, because SAMP8 mice start aging rapidly after four months of age...
July 12, 2018: Nutrients
Markus M Heimesaat, Ulrike Escher, Anne Grunau, Ulrike Fiebiger, Stefan Bereswill
Within 1 week following high-dose Toxoplasma gondii infection, mice develop lethal necrotizing ileitis. However, data from a subacute T. gondii-induced ileitis model are scarce. Therefore, mice harboring a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of T. gondii. Within 9 days post-infection, the intestinal microbiota composition shifted towards higher loads of commensal enterobacteria and enterococci. Following T. gondii infection, mice were clinically only mildly affected, whereas ≈60% of mice displayed fecal blood and mild-to-moderate ileal histopathological changes...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Ulrike Escher, Eliezer Giladi, Ildikò R Dunay, Stefan Bereswill, Illana Gozes, Markus M Heimesaat
The octapeptide NAP is well known for its neuroprotective properties. We here investigated whether NAP treatment could alleviate pro-inflammatory immune responses during experimental subacute ileitis. To address this, mice with a human gut microbiota were perorally infected with one cyst of Toxoplasma gondii (day 0) and subjected to intraperitoneal synthetic NAP treatment from day 1 until day 8 postinfection (p.i.). Whereas placebo (PLC) control animals displayed subacute ileitis at day 9 p.i., NAP-treated mice exhibited less pronounced pro-inflammatory immune responses as indicated by lower numbers of intestinal mucosal T and B lymphocytes and lower interferon (IFN)- γ concentrations in mesenteric lymph nodes...
June 25, 2018: European Journal of Microbiology & Immunology
Yunben Yang, Chunjing Xu, Dang Wu, Zhen Wang, Pin Wu, Lili Li, Jian Huang, Fuming Qiu
Increasing evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota dysbiosis and chronic inflammation contribute to colorectal cancer (CRC) development. γδ T cells represent a major innate immune cell population in the intestinal epithelium that is involved in the maintenance of gut homeostasis, inflammation regulation, and carcinogenesis. The important contributions of γδ T cells are (i) to perform a protective role in the context of barrier damage and pathogenic microorganism translocation; (ii) to exert either pro- or anti-inflammatory effects at different inflammatory stages; and (iii) to boost the crosstalk between immune cells and tumor microenvironment, inducing a cascade of suppressive immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
MengFan Yue, XinYu Zhang, YanNong Dou, ZhiFeng Wei, Yu Tao, YuFeng Xia, Yue Dai
Sinomenine has long been used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in China. However, its anti-inflammatory mechanism is still debatable because the in vitro minimal effective concentration (≥250 μM) is hardly reached in either synovium or serum after oral administration at a therapeutic dose. Recent findings suggest that the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) might mediate the inhibitory effect of sinomenine on macrophage activation, which attracts us to explore the anti-arthritis mechanism of sinomenine by taking neuroendocrine-inflammation axis into consideration...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Hongyan Zhang, Zhaoyang Wang, Yanyan Li, Jiaojiao Han, Chenxi Cui, Chenyang Lu, Jun Zhou, Lingzhi Cheong, Ye Li, Tingting Sun, Dijun Zhang, Xiurong Su
Our previous work indicated that a mixture of tuna oil and algae oil treatment in male mice effectively relieved D-galactose (D-gal)-induced aging and resulted in gut microbiota alterations, and that the best anti-aging effects were observed for a tuna oil to algae oil ratio of 1:2. However, the possibility of a sex-based difference in the anti-aging effect of the tuna oil and algae oil mixture or gut microbiota variation, has rarely been investigated. In this study, the anti-aging effect of an oil mixture (1:2) in male and female mice was measured, and oil treatment improved the learning and cognition of mice that were damaged by D-gal, increased the activities of anti-oxidative enzymes, and decreased the level of MDA, which acted as a hallmark of oxidative damage to lipids...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Omar Youssef, Leo Lahti, Arto Kokkola, Tiina Karla, Milja Tikkanen, Homa Ehsan, Monika Carpelan-Holmström, Selja Koskensalo, Tom Böhling, Hilpi Rautelin, Pauli Puolakkainen, Sakari Knuutila, Virinder Sarhadi
BACKGROUND: Microbial ecosystems that inhabit the human gut form central component of our physiology and metabolism, regulating and modulating both health and disease. Changes or disturbances in the composition and activity of this gut microbiota can result in altered immunity, inflammation, and even cancer. AIM: To compare the composition and diversity of gut microbiota in stool samples from patient groups based on the site of neoplasm in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and to assess the possible contribution of the bacterial composition to tumorigenesis...
July 11, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jing Sun, Yanqi Li, Xiaoyu Pan, Duc Ninh Nguyen, Anders Brunse, Anders M Bojesen, Silvia Rudloff, Martin S Mortensen, Douglas G Burrin, Per T Sangild
BACKGROUND: Fortification of donor human milk (DHM) is required for optimal growth of very preterm infants, but there are concerns of more gut dysfunction and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) when using formula-based fortifiers (FFs), especially soon after birth. Intact bovine colostrum (BC) is rich in nutrients and bioactive factors, and protects against NEC in preterm pigs. We hypothesized that fortification of DHM with BC is superior to FFs to prevent gut dysfunction and infections when provided shortly after preterm birth...
July 10, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Hyo-Jeong Jang, Jae Hyun Park, Chun Soo Kim, Sang Lak Lee, Won Mok Lee
Purpose: We investigated fecal calprotectin (FC) levels in preterm infants with and without feeding intolerance (FI), and compared the FC levels according to the type of feeding. Methods: The medical records of 67 premature infants were reviewed retrospectively. The fully enteral-fed infants were classified into two groups; the FI group (29 infants) and the control group (31 infants). Seven infants with necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, and perinatal asphyxia were excluded...
July 2018: Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
Theresa N Ngoma, Ulemu K Chimimba, Agnes M Mwangwela, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, Kenneth M Maleta, Mark J Manary, Indi Trehan
Childhood growth stunting is a pervasive problem in Malawi and is in large part due to low quality complementary foods and chronic gut inflammation. Introducing legumes such as cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) into the complementary diet has the potential to improve childhood growth by improving diet quality through improvements in macro- and micronutrients and also by reducing gut inflammation. However, cowpea is relatively underutilized in complementary feeding in Malawi due to its strong taste, long processing time, and high energy requirements for processing...
2018: PloS One
Talita Gomes Baeta Lourenςo, Sarah J Spencer, Eric John Alm, Ana Paula Vieira Colombo
Background : This exploratory study aimed to characterize the gut microbiome of individuals with different periodontal conditions, and correlate it with periodontal inflammation and tissue destruction. Methods : Stool samples were obtained from individuals presenting periodontal health (PH = 7), gingivitis ( G  = 14) and chronic periodontitis (CP = 23). The intestinal microbiome composition was determined by Illumina MiSeq sequencing. Results : A lower alpha-diversity in the gut microbiome of individuals with CP was observed, although no significant difference among groups was found ( p  > 0...
2018: Journal of Oral Microbiology
Guan Yang, Siyuan Chen, Baichuan Deng, Chengquan Tan, Jinping Deng, Guoqiang Zhu, Yulong Yin, Wenkai Ren
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs, e.g., acetate, propionate, and butyrate) are a subset of fatty acids that are produced by gut microbiota during the fermentation of dietary fiber. They modulate different processes in the gastrointestinal tract and play various positive roles in mediating the intestinal health. Most beneficial roles of SCFAs in the gastrointestinal tract are mediated by directly activating its receptor, G protein-coupled receptor 43 (GPR43, also known as FFAR2). Various recent studies have demonstrated the role of GPR43 in intestinal inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Matthew T Sorbara, Eric G Pamer
The communities of bacteria that reside in the intestinal tract are in constant competition within this dynamic and densely colonized environment. At homeostasis, the equilibrium that exists between these species and strains is shaped by their metabolism and also by pathways of active antagonism, which drive competition with related and unrelated strains. Importantly, these normal activities contribute to colonization resistance by the healthy microbiota, which includes the ability to prevent the expansion of potential pathogens...
July 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Noam Jacob, Jonathan P Jacobs, Kotaro Kumagai, Connie W Y Ha, Yoshitake Kanazawa, Venu Lagishetty, Katherine Altmayer, Ariel M Hamill, Aimee Von Arx, R Balfour Sartor, Suzanne Devkota, Jonathan Braun, Kathrin S Michelsen, Stephan R Targan, David Q Shih
Tumor necrosis factor-like cytokine 1A (TL1A, TNFSF15) is implicated in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), modulating the location and severity of intestinal inflammation and fibrosis. TL1A expression is increased in inflamed gut mucosa and associated with fibrostenosing Crohn's disease. Tl1a-overexpression in mice lead to spontaneous ileitis, and exacerbated induced proximal colitis and fibrosis. IBD is associated with shifts in the gut microbiome, but the effect of differing microbial populations and their interaction with TL1A on fibrosis has not been investigated...
July 9, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
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