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Gut inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231154/enteropathogens-and-gut-inflammation-in-asymptomatic-infants-and-children-in-different-environments-in-southern-india
#1
Ira Praharaj, R Revathy, Rini Bandyopadhyay, Blossom Benny, Mohammad Azharuddin Ko, Jie Liu, Eric R Houpt, Gagandeep Kang
Children in poor environmental conditions are exposed early and often to enteric pathogens, but within developing countries, heterogeneity in enteropathogen exposure in different settings and communities is rarely addressed. We tested fecal samples from healthy infants and children from two different environments in the same Indian town for gut enteropathogens and biomarkers of gut inflammation. A significantly higher proportion of infants and children from a poor semi-urban neighborhood (93%) had one or more enteropathogens than those from a medical college campus (71...
December 11, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230419/proteobacteria-a-common-factor-in-human-diseases
#2
REVIEW
G Rizzatti, L R Lopetuso, G Gibiino, C Binda, A Gasbarrini
Microbiota represents the entire microbial community present in the gut host. It serves several functions establishing a mutualistic relation with the host. Latest years have seen a burst in the number of studies focusing on this topic, in particular on intestinal diseases. In this scenario, Proteobacteria are one of the most abundant phyla, comprising several known human pathogens. This review highlights the latest findings on the role of Proteobacteria not only in intestinal but also in extraintestinal diseases...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229199/microbiota-and-aging-a-review-and-commentary
#3
REVIEW
Carmen García-Peña, Teresa Álvarez-Cisneros, Ricardo Quiroz-Baez, Robert P Friedland
Although there is a consensus that the dominant species that make up the adult microbiota remains unchanged in elderly people, it has been reported that there are significant alterations in the proportion and composition of the different taxa, leading to reduced microbiota diversity, as well as an increase of enteropathogens that may lead to chronic inflammation. The ageing of mucosal immune and motor systems also contributes to these changes. As the individual ages, there is a loss in the number of Peyer's patches, an altered local capacity of T and B cell functions as well as chronic macrophage activation...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229136/the-gut-liver-axis-impact-of-a-mouse-model-of-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth
#4
Qingqing Wang, Bin Wang, Vijay Saxena, Lili Miles, Josh Tiao, Joel E Mortensen, Jaimie D Nathan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria impact liver diseases remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth and to determine its impact on hepatobiliary injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A jejunal self-filling blind loop (SFBL) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and bacterial cultures of luminal content of the loop and extraintestinal tissues were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228570/keratin-8-reduces-colonic-permeability-and-maintains-gut-microbiota-homeostasis-protecting-against-colitis-and-colitis-associated-tumorigenesis
#5
Chao Liu, En-Dong Liu, Yun-Xiao Meng, Xiao-Ming Dong, Ya-Lan Bi, Huan-Wen Wu, Yan-Chao Jin, Ke Zhao, Jian-Jie Li, Miao Yu, Yi-Qun Zhan, Hui Chen, Chang-Hui Ge, Xiao-Ming Yang, Chang-Yan Li
Keratin 8 (CK8) is the major component of the intermediate filaments of simple or single-layered epithelia. Gene targeting mice model suggest that CK8 is involved in colonic active ion transport, colorectal hyperplasia and inflammation. In the present study, we found that CK8 is downregulated in the colon during DSS-induced colitis and AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) development. In human patients with colon cancer, CK8 is downregulated. Using CK8 heterozygous knockout mice (CK8+/-), we found that CK8+/- mice are highly susceptible to DSS-induced colitis and more prone to AOM/DSS-induced CAC than wild type (WT) mice...
November 14, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228157/gut-epithelial-vitamin-d-receptor-regulates-microbiota-dependent-mucosal-inflammation-by-suppressing-intestinal-epithelial-cell-apoptosis
#6
Lei He, Tianjing Liu, Yongyan Shi, Feng Tian, Huiyuan Hu, Dilip K Deb, Yinyin Chen, Marc Bissonnette, Yan Chun Li
Recent studies show that colonic vitamin D receptor (VDR) signaling protects the mucosal epithelial barrier and suppresses colonic inflammation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be fully understood. To investigate the implication of colonic VDR down-regulation seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we assessed the effect of gut epithelial VDR deletion on colonic inflammatory responses in an experimental colitis model. In 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis model, mice carrying VDR deletion in gut epithelial cells (VDRf/f;Villin-Cre or VDRΔIEC) or in colonic epithelial cells (VDRf/f;CDX2-Cre or VDRΔCEC) developed more severe clinical colitis than VDRf/f control mice, characterized by more robust TH1 and TH17 responses, with greater increases in mucosal IFN-γ+, IL-17+ and IFN-γ+IL-17+ T cells...
December 7, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226642/homoarginine-associates-with-zonulin-and-tryptophan-findings-in-a-high-risk-cohort-of-patients-carrying-an-aicd
#7
Elli Mann, Robert Kluesener, Felix Boschann, Jana Ruppert, Franz P Armbruster, Andreas Meinitzer, Christoph Melzer, Thomas B Dschietzig
BACKGROUND: Homoarginine (hArg) is known to have an impact on nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. It seems to increase NO generation and/or availability, thereby enhancing endothelial function. In addition, hArg is connected to energy metabolism since the key enzyme, L-arginine-glycine amidinotransferase (AGAT) for hArg synthesis in the kidneys, is also involved in the synthesis of energy metabolites like guanidinoacetate. Former studies indicate that low levels of hArg are linked to cardiovascular disease and increased all-cause mortality...
November 1, 2017: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224093/sex-effects-at-the-ramparts-nutrient-and-microbe-mediated-regulation-of-the-immune-metabolic-interface
#8
Nyrie Israelian, Jayne S Danska
The relationships between dietary compounds, derivative metabolites, and host metabolism and immunity are controlled by diverse molecular mechanisms. Essential contributions to these dynamics come from the community of microbes (the microbiome) inhabiting the human digestive tract. The composition and function of the microbiome are shaped by available nutrients, and reciprocally, these organisms produce an as yet poorly defined repertoire of molecules that communicate with the epithelial barrier and the mucosal immune system...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218079/vegf-c-mediated-enhancement-of-lymphatic-drainage-reduces-intestinal-inflammation-by-regulating-il-9-il-17-balance-and-improving-gut-microbiota-in-experimental-chronic-colitis
#9
Xiaolei Wang, Jin Zhao, Li Qin
BACKGROUND: Inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis (IAL) induced by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C/VEGF receptor-3 (VEGFR-3) pathway plays a crucial role in chronic intestinal inflammation. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VEGF-C mediated enhancement of lymphatic drainage on the intestinal inflammation in experimental chronic colitis (CC) and the potential mechanism was explored. METHODS: Mouse CC model was established by three cycles of 2% DSS administration for 5 days following water administration for 5 days...
2017: American Journal of Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218037/wuji-wan-formula-ameliorates-diarrhea-and-disordered-colonic-motility-in-post-inflammation-irritable-bowel-syndrome-rats-by-modulating-the-gut-microbiota
#10
Ying Chen, Shuiming Xiao, Zipeng Gong, Xiaoxin Zhu, Qing Yang, Yujie Li, Shuangrong Gao, Yu Dong, Zhe Shi, Yajie Wang, Xiaogang Weng, Qi Li, Weiyan Cai, Weijie Qiang
Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota contribute to the treatment of post-inflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Our previous studies have demonstrated that a Chinese formula, Wuji Wan, has the ability to mitigate abdominal pain and diarrhea in PI-IBS rats. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism and whether the gut microbiota mediate the effect of Wuji Wan on PI-IBS. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether Wuji Wan mitigated PI-IBS by modifying the gut microbiota...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218015/trimethylamine-n-oxide-supplementation-abolishes-the-cardioprotective-effects-of-voluntary-exercise-in-mice-fed-a-western-diet
#11
Hongqi Zhang, Jian Meng, Haiyan Yu
Excessive consumption of western diet (WD) induces obesity, resulting in cardiac dysfunction. Voluntary exercise ameliorates WD-induced obesity, but its effect on cardiac dysfunction remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that elevated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), a gut microbe-derived metabolite, can impair cardiac function in WD-induced obesity. We hypothesized that cardiac dysfunction in WD-induced obesity would be prevented by voluntary exercise but abolished by TMAO supplementation. Male CD1 mice fed a WD were assigned to sedentary, exercise or exercise with TMAO treatment for 8 weeks...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216848/anterior-sacral-meningocele-infected-with-fusobacterium-in-a-patient-with-recently-diagnosed-colorectal-carcinoma-a-case-report
#12
Anne K Braczynski, Marc A Brockmann, Torben Scholz, Jan-Philipp Bach, Jörg B Schulz, Simone C Tauber
BACKGROUND: Anterior sacral meningoceles are rare, and usually occur with other malformations of the posterior lower spine. While these are more frequently reported in pediatric cohorts, we report a case in an elderly woman. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on a 71 year-old woman with a recently diagnosed colorectal adenocarcinoma who presented with a severe bacterial meningitis. The cerebrospinal fluid cell count revealed a pleocytosis of 80,000 cells/μl and a severe disturbance of the blood-brain-barrier...
December 8, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216329/characterization-of-fusobacterium-varium-fv113-g1-isolated-from-a-patient-with-ulcerative-colitis-based-on-complete-genome-sequence-and-transcriptome-analysis
#13
Tsuyoshi Sekizuka, Yumiko Ogasawara, Toshifumi Ohkusa, Makoto Kuroda
Fusobacterium spp. present in the oral and gut flora is carcinogenic and is associated with the risk of pancreatic and colorectal cancers. Fusobacterium spp. is also implicated in a broad spectrum of human pathologies, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Here we report the complete genome sequence of Fusobacterium varium Fv113-g1 (genome size, 3.96 Mb) isolated from a patient with UC. Comparative genome analyses totally suggested that Fv113-g1 is basically assigned as F. varium, in particular, it could be reclassified as notable F...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213271/visceral-inflammation-and-immune-activation-stress-the-brain
#14
REVIEW
Peter Holzer, Aitak Farzi, Ahmed M Hassan, Geraldine Zenz, Angela Jačan, Florian Reichmann
Stress refers to a dynamic process in which the homeostasis of an organism is challenged, the outcome depending on the type, severity, and duration of stressors involved, the stress responses triggered, and the stress resilience of the organism. Importantly, the relationship between stress and the immune system is bidirectional, as not only stressors have an impact on immune function, but alterations in immune function themselves can elicit stress responses. Such bidirectional interactions have been prominently identified to occur in the gastrointestinal tract in which there is a close cross-talk between the gut microbiota and the local immune system, governed by the permeability of the intestinal mucosa...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212824/targeted-microbiome-intervention-by-microencapsulated-delayed-release-niacin-beneficially-affects-insulin-sensitivity-in-humans
#15
Daniela Fangmann, Eva-Maria Theismann, Kathrin Türk, Dominik M Schulte, Isabelle Relling, Katharina Hartmann, Julia K Keppler, Jörg-Rainer Knipp, Ateequr Rehman, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Andre Franke, Lennart Lenk, Sandra Freitag-Wolf, Esther Appel, Stanislav Gorb, Charles Brenner, Dirk Seegert, Georg H Waetzig, Philip Rosenstiel, Stefan Schreiber, Karin Schwarz, Matthias Laudes
OBJECTIVE: Gut microbiota represent a potential novel target for future prediabetes and type 2 diabetes therapies. In that respect, niacin has been shown to beneficially affect the host-microbiome interaction in rodent models. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We characterized more than 500 human subjects with different metabolic phenotypes regarding their niacin (nicotinic acid [NA] and nicotinamide [NAM]) status and their gut microbiome. In addition, NA and NAM delayed-release microcapsules were engineered and examined in vitro and in vivo in two human intervention studies (bioavailability study and proof-of-concept/safety study)...
December 6, 2017: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212771/establishment-of-a-surgical-bile-duct-injection-technique-giving-direct-access-to-the-bile-ducts-for-studies-of-the-murine-biliary-tree
#16
Natalie Lie Berntsen, Bjarte Fosby, Laura Valestrand, Corey Tan, Henrik Reims, Elisabeth Schrumpf, Tom H Karlsen, Pål-Dag Line, Espen Melum
Cholangiopathies are progressive disorders with largely unknown pathoetiology and limited treatment options. We aimed to develop a novel surgical technique with direct access to the bile ducts that would complement existing mouse models of cholestasis, biliary inflammation and fibrosis, and present a new route of administration for testing of potential treatment strategies. We developed a surgical technique to access the murine biliary tree by injection of different solvents through catheterization of the gall bladder with simultaneous clamping of the common bile duct...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211010/meta-analysis-of-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolites-in-experimental-colitic-mice-during-the-inflammatory-and-healing-phases
#17
Toshifumi Osaka, Eri Moriyama, Shunichi Arai, Yasuhiro Date, Junji Yagi, Jun Kikuchi, Satoshi Tsuneda
The imbalance of gut microbiota is known to be associated with inflammatory bowel disease, but it remains unknown whether dysbiosis is a cause or consequence of chronic gut inflammation. In order to investigate the effects of gut inflammation on microbiota and metabolome, the sequential changes in gut microbiota and metabolites from the onset of colitis to the recovery in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitic mice were characterized by using meta 16S rRNA sequencing and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) analysis...
December 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209828/regulation-of-immunometabolism-in-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Manju Kumari, Joerg Heeren, Ludger Scheja
Adipose tissue has emerged as a major player in driving obesity-related inflammatory response. In obesity, chronic infiltration of macrophages in adipose tissue mediates local and systemic inflammation and acts as a key contributor to insulin resistance. In the past few years, adipose tissue plasticity and remodeling capacity has been studied extensively to develop therapeutic targets to combat obesity and related metabolic dysfunction. Progress in understanding the potential of adipocytes and contribution of macrophages and other immune cells to control immunometabolism in disease state has provided us new potential intervention targets to explore such as the formation of heat-producing beige adipocytes in white adipose tissue and the polarization of macrophages from an inflammatory toward an anti-inflammatory phenotype...
December 5, 2017: Seminars in Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209564/leukotriene-b4-receptor-1-mediated-host-response-shapes-gut-microbiota-and-controls-colon-tumor-progression
#19
Venkatakrishna R Jala, Paramahamsa Maturu, Sobha R Bodduluri, Elangovan Krishnan, Steven Mathis, Krishnaprasad Subbarao, Min Wang, Alfred B Jenson, Mary L Proctor, Eric C Rouchka, Rob Knight, Bodduluri Haribabu
Inflammation and infection are key promoters of colon cancer but the molecular interplay between these events is largely unknown. Mice deficient in leukotriene B4 receptor1 (BLT1) are protected in inflammatory disease models of arthritis, asthma and atherosclerosis. In this study, we show that BLT1-/- mice when bred onto a spontaneous tumor (ApcMin/+) model displayed an increase in the rate of intestinal tumor development and mortality. A paradoxical increase in inflammation in the tumors from the BLT1-/-ApcMin/+ mice is coincidental with defective host response to infection...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209321/consumption-of-diet-containing-free-amino-acids-exacerbates-colitis-in-mice
#20
Adna Luciana Souza, Sarah Leão Fiorini Aguiar, Mariana Camila Gonçalves Miranda, Luisa Lemos, Mauro Andrade Freitas Guimaraes, Daniela Silva Reis, Patrícia Aparecida Vieira Barros, Emerson Soares Veloso, Toniana Gonçalves Carvalho, Fabiola Mara Ribeiro, Enio Ferreira, Denise Carmona Cara, Ana Cristina Gomes-Santos, Ana Maria Caetano Faria
Dietary proteins can influence the maturation of the immune system, particularly the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, when consumed from weaning to adulthood. Moreover, replacement of dietary proteins by amino acids at weaning has been shown to impair the generation of regulatory T cells in the gut as well as immune activities such as protective response to infection, induction of oral and nasal tolerance as well as allergic responses. Polymeric and elemental diets are used in the clinical practice, but the specific role of intact proteins and free amino acids during the intestinal inflammation are not known...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
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