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Gut inflammation

Gregory M Sindberg, Shannon E Callen, Santanu Banerjee, Jingjing Meng, Vanessa L Hale, Ramakrishna Hegde, Paul D Cheney, Francois Villinger, Sabita Roy, Shilpa Buch
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pathogenesis has been closely linked with microbial translocation, which is believed to drive inflammation and HIV replication. Opioid drugs have been shown to worsen this symptom, leading to a faster progression of HIV infection to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The interaction of HIV and opioid drugs has not been studied at early stages of HIV, particularly in the gut microbiome where changes may precede translocation events. This study modeled early HIV infection by examining Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV)-infected primates at 21 days or less both independently and in the context of opioid use...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Christina L Hayes, Jasmine Dong, Heather J Galipeau, Jennifer Jury, Justin McCarville, Xianxi Huang, Xuan-Yu Wang, Avee Naidoo, Arivarasu N Anbazhagan, Josie Libertucci, Conor Sheridan, Pradeep K Dudeja, Dawn M E Bowdish, Michael G Surette, Elena F Verdu
The intestinal barrier encompasses structural, permeability and immune aspects of the gut mucosa that, when disrupted, may contribute to chronic inflammation. Although gnotobiotic studies have demonstrated the effects of microbiota on mucosal and systemic immunity, as well as intestinal barrier architecture and innate immune characteristics, its impact on barrier function remains unclear. We compared germ-free and conventional mice, as well as mice colonized with human fecal microbiota that were followed for 21 days post-colonization...
September 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
P J Sarate, S Heinl, S Poiret, M Drinić, C Zwicker, I Schabussova, C Daniel, U Wiedermann
Allergic poly-sensitization affects a large number of allergic patients and poses a great challenge for their treatment. In this study we evaluated the effects of the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) expressing a birch and grass pollen allergen chimera 'Bet v 1, Phl p 1 and Phl p 5' (EcN-Chim) on allergy prevention after oral or intranasal application in poly-sensitized mice. In contrast to oral application, intranasal pretreatment with EcN-Chim prior to poly-sensitization led to a significant reduction of lung inflammation (eosinophils, IL-5, and IL-13 in bronchoalveolar lavage) along with suppressed levels of allergen-specific serum IgE...
September 21, 2018: Mucosal Immunology
Yongbo Kang, Yu Li, Yuhui Du, Liqiong Guo, Minghui Chen, Xinwei Huang, Fang Yang, Jingan Hong, Xiangyang Kong
BACKGROUND: Changes in the intestinal flora composition is referred to as dysbiosis, which is related to obesity development, thus supporting the potential roles of nutrients acting on intestinal flora to exert salutary effects on energetic metabolism of host. Dietary fiber has been known to affect the composition of intestinal flora. The aim of the present study was to investigate the functional effects of konjac flour (KF) on obesity control in respect to improving inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal barrier function, and the possible association of the effects with intestinal flora composition changes...
September 21, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Ruihua Zhang, Chen-Feng Qi, Yuan Hu, Yanhong Shan, Yuan-Pang Hsieh, Feihong Xu, Geming Lu, Jun Dai, Monica Gupta, Miao Cui, Liang Peng, Jianjun Yang, Qingjie Xue, Ray Chen-Liang, Kang Chen, Yeyunfei Zhang, Wai-Ping Fung-Leung, J Rodrigo Mora, Liwu Li, Herbert C Morse, Keiko Ozato, Peter S Heeger, Huabao Xiong
The follicular helper T cell (TFH ) are established regulators of germinal center (GC) B cells, whether TFH have pathogenic potential independent of B cells is unknown. Based on in vitro TFH cell differentiation, in vivo T cell transfer animal colitis model, and intestinal tissues of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, TFH and its functions in colitis development were analyzed by FACS, ChIP, ChIP-sequencing, WB, ELISA and PCR. Herein we demonstrate that intestinal tissues of patients and colon tissues obtained from Rag1-/- recipients of naïve CD4+ T cells with colitis, each over-express TFH -associated gene products...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Autoimmunity
Jason D Guss, Sophia N Ziemian, Marysol Luna, Taylor N Sandoval, Derek T Holyoak, Gabriel G Guisado, Sebastian Roubert, Rowan L Callahan, Ilana L Brito, Marjolein C H van der Meulen, Steven R Goldring, Christopher J Hernandez
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Metabolic syndrome is associated with osteoarthritis (OA), but it is unclear if the association is attributable to increased mechanical loading on joints caused by obesity or other aspects of metabolic syndrome. Here we examined the effects of metabolic syndrome, obesity, and the gut microbiome on load-induced OA. DESIGN: Cartilage damage was induced through cyclic compressive loading in four groups of adult male mice: Toll-like receptor-5 deficient (TLR5KO) mice that develop metabolic syndrome due to alterations in the gut microbiome, TLR5KO mice submitted to chronic antibiotics to prevent metabolic syndrome (TLR5KOΔMicrobiota), C57BL/6J mice fed a high fat diet to cause obesity (HFD), and untreated C57BL/6J mice (WT)...
September 18, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Laetitia Kermarrec, Tony Durand, Jacques Gonzales, Julie Pabois, Philippe Hulin, Michel Neunlist, Isabelle Neveu, Philippe Naveilhan
BACKGROUND: Neuroimmune interactions are essential to maintain gut homeostasis and prevent intestinal disorders but so far, the impact of enteric glial cells (EGC) on immune cells remains a relatively unexplored area of research. As a dysregulation of critical cytokines such as interleukine-7 (IL-7) was suggested to exacerbate gut chronic inflammation, we investigated whether EGC could be a source of IL-7 in the gastrointestinal tract. METHODS: Expression of IL-7 in the rat enteric nervous system was analyzed by immunochemistry and Q-PCR...
September 21, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Irina Leonardi, Xin Li, Iliyan D Iliev
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this review, we discuss recent advances into delineating the dual role of intestinal phagocytes in health and during intestinal disease. We further discuss the key role of gut-resident macrophages in recognition of bacterial and fungal microbiota in the gut. RECENT FINDINGS: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) commonly manifests with pathologic changes in the composition of gut bacterial and fungal microbiota. Intestinal macrophages are key regulators of the balance between tolerogenic immunity and inflammation...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Alba Rodríguez-Nogales, Francesca Algieri, José Garrido-Mesa, Teresa Vezza, M Pilar Utrilla, Natalia Chueca, Federico García, M Elena Rodríguez-Cabezas, Julio Gálvez
The beneficial effects exerted by probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are well known, although their exact mechanisms have not been fully elucidated, and only few studies have focused on their impact on selected miRNAs and the gut microbiota composition. Therefore, our aim was to correlate the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii in the dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) model of mouse colitis and the changes induced in miRNA expression and gut microbiota populations...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Mounika Addula, Victoria E D Wilson, Savio Reddymasu, Devendra K Agrawal
Functional dyspepsia (FD) is widespread with 20% prevalence worldwide and a significant economic burden due to health care cost and constraints on daily activities of patients. Despite extensive investigation, the underlying causes of dyspepsia in a majority of patients remain unknown. Common complaints include abdominal discomfort, pain, burning, nausea, early satiety, and bloating. Motor dysfunction of the gut was long considered a major cause, but recent investigations suggest immune-based pathophysiological and molecular events in the duodenum are more probable contributing factors...
September 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Sonia Leon-Cabrera, Armando Vázquez-Sandoval, Emmanuel Molina-Guzman, Yael Delgado-Ramirez, Norma L Delgado-Buenrostro, Blanca E Callejas, Yolanda I Chirino, Carlos Pérez-Plasencia, Miriam Rodríguez-Sosa, Jonadab E Olguín, Citlaltepetl Salinas, Abhay R Satoskar, Luis I Terrazas
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is part of the Janus kinase (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway that controls critical events in intestinal immune function related to innate and adaptive immunity. Recent studies have implicated STAT1 in tumor⁻stroma interactions, and its expression and activity are perturbed during colon cancer. However, the role of STAT1 during the initiation of inflammation-associated cancer is not clearly understood. To determine the role of STAT1 in colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC), we analyzed the tumor development and kinetics of cell recruitment in wild-type WT or STAT1-/- mice treated with azoxymethane (AOM) and dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)...
September 19, 2018: Cancers
Srustidhar Das, Cristian Doñas, Paulina Akeus, Marianne Quiding-Järbrink, J Rodrigo Mora, Eduardo J Villablanca
The gut homing receptor integrin α4β7 is essential for the migration of pro-inflammatory T cells into the gut mucosa. Since intestinal neoplasia has been associated with chronic inflammation, we investigated whether interfering with gut-homing affects intestinal tumorigenesis. Using chemically induced and spontaneous intestinal tumor models we showed that lack of β7 integrin significantly impairs tumor growth without affecting tumor frequencies, with a mild translatable effect on overall survival. This correlates with human data showing lower MAdCAM-1 expression and disease-free survival in colorectal cancer patients...
2018: PloS One
Jun Shimizu, Takao Kubota, Erika Takada, Kenji Takai, Naruyoshi Fujiwara, Nagisa Arimitsu, Masanori A Murayama, Yuji Ueda, Sueshige Wakisaka, Tomoko Suzuki, Noboru Suzuki
Relapsing polychondritis (RP) is an inflammatory disease of unknown causes, characterized by recurrent inflammation in cartilaginous tissues of the whole body. Recently, researchers have reported that, in mouse experiments, altered gut microbe-dependent T cell differentiation occurred in gut associated lymphoid tissues. Here, we investigated whether gut microbe alteration existed, and if so, the alteration affected peripheral T cell differentiation in patients with RP. In an analysis of gut microbiota, we found increased annotated species numbers in RP patients compared with normal individuals...
2018: PloS One
Ivet A Yordanova, Suzana Zakovic, Sebastian Rausch, Giulia Costa, Elena Levashina, Susanne Hartmann
The digestive tract plays a central role in nutrient acquisition and harbors a vast and intricate community of bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites, collectively known as the microbiota. In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the complex and highly contextual involvement of this microbiota in the induction and education of host innate and adaptive immune responses under homeostasis, during infection and inflammation. The gut passage and colonization by unicellular and multicellular parasite species present an immense challenge to the host immune system and to the microbial communities that provide vital support for its proper functioning...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Joana Gaifem, Luís G Gonçalves, Ricardo J Dinis-Oliveira, Cristina Cunha, Agostinho Carvalho, Egídio Torrado, Fernando Rodrigues, Margarida Saraiva, António G Castro, Ricardo Silvestre
Dietary nutrients have emerged as potential therapeutic adjuncts for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) given their impact on intestinal homeostasis through the modulation of immune response, gut microbiota composition and epithelial barrier stability. Several nutrients have already been associated with a protective phenotype. Yet, there is a lack of knowledge toward the most promising ones as well as the most adequate phase of action. To unveil the most prominent therapy candidates we characterized the colon metabolic profile during colitis development...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cecilia S Vieira, Otacílio C Moreira, Kate K S Batista, Norman A Ratcliffe, Daniele P Castro, Patrícia Azambuja
Rhodnius prolixus is an insect vector of Trypanosoma cruzi , the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Nuclear factor- κ B (NF- κ B) transcription factors (TF) are conserved components of the innate immune system in several multicellular organisms including insects. The drug IMD-0354 [ N -(3,5-bis-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-5-chloro-2-hydroxy-benzamide] is a selective inhibitor of I κ B kinases. It blocks I κ Bα phosphorylation thus preventing nuclear translocation of the NF- κ b TF. In humans, NF- κ B is involved in several biological processes such as inflammation, cell proliferation and immunity...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Clara Meana, Ginesa García-Rostán, Lucía Peña, Gema Lordén, África Cubero, Antonio Orduña, Balázs Győrffy, Jesús Balsinde, María A Balboa
Colon cancer is a devastating illness that is associated with gut inflammation. Here, we explored the possible role of lipin-1, a phosphatidic acid phosphatase, in the development of colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Azoxymethane and dextran sodium sulfate-treated (DSS-treated) animals deficient in lipin-1 harbored fewer tumors and carcinomas than WT animals due to decreased cellular proliferation, lower expression of antiapoptotic and protumorigenic factors, and a reduced infiltration of macrophages in colon tumors...
September 20, 2018: JCI Insight
William P Martin, Neil G Docherty, Carel W Le Roux
Cardiovascular and renal disease accounts for a substantial proportion of the morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Bariatric surgery is associated with improved long-term cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Areas covered: All major case-control, cohort, and randomized controlled trial studies of bariatric surgery in adults with T2DM were screened and data on prespecified cardiovascular and renal outcomes collated. Bariatric surgery reduces all-cause mortality and risk of cardiovascular disease, albuminuria and progressive chronic kidney disease...
September 19, 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Gerwyn Morris, Brisa S Fernandes, Basant K Puri, Adam J Walker, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Berk
BACKGROUND: The blood-brain barrier acts as a highly regulated interface; its dysfunction may exacerbate, and perhaps initiate, neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders. METHODS: In this narrative review, focussing on redox, inflammatory and mitochondrial pathways and their effects on the blood-brain barrier, a model is proposed detailing mechanisms which might explain how increases in blood-brain barrier permeability occur and can be maintained with increasing inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress being the initial drivers...
October 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Minna Wu, Yaqi Wu, Jianmin Li, Yonghua Bao, Yongchen Guo, Wancai Yang
Gut dysbiosis is associated with colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis, and the genetic deficiency of the Muc2 gene causes spontaneous development of colitis and colorectal cancer. Whether there are changes of gut microbiota and a linkage between the changes of microbiota and intestinal pathology in Muc2-/- mice are unclear. Muc2-/- and Muc2+/+ mice were generated by backcrossing from Muc2+/- mice, and the fecal samples were collected at different dates (48th, 98th, 118th, 138th, and 178th day). Gut microbiota were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing with the universal 16S rRNA primers (V3⁻V5 region)...
September 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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