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Gut inflammation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098913/diets-link-metabolic-syndrome-and-colorectal-cancer-development-review
#1
Jirakrit Saetang, Surasak Sangkhathat
Diets have been believed to be an important factor in the development of metabolic syndrome and colorectal cancer (CRC). In recent years, many studies have shown an intimate relationship between mucosal immunity, metabolism and diets, which has led to a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and CRC development. Although the precise effects of diets on oncogenesis have not been compl-etely elucidated, microbiota changes and inflammation are believed to be important factors that influence the development of CRC...
January 18, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098786/retinoic-acid-and-its-role-in-modulating-intestinal-innate-immunity
#2
REVIEW
Paulo Czarnewski, Srustidhar Das, Sara M Parigi, Eduardo J Villablanca
Vitamin A (VA) is amongst the most well characterized food-derived nutrients with diverse immune modulatory roles. Deficiency in dietary VA has not only been associated with immune dysfunctions in the gut, but also with several systemic immune disorders. In particular, VA metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) has been shown to be crucial in inducing gut tropism in lymphocytes and modulating T helper differentiation. In addition to the widely recognized role in adaptive immunity, increasing evidence identifies atRA as an important modulator of innate immune cells, such as tolerogenic dendritic cells (DCs) and innate lymphoid cells (ILCs)...
January 13, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096237/the-human-microbiome-and-cancer
#3
Seesandra V Rajagopala, Sanjay Vashee, Lauren M Oldfield, Yo Suzuki, J Craig Venter, Amalio Telenti, Karen E Nelson
Recent scientific advances have significantly contributed to our understanding of the complex connection between the microbiome and cancer. Our bodies are continuously exposed to microbial cells, both resident and transient, as well as their by-products including toxic metabolites. Circulation of toxic metabolites may contribute to cancer onset or progression at locations distant from where a particular microbe resides. Moreover, microbes may migrate to other locations in the human body and become associated with tumor development...
January 17, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094305/association-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-with-the-development-of-neovascular-age-related-macular-degeneration
#4
Martin S Zinkernagel, Denise C Zysset-Burri, Irene Keller, Lieselotte E Berger, Alexander B Leichtle, Carlo R Largiadèr, Georg M Fiedler, Sebastian Wolf
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the most frequent cause of blindness in the elderly. There is evidence that nutrition, inflammation and genetic risk factors play an important role in the development of AMD. Recent studies suggest that the composition of the intestinal microbiome is associated with metabolic diseases through modulation of inflammation and host metabolism. To investigate whether compositional and functional alterations of the intestinal microbiome are associated with AMD, we sequenced the gut metagenomes of patients with AMD and controls...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093508/vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy-reduces-blood-pressure-and-hypothalamic-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-mice
#5
Anne K McGavigan, Zachariah M Henseler, Darline Garibay, Scott D Butler, Sisitha Jayasinghe, Ruth E Ley, Robin L Davisson, Bethany P Cummings
Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG), causes remarkable improvements in cardiometabolic health, including hypertension remission. However, the mechanisms responsible remain undefined and poorly studied. Therefore, we developed and validated the first murine model of VSG that recapitulates the blood pressure lowering effect of VSG using gold-standard radiotelemetry technology. We used this model to investigate several potential mechanisms, including body weight, brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and brain inflammatory signaling, all critical contributors to obesity-associated hypertension pathogenesis...
January 12, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093447/inflammasomes-and-cancer
#6
Rajendra Karki, Si Ming Man, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Inflammation affects all stages of tumorigenesis. A key signaling pathway leading to acute and chronic inflammation is through activation of the caspase-1 inflammasome. Inflammasome complexes are assembled on activation of certain nucleotide-binding domain, leucine-rich repeat-containing proteins (NLR), AIM2-like receptors, or pyrin. Of these, NLRP1, NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP6, and AIM2 influence the pathogenesis of cancer by modulating innate and adaptive immune responses, cell death, proliferation, and/or the gut microbiota...
January 16, 2017: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091678/pepsin-egg-white-hydrolysate-modulates-gut-microbiota-in-zucker-obese-rats
#7
Teresa Requena, Marta Miguel, Marta Garcés-Rimón, M Carmen Martínez-Cuesta, Rosina López-Fandiño, Carmen Peláez
There is limited information that relates the intake of food-derived bioactive peptides and the gut microbiota. We have previously described a pepsin hydrolysate of egg white (EWH) that ameliorates fat accumulation and dyslipidemia, while reducing oxidative stress and inflammation markers in obese Zucker rats. The aim of this study was to associate the beneficial effects of EWH with gut microbiota changes in these animals. Obese Zucker rats received daily 750 mg kg(-1) EWH in drinking water for 12 weeks and faeces were analysed for microbial composition and metabolic compounds in comparison with Zucker lean rats and obese controls...
January 16, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087531/salivary-gluten-degradation-and-oral-microbial-profiles-in-health-and-celiac-disease
#8
Na Tian, Lina Faller, Daniel A Leffler, Ciaran P Kelly, Joshua Hansen, Jos A Bosch, Guoxian Wei, Bruce J Paster, Detlef Schuppan, Eva J Helmerhorst
: Celiac disease (CD) is a chronic immune-mediated enteropathy induced by dietary gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. Saliva harbors the second highest bacterial load of the GI tract after the colon. Moreover, saliva contains gluten-degrading enzymes produced by oral bacteria that may modify gluten processing in the intestine and susceptibility to celiac disease (CD). AIM: To investigate salivary enzymatic activities and oral microbial profiles in healthy subjects vs patients with classical and refractory CD...
January 13, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081037/higher-cd163-levels-are-associated-with-insulin-resistance-in-hepatitis-c-virus-infected-and-hiv-infected-adults
#9
Michael Reid, Yifei Ma, Rebecca Scherzer, Jennifer C Price, Audrey L French, Michael W Plankey, Carl Grunfeld, Phyllis C Tien
OBJECTIVES: HIV/hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is associated with insulin resistance, but the mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that intestinal epithelial damage and the consequent monocyte/macrophage activation and inflammation explain this perturbation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of 519 adults (220 HIV+/HCV-; 64 HIV-/HCV+; 89 HIV+/HCV+; 146 HIV-/HCV-). METHODS: We used multivariable linear regression to evaluate associations of HIV and HCV with the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and if intestinal fatty (FA) acid binding protein (I-FABP, a marker of gut epithelial integrity), soluble CD14 (sCD14) and soluble CD163 (sCD163) (markers of monocyte/macrophage activation), and IL-6 (an inflammatory cytokine) mediated this association...
January 28, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078319/gut-microbiota-inflammation-and-colorectal-cancer
#10
Jun Sun, Ikuko Kato
Although genes contribute to colorectal cancer, the gut microbiota are an important player. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic infection and the ensuing inflammation contributes to tumor initiation and tumor progression. A variety of bacterial species and tumor-promoting virulence mechanisms have been investigated. Significant advances have been made in understanding the composition and functional capabilities of the gut microbiota and its roles in cancer. In the current review, we discuss the novel roles of microbiota in the progression of colon cancer...
June 2016: Genes & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075383/soluble-fibre-meal-challenge-reduces-airway-inflammation-and-expression-of-gpr43-and-gpr41-in-asthma
#11
Isabel Halnes, Katherine J Baines, Bronwyn S Berthon, Lesley K MacDonald-Wicks, Peter G Gibson, Lisa G Wood
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are produced following the fermentation of soluble fibre by gut bacteria. In animal models, both dietary fibre and SCFAs have demonstrated anti-inflammatory effects via the activation of free fatty acid receptors, such as G protein-coupled receptor 41 and 43 (GPR41 and GPR43). This pilot study examined the acute effect of a single dose of soluble fibre on airway inflammation-including changes in gene expression of free fatty acid receptors-in asthma. Adults with stable asthma consumed a soluble fibre meal (n = 17) containing 3...
January 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074537/neuroblastoma-causes-alterations-of-the-intestinal-microbiome-gut-hormones-inflammatory-cytokines-and-bile-acid-composition
#12
Christoph Castellani, Georg Singer, Margarita Kaiser, Thomas Kaiser, Jianfeng Huang, Daniela Sperl, Karl Kashofer, Guenter Fauler, Barbara Guertl-Lackner, Gerald Höfler, Holger Till
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of neuroblastoma (NB) on the intestinal microbiome, metabolism, and inflammatory parameters in a murine model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Athymic Hsd:Fox1nu mice received subperitoneal implantation of human NB cells (MHH-NB11) (tumor group, TG) or culture medium (sham group). Following 10 weeks of tumor growth, all animals were sacrificed to collect total white adipose tissue (WAT). Luminex assays were performed for gut hormone and inflammation marker analysis...
January 11, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074039/cd34-mesenchymal-cells-are-a-major-component-of-the-intestinal-stem-cells-niche-at-homeostasis-and-after-injury
#13
Igor Stzepourginski, Giulia Nigro, Jean-Marie Jacob, Sophie Dulauroy, Philippe J Sansonetti, Gérard Eberl, Lucie Peduto
The intestinal epithelium is continuously renewed by intestinal epithelial stem cells (IESCs) positioned at the base of each crypt. Mesenchymal-derived factors are essential to maintain IESCs; however, the cellular composition and development of such mesenchymal niche remains unclear. Here, we identify pericryptal CD34(+) Gp38(+) αSMA(-) mesenchymal cells closely associated with Lgr5(+) IESCs. We demonstrate that CD34(+) Gp38(+) cells are the major intestinal producers of the niche factors Wnt2b, Gremlin1, and R-spondin1, and are sufficient to promote maintenance of Lgr5(+) IESCs in intestinal organoids, an effect mainly mediated by Gremlin1...
10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072592/metabolic-syndrome-associated-osteoarthritis
#14
Alice Courties, Jérémie Sellam, Francis Berenbaum
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Interest in the metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis phenotype is increasing. Here, we summarize recently published significant findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Meta-analyses confirmed an association between type 2 diabetes and osteoarthritis and between cardiovascular diseases and osteoarthritis. Recent advances in the study of metabolic syndrome-associated osteoarthritis have focused on a better understanding of the role of metabolic diseases in inducing or aggravating joint damage...
January 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069755/influence-of-the-gut-microbiome-on-autoimmunity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#15
REVIEW
Sara L Colpitts, Lloyd H Kasper
Autoimmune disorders of the CNS have complex pathogeneses that are not well understood. In multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, T cells destroy CNS tissue, resulting in severe disabilities. Mounting evidence suggests that reducing inflammation in the CNS may start with modulation of the gut microbiome. The lymphoid tissues of the gut are specialized for the induction of regulatory cells, which are directly responsible for the suppression of CNS-damaging autoreactive T cells. Whether cause or effect, the onset of dysbiosis in the gut of patients with multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica provides evidence of communication along the gut-brain axis...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069751/host-microbiota-interactions-shape-local-and-systemic-inflammatory-diseases
#16
REVIEW
John B Grigg, Gregory F Sonnenberg
Recent advances in understanding how the mammalian immune system and intestinal microbiota functionally interact have yielded novel insights for human health and disease. Modern technologies to quantitatively measure specific members and functional characteristics of the microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract, along with fundamental and emerging concepts in the field of immunology, have revealed numerous ways in which host-microbiota interactions proceed beneficially, neutrally, or detrimentally for mammalian hosts...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069576/dysbiosis-and-zonulin-upregulation-alter-gut-epithelial-and-vascular-barriers-in-patients-with-ankylosing-spondylitis
#17
Francesco Ciccia, Giuliana Guggino, Aroldo Rizzo, Riccardo Alessandro, Michele Maria Luchetti, Simon Milling, Laura Saieva, Heleen Cypers, Tommaso Stampone, Paola Di Benedetto, Armando Gabrielli, Alessio Fasano, Dirk Elewaut, Giovanni Triolo
BACKGROUND: Dysbiosis has been recently demonstrated in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) but its implications in the modulation of intestinal immune responses have never been studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ileal bacteria in modulating local and systemic immune responses in AS. METHODS: Ileal biopsies were obtained from 50 HLA-B27(+) patients with AS and 20 normal subjects. Silver stain was used to visualise bacteria. Ileal expression of tight and adherens junction proteins was investigated by TaqMan real-time (RT)-PCR and immunohistochemistry...
January 9, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069054/the-effect-of-a-novel-probiotic-on-metabolic-biomarkers-in-adults-with-prediabetes-and-recently-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Talia Palacios, Luis Vitetta, Samantha Coulson, Claire D Madigan, Gareth S Denyer, Ian D Caterson
BACKGROUND: Shifts in the gastrointestinal microbiome have been shown to contribute to the progression of metabolic diseases including prediabetes and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Research suggests that in-vivo modulation of the gut microbiome by specific probiotic microorganisms may improve insulin sensitivity and blood sugar management, preventing or delaying the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, further research is needed to understand the effect of probiotics as a therapy for the treatment of metabolic diseases...
January 9, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067386/iron-and-inflammation-the-gut-reaction
#19
REVIEW
Smriti Verma, Bobby J Cherayil
Anemia is a frequent complication of many inflammatory disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease. Although the pathogenesis of this problem is multifactorial, a key component is the abnormal elevation of the hormone hepcidin, the central regulator of systemic iron homeostasis. Investigations over the last decade have resulted in important insights into the role of hepcidin in iron metabolism and the mechanisms that lead to hepcidin dysregulation in the context of inflammation. These insights provide the foundation for novel strategies to prevent and treat the anemia associated with inflammatory diseases...
January 9, 2017: Metallomics: Integrated Biometal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066942/antioxidant-status-and-expression-of-inflammatory-genes-in-gut-and-liver-of-piglets-fed-different-dietary-methionine-concentrations
#20
J O Zeitz, S Kaltenböck, E Most, K Eder
This study investigated the hypothesis that dietary concentrations of methionine (Met), as a precursor of cysteine which is a constituent of glutathione (GSH), affect tissue antioxidant concentrations and the antioxidant defence system in pigs. Forty-five piglets (DanZucht × Pietrain) were allotted to three groups of similar mean body weight (11.0 ± 0.9 kg). The basal diet was composed of barley, wheat, corn starch, soybean oil, sucrose, cellulose and a mineral supplement with suboptimal concentrations of Met and was supplemented with dl-Met to reach 0...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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