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Gut inflammation

Weiran Li, Yu Zhu, Yiyuan Li, Min Shu, Yang Wen, Xiaolin Gao, Chaomin Wan
AIM: This study explored the gut microbiota of children with hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). METHODS: We enrolled 15 cases with HFMD admitted to the West China Second Hospital, Sichuan University, China, from July to September 2016 at a median age of three years. The controls were 15 healthy children of a similar age who underwent routine health examinations at the hospital during the same period. Gut microbiota was analysed using high throughput 16S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid sequencing...
November 14, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Aaron Ver Heul, Joseph Planer, Andrew L Kau
Over the last few decades, advances in our understanding of microbial ecology have allowed us to appreciate the important role of microbial communities in maintaining human health. While much of this research has focused on gut microbes, microbial communities in other body sites and from the environment are increasingly recognized in human disease. Here, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of host-microbiota interactions in the development and manifestation of asthma focusing on three distinct microbial compartments...
November 13, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
Deenaz Zaidi, Eytan Wine
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), encompassing both Crohn Disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are globally prevalent diseases, impacting children of all ages. The hallmark of IBD is a perturbed immune system that leads to continuous inflammation in the gut and challenges optimal treatment. Nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κβ), a nuclear transcription factor, plays a major role in gut homeostasis and contributes significantly toward a balanced, homeostatic immune system...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
Ahmad Javanmard, Sara Ashtari, Babak Sabet, Seyed Hossein Davoodi, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari, Azadeh Niaz, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian
Cancers of the gastrointestinal (GI) track are a serious global health problem. The human GI tract is home to trillions of microorganisms that known as gut microbiota and have established a symbiotic relationship with the host. The human intestinal microbiota plays an important role in the development of the gut immune system, metabolism, nutrition absorption, production of short-chain fatty acids and essential vitamins, resistance to pathogenic microorganisms, and modulates a normal immunological response...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Xin Fang, Jonathan M Monk, Sergey Nurk, Margarita Akseshina, Qiyun Zhu, Christopher Gemmell, Connor Gianetto-Hill, Nelly Leung, Richard Szubin, Jon Sanders, Paul L Beck, Weizhong Li, William J Sandborn, Scott D Gray-Owen, Rob Knight, Emma Allen-Vercoe, Bernhard O Palsson, Larry Smarr
Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome, including elevated abundance of putative leading bacterial triggers such as E. coli in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients, is of great interest. To date, most E. coli studies in IBD patients are focused on clinical isolates, overlooking their relative abundances and turnover over time. Metagenomics-based studies, on the other hand, are less focused on strain-level investigations. Here, using recently developed bioinformatic tools, we analyzed the abundance and properties of specific E...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Amal Ahmed Eltobshi, Elham Abdelmonem Mohamed, Galal Mahmoud Abdelghani, Ahmed Talaat Nouh
Background: Effective treatment of osteoarthritis necessitates both symptomatic relief and hindrance of joint degeneration progression. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs permit symptomatic relief only and can cause mucosal injury in the gut. Before absorption, diacerein (Dcn) is converted into rhein that counteracts cartilage degeneration without affecting prostaglandin production. Yet, low solubility and laxative action of unabsorbed rhein in the colon hindered its use. Thus, enhanced Dcn dissolution would allow absorption at the upper gut improving its bioavailability and possibly abolishing the laxative action...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Federico Castillo-Álvarez, María Eugenia Marzo-Sola
In recent years there has been a revolution regarding the role of the microbiota in different diseases, most of them within the spectrum of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, associated with the development of metagenomics and the concept of holobiont, a large organism together with its microbiota. Specifically, in Multiple Sclerosis, multiple evidence points to the role of the microbiota in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, animal model of the disease, and several articles have been published in recent years about differences in intestinal microbiota among patients with multiple sclerosis and control subjects...
November 10, 2018: Medicina Clínica
Kanakaraju Kaliannan, Ruairi C Robertson, Kiera Murphy, Catherine Stanton, Chao Kang, Bin Wang, Lei Hao, Atul K Bhan, Jing X Kang
BACKGROUND: Understanding the mechanism of the sexual dimorphism in susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome (MS) is important for the development of effective interventions for MS. RESULTS: Here we show that gut microbiome mediates the preventive effect of estrogen (17β-estradiol) on metabolic endotoxemia (ME) and low-grade chronic inflammation (LGCI), the underlying causes of MS and chronic diseases. The characteristic profiles of gut microbiome observed in female and 17β-estradiol-treated male and ovariectomized mice, such as decreased Proteobacteria and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, were associated with a lower susceptibility to ME, LGCI, and MS in these animals...
November 13, 2018: Microbiome
Michela Bottani, Laura Cornaghi, Elena Donetti, Anita Ferraretto
OBJECTIVES: The intestinal cell function can be modulated by the type and quantity of nutrients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of an excess of nutrients on intestinal morphofunctional features and a possible association of inflammation in a 70/30 Caco2/HT-29 intestinal in vitro co-culture. METHODS: An excess of nutrients (EX) was obtained by progressively increasing the medium change frequency with respect to standard cell growth conditions (ST) from confluence (T0) to 15 d after confluence (T15)...
August 3, 2018: Nutrition
Kavita Rana, Kimberly Pantoja, Liping Xiao
Bone loss is a common complication in individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD). The mechanism(s) of bone loss in SCD subjects has not been fully investigated, and there are no targeted therapies to prevent or treat compromised bone health in this population. Recent studies showed that depletion of gut microbiota with antibiotics significantly reduced the number of aged neutrophils, thereby dramatically improved the inflammation-related organ damages in SCD mice. Since neutrophils, abundantly present in bone marrow (BM), regulate bone cells, and BM neutrophils, induced by inflammatory cytokines, are associated with a low number of osteoblasts (OBs), we hypothesize that neutrophil aging in the BM of SCD mice impairs OB function...
December 2018: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Egle Cekanaviciute, Anne-Katrin Pröbstel, Anna Thomann, Tessel F Runia, Patrizia Casaccia, Ilana Katz Sand, Elizabeth Crabtree, Sneha Singh, John Morrissey, Patrick Barba, Refujia Gomez, Rob Knight, Sarkis Mazmanian, Jennifer Graves, Bruce A C Cree, Scott S Zamvil, Sergio E Baranzini
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system characterized by adaptive and innate immune system dysregulation. Recent work has revealed moderate alteration of gut microbial communities in subjects with MS and in experimental, induced models. However, a mechanistic understanding linking the observed changes in the microbiota and the presence of the disease is still missing. Chloroform-resistant, spore-forming bacteria, which primarily belong to the classes Bacilli and Clostridia in the phylum Firmicutes , have been shown to exhibit immunomodulatory properties in vitro and in vivo , but they have not yet been characterized in the context of human disease...
November 2018: MSystems
Hayandra Ferreira Nanini, Claudio Bernardazzi, Fernando Castro, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza
The chronic inflammatory process underlying inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprising Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, derives from the interplay of several components in a genetically susceptible host. These components include environmental elements and gut microbiota a dysbiosis. For decades, immune abnormalities have been investigated as critically important in IBD pathogenesis, and attempts to develop effective therapies have predominantly targeted the immune system. Nevertheless, immune events represent only one of the constituents contributing to IBD pathogenesis within the context of the complex cellular and molecular network underlying chronic intestinal inflammation...
November 7, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Hajara Aslam, Jessica Green, Felice N Jacka, Fiona Collier, Michael Berk, Julie Pasco, Samantha L Dawson
Mental disorders including depression and anxiety are often comorbid with gut problems, suggesting a bidirectional relationship between mental health and gut function. Several mechanisms might explain this comorbidity, such as inflammation and immune activation; intestinal permeability; perturbations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis; neurotransmitter/neuropeptide dysregulation; dietary deficiencies; and disturbed gut microbiome composition. The potential of modulating the microbiome-gut-brain axis, and subsequently mental health, through the use of functional foods, is an emerging and novel topic of interest...
November 11, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Xichuan Zhai, Dehui Lin, Yan Zhao, Wenwen Li, Xingbin Yang
This work was to assess possible impacts of novel insoluble fiber BC (8% bacterial cellulose), soluble fiber KGM (8% Konjac glucomannan) and their mixture (4% BC/4% KGM) on fatty acid metabolism and intestinal microbiota of C57BL/6J mice fed with high-fat diet (HFD). HFD-fed mice receiving the dietary fibers (DFs) for 16 weeks exhibited an improvement in lipid-associated cytokines and a decrease in inflammation factors, which was associated with the improved the hepatic and serum fatty acids composition. The DFs, notably the mixed BC/KGM, elevated the HFD-caused decrease in the contents of acetic acid (from 23...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Lisa R Hoving, Saeed Katiraei, Amanda Pronk, Marieke Heijink, Kelly K D Vonk, Fatiha Amghar-El Bouazzaoui, Rosalie Vermeulen, Lizette Drinkwaard, Martin Giera, Vanessa van Harmelen, Ko Willems van Dijk
Gut microbiota have been implicated in the development of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Since the prebiotic inulin is thought to beneficially affect gut microbiota, we aimed to determine the effect of inulin supplementation on atherosclerosis development in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP (E3L.CETP) mice. Female E3L.CETP mice were fed a western-type diet containing 0.1% or 0.5% cholesterol with or without 10% inulin. The effects of inulin were determined on: microbiota composition, cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) levels, plasma lipid levels, atherosclerosis development, hepatic morphology and hepatic inflammation...
November 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Sandra Rutting, Dia Xenaki, Monique Malouf, Jay C Horvat, Lisa G Wood, Philip M Hansbro, Brian G Oliver
Short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), produced as by-products of dietary fibre metabolism by gut bacteria, have anti-inflammatory properties and could potentially be used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, including asthma. The direct effects of SCFAs on inflammatory responses in primary human lung mesenchymal cells have not been assessed. We investigated whether SCFAs can protect against TNFα-induced inflammation in primary human lung fibroblasts (HLFs) and airway smooth muscle (ASM) cells in vitro. HLFs and ASM cells were exposed to SCFAs, acetate (C2:0), propionate (C3:0) and butyrate (C4:0) (0...
November 8, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
Eric Gracey, Emilie Dumas, Meital Yerushalmi, Zoya Qaiyum, Robert D Inman, Dirk Elewaut
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article aims to review recent literature linking epithelial barrier inflammation and arthritis in spondyloarthritis (SpA), with a critical view on how they are bound by genetic, immunological and environmental ties. RECENT FINDINGS: The epithelia-joint axis has become an intense area of both basic and clinical SpA research. The penultimate goal is to understand the immunopathologic links between epithelial inflammation and arthritis in SpA...
November 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Keng Po Lai, Alice Hoi-Man Ng, Hin Ting Wan, Aman Yi-Man Wong, Cherry Chi-Tim Leung, Rong Li, Chris Kong-Chu Wong
The gut microbiome is a dynamic ecosystem formed by thousands of diverse bacterial species. This bacterial diversity is acquired early in life and shaped over time by a combination of multiple factors, including dietary exposure to distinct nutrients and xenobiotics. Alterations of the gut microbiota composition and associated metabolic activities in the gut are linked to various immune and metabolic diseases. The microbiota could potentially interact with xenobiotics in the gut environment as a result of their board enzymatic capacities and thereby affect the bioavailability and toxicity of the xenobiotics in enterohepatic circulation...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Jing-Hua Wang, Shambhunath Bose, Na Rae Shin, Young-Won Chin, Young Hee Choi, Hojun Kim
Purpose: Metformin and Houttuynia cordata are representative anti-diabetic therapeutic agents in western and oriental medicinal fields, respectively. The present study examined the therapeutic effects of houttuynia cordata extract (HCE) and metformin in combination in a dysmetabolic mouse model. Methods: Metabolic disorders were induced in C57BL/6J mice by high fat diet (HFD) for 14 weeks. Results: Combination of metformin and HCE significantly lowered body weight, abdominal fat, perirenal fat, liver and kidney weights, but did not change epididymal fat in HFD-fed animals...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Paolo Usai-Satta, Francesco Oppia, Mariantonia Lai, Francesco Cabras
Background: There is evidence that digestive motor disorders are frequently present in untreated celiac disease (CD) patients. Similarly, non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) can be associated with gut motor disorders. In both cases, gut dysmotility can improve or be completely reversed with a gluten-free diet (GFD). Methods: A literature search for motility disorders in CD and NCGS patients was carried out using the online databases PubMed, Medline and Cochrane. Results: Esophageal, gastric, small bowel and gallbladder motor disorders are common in both children and adults with CD...
November 7, 2018: Nutrients
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