keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Biological evolution

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749251/identification-of-spirocyclic-or-phosphate-substituted-quinolizine-derivatives-as-novel-hiv-1-integrase-inhibitors-a-patent-evaluation-of-wo2016094197a1-wo2016094198a1-and-wo2016154527a1
#1
Xiqiang Cheng, Ping Gao, Lin Sun, Ye Tian, Peng Zhan, Xinyong Liu
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been widely adopted to control the HIV-1 infection successfully. HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors are primary drugs in HAART regimens targeting integration step in the HIV-1 life cycle. However, due to the emergence of viral resistance and cross-resistance amongst drugs, there is a pressing need for new and potent IN inhibitors. This review covers the three patents describing spirocyclic and phosphate substituted quinolizine derivatives as novel HIV-1 IN inhibitors for the discovery of new anti-HIV-1 drug candidates...
July 27, 2017: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748409/evolution-of-clinical-behavior-in-crohn-s-disease-factors-associated-with-complicated-disease-and-surgery
#2
Kátia Simone Cezário de Barros, Cristina Flores, Luciana Harlacher, Carlos Fernando Magalhães Francesconi
BACKGROUND: The phenotypic expression of Crohn's disease may vary over time. Establishment of Crohn's disease phenotypes is important for definition of patient care strategies. AIMS: The aim of the study was to evaluate the long-term evolution of patients based on disease phenotypes and the main factors associated with this evolution. METHODS: Data from 179 patients were collected from a unicentric prospective database. Montreal classification was employed...
July 26, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747381/rapid-evolution-of-female-biased-genes-among-four-species-of-anopheles-malaria-mosquitoes
#3
Francesco Papa, Nikolai Windbichler, Robert M Waterhouse, Alessia Cagnetti, Rocco D'Amato, Tania Persampieri, Mara K N Lawniczak, Tony Nolan, Philippos A Papathanos
Understanding how phenotypic differences between males and females arise from the sex-biased expression of nearly identical genomes can reveal important insights into the biology and evolution of a species. Among Anopheles mosquito species, these phenotypic differences include vectorial capacity, as it is only females that blood feed and thus transmit human malaria. Here, we use RNA-seq data from multiple tissues of four vector species spanning the Anopheles phylogeny to explore the genomic and evolutionary properties of sex-biased genes...
July 26, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746767/the-moral-imagination-of-de-extinction
#4
Bruce Jennings
We live amidst the sixth great extinction of life on Earth, and we live under the sign of molecular biology and biotechnology. An ethical maxim that is well-nigh universally acknowledged holds that with great power comes great moral responsibility. For those who accept the science and embrace the responsibility, there are two rather different kinds of moral vision and moral imagination at work. Detractors of biotechnology say that we should see ourselves as creaturely good citizens of the biotic community, accepting and accommodating what evolutionary natural selection has bequeathed to us, warts and all...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746754/structure-and-stability-of-genetic-variance-covariance-matrices-a-bayesian-sparse-factor-analysis-of-transcriptional-variation-in-the-three-spined-stickleback
#5
J Siren, O Ovaskainen, J Merilä
The genetic variance-covariance matrix (G) is a quantity of central importance in evolutionary biology due to its influence on the rate and direction of multivariate evolution. However, the predictive power of empirically estimated G-matrices is limited for two reasons. First, phenotypes are high-dimensional, whereas traditional statistical methods are tuned to estimate and analyse low-dimensional matrices. Second, the stability of G to environmental effects and over time remains poorly understood. Using Bayesian sparse factor analysis (BSFG) designed to estimate high-dimensional G-matrices, we analysed levels variation and covariation in 10527 expressed genes in a large (n = 563) half-sib breeding design of three-spined sticklebacks subject to two temperature treatments...
July 26, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745397/tempo-and-mode-of-performance-evolution-across-multiple-independent-origins-of-adhesive-toe-pads-in-lizards
#6
Travis J Hagey, Josef C Uyeda, Kristen E Crandell, Jorn A Cheney, Kellar Autumn, Luke J Harmon
Understanding macroevolutionary dynamics of trait evolution is an important endeavor in evolutionary biology. Ecological opportunity can liberate a trait as it diversifies through trait space, while genetic and selective constraints can limit diversification. While many studies have examined the dynamics of morphological traits, diverse morphological traits may yield the same or similar performance and as performance is often more proximately the target of selection, examining only morphology may give an incomplete understanding of evolutionary dynamics...
July 26, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743998/rapid-evolution-of-a-batesian-mimicry-trait-in-a-butterfly-responding-to-arrival-of-a-new-model
#7
Mitsuho Katoh, Haruki Tatsuta, Kazuki Tsuji
Batesian mimicry, a phenomenon in which harmless organisms resemble harmful or unpalatable species, has been extensively studied in evolutionary biology. Model species may differ from population to population of a single mimetic species, so different predation pressures might have driven micro-evolution towards better mimicry among regions. However, there is scant direct evidence of micro-evolutionary change over time in mimicry traits. Papilio polytes shows female-limited Batesian mimicry. On Okinawa, one mimicry model is Pachliopta aristolochiae, which was not present on the island until 1993...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743941/transcriptomes-and-expression-profiling-of-deep-sea-corals-from-the-red-sea-provide-insight-into-the-biology-of-azooxanthellate-corals
#8
Lauren K Yum, Sebastian Baumgarten, Till Röthig, Cornelia Roder, Anna Roik, Craig Michell, Christian R Voolstra
Despite the importance of deep-sea corals, our current understanding of their ecology and evolution is limited due to difficulties in sampling and studying deep-sea environments. Moreover, a recent re-evaluation of habitat limitations has been suggested after characterization of deep-sea corals in the Red Sea, where they live at temperatures of above 20 °C at low oxygen concentrations. To gain further insight into the biology of deep-sea corals, we produced reference transcriptomes and studied gene expression of three deep-sea coral species from the Red Sea, i...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743766/the-evolution-of-duplicate-gene-expression-in-mammalian-organs
#9
Katerina Guschanski, Maria Warnefors, Henrik Kaessmann
Gene duplications generate genomic raw material that allows the emergence of novel functions, likely facilitating adaptive evolutionary innovations. However, global assessments of the functional and evolutionary relevance of duplicate genes in mammals were until recently limited by the lack of appropriate comparative data. Here we report a large-scale study of the expression evolution of DNA-based functional gene duplicates in three major mammalian lineages (placental mammals, marsupials, egg-laying monotremes) and birds, on the basis of RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) data from nine species and eight organs...
July 25, 2017: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743708/tackling-the-great-challenges-in-biology-beyond-evolution-defining-the-greatest-challenges-in-biology-is-a-challenge-itself
#10
Philip Hunter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 25, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742982/investigation-of-orthologous-pathogen-recognition-gene-rich-regions-in-solanaceous-species
#11
A Di Donato, Giuseppe Andolfo, A Ferrarini, M Delledonne, M R Ercolano
The genome architecture of pathogen receptor genes (PRGs) was extensively investigated in several plant species. However, we still know little about their elaborate reorganization arose during the plant speciation process. Using recently released pepper and eggplant genome sequences we were able to identify 1097 pathogen recognition genes in pepper Zunla-1 and 775 in eggplant Nakate-Shinkuro. The retrieved genes were analysed for their tendency to cluster, using different methods to infer the means of grouping...
July 25, 2017: Genome Génome / Conseil National de Recherches Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742933/gene-expression-is-more-strongly-influenced-by-age-than-caste-in-the-ant-lasius-niger
#12
Eric R Lucas, Jonathan Romiguier, Laurent Keller
Phenotypic plasticity, where a single genome can give rise to different phenotypes, underlies many remarkable features of the natural world and occurs in a wide range of organisms. Understanding the transcriptional differences that underlie plastic phenotypes remains a major unsolved problem in biology. In many ants, females can develop into either queens or workers, two phenotypes with different morphology, behaviour and longevity. In comparison to workers, queens are larger, more fecund and longer-lived. Here, we study gene expression differences between queens and workers in the ant Lasius niger...
July 25, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742046/a-fast-algorithm-for-analysis-of-molecular-communication-in-artificial-synapse
#13
Bilgesu A Bilgin, Ozgur B Akan
In this paper we analyse molecular communications (MC) in a proposed artificial synapse (AS), whose main difference from biological synapses (BSs) is that it is closed, i.e., transmitter molecules cannot diffuse out from AS. Such a setup has both advantages and disadvantages. Besides higher structural stability, being closed, AS never runs out of transmitters. Thus, MC in AS is disconnected from outer environment, which is very desirable for possible intra-body applications. On the other hand, clearance of transmitters from AS has to be achieved by transporter molecules on the presynaptic membrane of AS...
July 21, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741966/the-connections-of-wnt-pathway-components-with-cell-cycle-and-centrosome-side-effects-or-a-hidden-logic
#14
Vítězslav Bryja, Igor Červenka, Lukáš Čajánek
Wnt signaling cascade has developed together with multicellularity to orchestrate the development and homeostasis of complex structures. Wnt pathway components - such as β-catenin, Dishevelled (DVL), Lrp6, and Axin-- are often dedicated proteins that emerged in evolution together with the Wnt signaling cascade and are believed to function primarily in the Wnt cascade. It is interesting to see that in recent literature many of these proteins are connected with cellular functions that are more ancient and not limited to multicellular organisms - such as cell cycle regulation, centrosome biology, or cell division...
July 25, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741177/birth-birth-death-processes-and-their-computable-transition-probabilities-with-biological-applications
#15
Lam Si Tung Ho, Jason Xu, Forrest W Crawford, Vladimir N Minin, Marc A Suchard
Birth-death processes track the size of a univariate population, but many biological systems involve interaction between populations, necessitating models for two or more populations simultaneously. A lack of efficient methods for evaluating finite-time transition probabilities of bivariate processes, however, has restricted statistical inference in these models. Researchers rely on computationally expensive methods such as matrix exponentiation or Monte Carlo approximation, restricting likelihood-based inference to small systems, or indirect methods such as approximate Bayesian computation...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741165/history-and-conceptual-developments-in-vascular-biology-and-angiogenesis-research-a-personal-view
#16
REVIEW
Andreas Bikfalvi
Vascular biology is an important scientific domain that has gradually penetrated many medical and scientific fields. Scientists are most often focused on present problems in their daily scientific work and lack awareness regarding the evolution of their domain throughout history and of how philosophical issues are related to their research field. In this article, I provide a personal view with an attempt to conceptualize vascular development research that articulates lessons taken from history, philosophy, biology and medicine...
July 24, 2017: Angiogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740497/the-role-of-multiscale-protein-dynamics-in-antigen-presentation-and-t-lymphocyte-recognition
#17
R Charlotte Eccleston, Shunzhou Wan, Neil Dalchau, Peter V Coveney
T lymphocytes are stimulated when they recognize short peptides bound to class I proteins of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) protein, as peptide-MHC complexes. Due to the diversity in T-cell receptor (TCR) molecules together with both the peptides and MHC proteins they bind to, it has been difficult to design vaccines and treatments based on these interactions. Machine learning has made some progress in trying to predict the immunogenicity of peptide sequences in the context of specific MHC class I alleles but, as such approaches cannot integrate temporal information and lack explanatory power, their scope will always be limited...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740442/techniques-used-for-the-screening-of-hemoglobin-levels-in-blood-donors-current-insights-and-future-directions
#18
REVIEW
Rajendra Chaudhary, Anju Dubey, Atul Sonker
Blood donor hemoglobin (Hb) estimation is an important donation test that is performed prior to blood donation. It serves the dual purpose of protecting the donors' health against anemia and ensuring good quality of blood components, which has an implication on recipients' health. Diverse cutoff criteria have been defined world over depending on population characteristics; however, no testing methodology and sample requirement have been specified for Hb screening. Besides the technique, there are several physiological and methodological factors that affect accuracy and reliability of Hb estimation...
2017: Journal of Blood Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739369/genomic-regression-of-claw-keratin-taste-receptor-and-light-associated-genes-provides-insights-into-biology-and-evolutionary-origins-of-snakes
#19
Christopher A Emerling
Regressive evolution of anatomical traits often corresponds with the regression of genomic loci underlying such characters. As such, studying patterns of gene loss can be instrumental in addressing questions of gene function, resolving conflicting results from anatomical studies, and understanding the evolutionary history of clades. The evolutionary origins of snakes involved the regression of a number of anatomical traits, including limbs, taste buds and the visual system, and by analyzing serpent genomes, I was able to test three hypotheses associated with the regression of these features...
July 21, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738867/q-a-what-is-human-language-when-did-it-evolve-and-why-should-we-care
#20
Mark Pagel
Human language is unique among all forms of animal communication. It is unlikely that any other species, including our close genetic cousins the Neanderthals, ever had language, and so-called sign 'language' in Great Apes is nothing like human language. Language evolution shares many features with biological evolution, and this has made it useful for tracing recent human history and for studying how culture evolves among groups of people with related languages. A case can be made that language has played a more important role in our species' recent (circa last 200,000 years) evolution than have our genes...
July 24, 2017: BMC Biology
keyword
keyword
108832
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"