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labetalol infusion in children

Pankaj Hari, Aditi Sinha
Hypertensive emergencies, though uncommon in children, are potentially life threatening. While targeting blood pressure reduction to below the 90th percentile for age, gender and height, mean arterial blood pressure should be gradually lowered by one-fourth of the planned reduction over 8-12 h, a further fourth over the next 8-12 h, and the final 50% over the 24 h after that. Frequent invasive or non-invasive blood pressure monitoring is essential, as is monitoring for sensorial alteration and loss of papillary reflexes...
May 2011: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Christopher A Thomas, Brady S Moffett, Jeffrey L Wagner, Antonio R Mott, Daniel I Feig
OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy and safety of labetalol for hypertensive crisis in children ≤ 24 months of age. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. Statistical analysis utilized analysis of variance for continuous data, chi-square tests for nominal data, and linear regression. SETTING: A 737-bed pediatric teaching institution. PATIENTS: Twenty-seven patients ≤ 24 months of age were treated with 37 intravenous infusions of labetalol, nicardipine, or nitroprusside for hypertensive crisis or hypertensive urgency...
January 2011: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Christine A Kenyon, Randall Flick, Christopher Moir, Michael J Ackerman, Christina M Pabelick
OBJECTIVE: To describe our experience in the anesthetic management of pediatric patients who have undergone left cardiac sympathetic denervation (LCSD) for congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) and catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome and CPVT predispose patients to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. One treatment option for these patients is LCSD. When these patients present for LCSD or other surgical procedures, anesthetic management is challenging, as many medications may exacerbate QT prolongation...
May 2010: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Joseph T Flynn, Kjell Tullus
Severe, symptomatic hypertension occurs uncommonly in children, usually only in those with underlying congenital or acquired renal disease. If such hypertension has been long-standing, then rapid blood pressure reduction may be risky due to altered cerebral hemodynamics. While many drugs are available for the treatment of severe hypertension in adults, few have been studied in children. Despite the lack of scientific studies, some agents, particularly continuous intravenous infusions of nicardipine and labetalol, are preferred in many centers...
June 2009: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Yu-Chih Huang, Chao-Hsiang Chang, Chung-Hsing Wang, Jeng-Sheng Chang
Pheochromocytoma in children shows much worse complications than that in the adult patients. An 11-year-old girl was transferred to our emergency room after suffering from headache, dizziness, cold sweating and palpitation for 3 days. Severe hypertension, remarkable blood pressure fluctuation between 260/160 and 65/50 mmHg, decrease of cardiac contractility, as well as abnormal electrocardiogram findings including ST-T segment elevation and QT interval prolongation were noted soon after admission. Later, a 4x4...
September 2007: Acta Paediatrica Taiwanica, Taiwan Er Ke Yi Xue Hui za Zhi
T Groshong
Children presenting with hypertension should be considered for emergency treatment when there is evidence of end-organ toxicity. Complications of extreme hypertension may be very serious, even life threatening, with the potential for life-long sequelae. Of greatest significance is damage to the central nervous system. Treatment of hypertensive emergencies should be directed toward the lowering of blood pressure enough to reduce toxicity, but not at a rate likely to cause hypoperfusion of vital organs. This blood pressure reduction should, in general, be carefully controlled in an intensive care unit, with attention to central nervous system, cardiac, and renal function...
July 1996: Pediatric Annals
S Oishi, T Shimada, T Sato
A 29-year-old female who had undergone resection of an abdominal paraaortic pheochromocytoma weighing 33 g at the age of 20 had had severe headaches, hypertension and hyperhidrosis 3 years prior to the surgery. Postoperatively, her symptoms completely disappeared and urinary catecholamines were normalized. She was well and had married and had had 2 children. She was admitted to our hospital on August 22, 1982, for further evaluation of hypertension (154/100), which had been diagnosed 2 months previously. Endocrinological studies confirming the presence of a pheochromocytoma were as follows: 1) Plasma noradrenaline level was significantly elevated to 1750 pg/ml...
October 20, 1983: Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi
T E Bunchman, R E Lynch, E G Wood
Thirteen children (ages 9.2 +/- 3.7 years, mean +/- SD) received intravenous doses of labetalol, an alpha 1- and beta-adrenergic blocker, on 15 separate occasions for treatment of hypertension. In 12 of 15 episodes an initial dose of 0.55 +/- 0.34 mg/kg was given; in all 15 a continuous infusion of 0.78 +/- 0.39 mg/kg per hour was utilized for 67.3 +/- 57.1 hours. A significant decrease in systemic blood pressure occurred in all episodes (143/99.1 +/- 17.7/11.1 vs 115.6/72.4 +/- 7.7/9.5; p less than 0.01). A clinically unimportant yet statistically significant decrease in heart rate occurred during labetalol infusion (116...
January 1992: Journal of Pediatrics
J E Deal, T M Barratt, M J Dillon
Between 1975 and 1985, 454 patients with hypertension were admitted to the Renal Unit of the Hospital for Sick Children. A total of 110 (24%) patients presented with severely raised blood pressures deemed to require emergency management. At presentation 84/110 had symptoms and signs of long standing hypertension with neurological involvement. Between 1975 and 1980 bolus intravenous injections of diazoxide and/or hydralazine were used with the aim of reducing the blood pressure to within the normal range for age in the first 12-24 hours after admission...
September 1992: Archives of Disease in Childhood
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