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Scott A Boden, Colin Cavanagh, Brian R Cullis, Kerrie Ramm, Julian Greenwood, E Jean Finnegan, Ben Trevaskis, Steve M Swain
The domestication of cereal crops such as wheat, maize, rice and barley has included the modification of inflorescence architecture to improve grain yield and ease harvesting(1). Yield increases have often been achieved through modifying the number and arrangement of spikelets, which are specialized reproductive branches that form part of the inflorescence. Multiple genes that control spikelet development have been identified in maize, rice and barley(2-5). However, little is known about the genetic underpinnings of this process in wheat...
2015: Nature Plants
Wei Zhou, Shasha Wu, Mingquan Ding, Jingjuan Li, Zhaobin Shi, Wei Wei, Jialian Guo, Hua Zhang, Yurong Jiang, Junkang Rong
Wheat heading date is an important agronomic trait determining maturation time and yield. A set of common wheat (Triticum aestivum var. Chinese Spring; CS)-wild emmer (T. turgidum L. subsp. dicoccoides (TDIC)) chromosome arm substitution lines (CASLs) was used to identify and allocate QTLs conferring late or early spike emergence by examining heading date. Genetic loci accelerating heading were found on TDIC chromosome arms 3AL and 7BS, while loci delaying heading were located on 4AL and 2BS. To map QTLs conferring late heading on 2BS, F2 populations derived from two cross combinations of CASL2BS × CS and CASL3AL × CASL2BS were developed and each planted at two times, constituting four F2 mapping populations...
2016: PloS One
Julio Rincon, Albert Tan, Martin Firth, Ahmed Saleh
BACKGROUND: There are insufficient guidelines for the use of adjunctive systemic antibiotics for patients with periodontal disease. AIM: To compare clinical outcomes for patients with moderate-advanced chronic periodontitis treated with: scaling and root planing (SRP), SRP with amoxicillin and metronidazole (A+M), SRP with Azithromycin (Az). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty seven non-smokers with generalized moderate to advanced chronic periodontitis were divided into three treatment groups: SRP, A+M and Az...
February 2, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
Gisele Maria C Fabri, Rosa Maria R Pereira, Cynthia Savioli, Carla G S Saad, Júlio Cesar B de Moraes, José Tadeu T Siqueira, Eloisa Bonfa
BACKGROUND: Recently, it has been demonstrated that patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have a higher risk of periodontitis; however, the effect of anti-TNF therapy in periodontal status of patients with AS and particularly in dental attachment is not known. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinally the local periodontal effect of TNF-antagonist in AS and compare to patients with RA. METHODS: Fifteen patients with AS and 15 RA control patients were prospectively evaluated at baseline and after 6 months (6 M) of anti-TNF therapy...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
Mrinal Gupta, Vikram K Mahajan, Karaninder S Mehta, Pushpinder S Chauhan
BACKGROUND: The contact allergic reactions from p-phenylenediamine (PPD) in hair dyes vary from mild contact dermatitis to severe life- threatening events (angioedema, bronchospasm, asthma, renal impairment). OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical patterns and PPD contact sensitivity in patients with hair-dye dermatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty (M:F 47:33) consecutive patients aged between 18 and 74 years suspected to have contact allergy from hair dye were studied by patch testing with Indian Standard Series including p-phenylenediamine (PPD, 1...
July 2015: Indian Dermatology Online Journal
Justin I Montgomery, James F Smith, Andrew P Tomaras, Richard Zaniewski, Craig J McPherson, Laura A McAllister, Sandra Hartman-Neumann, Joel T Arcari, Marykay Lescoe, Jemy Gutierrez, Ying Yuan, Chris Limberakis, Alita A Miller
A high-throughput phenotypic screen for novel antibacterial agents led to the discovery of a novel pyrazolopyrimidinedione, PPD-1, with preferential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Resistance mapping revealed the likely target of inhibition to be lysyl tRNA synthetase (LysRS). Preliminary structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies led to an analog, PPD-2, which gained Gram-negative antibacterial activity at the expense of MRSA activity and resistance to this compound mapped to prolyl tRNA synthetase (ProRS)...
June 2015: Journal of Antibiotics
Mingzhu Cao, Rachel W S Chan, William S B Yeung
Human and mouse endometrium undergo dramatic cellular reorganization during pregnancy and postpartum. Somatic stem cells maintain homeostasis of the tissue by providing a cell reservoir for regeneration. We hypothesized that endometrial cells with quiescent properties (stem/progenitor cells) were involved in the regeneration of the endometrial tissue. Given that stem cells divide infrequently, they can retain the DNA synthesis label [bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)] after a prolonged chase period. In this study, prepubertal mice were pulsed with BrdU and after a 6-week chase a small population of label-retaining stromal cells (LRSC) was located primarily beneath the luminal epithelium, adjacent to blood vessels, and near the endometrial-myometrial junction...
March 15, 2015: Stem Cells and Development
Esra Bahar Gur, Ayse Gokduman, Guluzar Arzu Turan, Sumeyra Tatar, Irem Hepyilmaz, Esma Burcak Zengin, Fatma Eskicioglu, Serkan Guclu
OBJECTIVES: Postpartum depression (PPD) is a common disorder that affects 10-15% of postpartum women, and it can have negative effects on both the mother and newborn. Recent studies have suggested that low levels of vitamin D are associated with poor mood and depression. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate a possible association between PPD and serum levels of 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), a reliable measurement of vitamin D, during mid-pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: The source population consisted of all pregnant women between 24 and 28 gestational weeks from June 2012 to October 2012 at Bornova Health Research and Application Hospital, Sifa University...
August 2014: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Sabrina Goudjil, Fatiha Imestouren, Aurelie Armougon, Lucie Razafimanantsoa, Mahdi Mahmoudzadeh, Fabrice Wallois, André Leke, Guy Kongolo
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) on the pulse phase difference (PPD) between the left foot (postductal region) and the right hand (preductal region). MATERIALS AND METHODS: PPD was determined from arterial photoplethysmography signals (pulse waves) measured by infrared sensors routinely used for pulse oximetry in 56 premature infants less than 32 weeks gestation. Only infants with significant PDA (sPDA) diagnosed by echocardiography were treated with ibuprofen (for 3 days)...
2014: PloS One
Hiroyuki Iwai, Alan M Hoberman
The reproductive toxicity potential of Ammonium Salt of Perfluorinated Hexanoic Acid (PFHxA Ammonium Salt) in pregnant Crl: CD1(ICR) mice was investigated. Twenty females/group were administered the test substance or vehicle once daily from gestation day 6 through 18. Phase 1 doses: 0, 100, 350, and 500 mg/kg/d; phase 2: 0, 7, 35, and 175 mg/kg/d. Parameters evaluated include mortality, viability, body weights, clinical signs, abortions, premature deliveries, pregnancy and fertility, litter observations, maternal behavior, and sexual maturity in the F1 generation...
April 3, 2014: International Journal of Toxicology
A R Reis, M S de Azevedo, M A de Souza, M L Lutz, M B Alves, I Izquierdo, M Cammarota, P P Silveira, A B Lucion
During early life, a mother and her pups establish a very close relationship, and the olfactory learning of the nest odor is very important for the bond formation. The olfactory bulb (OB) is a structure that plays a fundamental role in the olfactory learning (OL) mechanism that also involves maternal behavior (licking and contact). We hypothesized that handling the pups would alter the structure of the maternal behavior, affect OL, and alter mother-pup relationships. Moreover, changes in the cyclic AMP-response element binding protein phosphorylation (CREB) and neurotrophic factors could be a part of the mechanism of these changes...
May 15, 2014: Behavioural Brain Research
Anh T Nguyen, Julio C M Iehisa, Nobuyuki Mizuno, Miyuki Nitta, Shuhei Nasuda, Shigeo Takumi
Wheat landraces carry abundant genetic variation in heading and flowering times. Here, we studied flowering-related traits of two Nepalese varieties, KU-4770 and KU-180 and a Japanese wheat cultivar, Shiroganekomugi (SGK). These three wheat varieties showed similar flowering time in a common garden experiment. In total, five significant quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for three examined traits, the heading, flowering and maturation times, were detected using an F2 population of SGK/KU-4770. The QTLs were found at the Ppd-1 loci on chromosomes 2B and 2D and the 2B QTL was also confirmed in another F2 population of SGK/KU-180...
December 2013: Breeding Science
Masako Seki, Makiko Chono, Tsutomu Nishimura, Mikako Sato, Yasuhiro Yoshimura, Hitoshi Matsunaka, Masaya Fujita, Shunsuke Oda, Katashi Kubo, Chikako Kiribuchi-Otobe, Hisayo Kojima, Hidetaka Nishida, Kenji Kato
The Ppd-A1 genotype of 240 Japanese wheat cultivars and 40 foreign cultivars was determined using a PCR-based method. Among Japanese cultivars, only 12 cultivars, all of which were Hokkaido winter wheat, carried the Ppd-A1a allele, while this allele was not found in Hokkaido spring wheat cultivars or Tohoku-Kyushu cultivars. Cultivars with a photoperiod-insensitive allele headed 6.9-9.8 days earlier in Kanto and 2.5 days earlier in Hokkaido than photoperiod-sensitive cultivars. The lower effect of photoperiod-insensitive alleles observed in Hokkaido could be due to the longer day-length at the spike formation stage compared with that in Kanto...
September 2013: Breeding Science
Lindsay M Shaw, Adrian S Turner, Laurence Herry, Simon Griffiths, David A Laurie
Flowering time in wheat and barley is known to be modified by mutations in the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) gene. Semi-dominant Ppd-1a mutations conferring an early flowering phenotype are well documented in wheat but gene sequencing has also identified candidate loss of function mutations for Ppd-A1 and Ppd-D1. By analogy to the recessive ppd-H1 mutation in barley, loss of function mutations in wheat are predicted to delay flowering under long day conditions. To test this experimentally, introgression lines were developed in the spring wheat variety 'Paragon'...
2013: PloS One
Adrian S Turner, Sébastien Faure, Yang Zhang, David A Laurie
Vernalization-2 (Vrn-2) is the major flowering repressor in temperate cereals. It is only expressed under long days in wild-type plants. We used two day-neutral (photoperiod insensitive) mutations that allow rapid flowering in short or long days to investigate the day length control of Vrn-2. The barley (Hordeum vulgare) early maturity8 (eam8) mutation affects the barley ELF3 gene. eam8 mutants disrupt the circadian clock resulting in elevated expression of Ppd-H1 and the floral activator HvFT1 under short or long days...
September 2013: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Julieta Paola Aguggia, Marta Magdalena Suárez, María Angélica Rivarola
Repeated separation of dams from their pups during the postpartum period may evoke emotional stress in the dam. In the present study we investigated whether prolonged maternal separation is stressful for rat dams by studying different behavioral and central responses known to be affected by stress. After delivery, female Wistar rats were subjected to either animal facility rearing (AFR) conditions or daily 4.5 h of mother-litter separation from postpartum day (PPD) 1-21. Maternal care (pup retrieval) was evaluated at PPD 3...
July 1, 2013: Behavioural Brain Research
Nobuyuki Mizuno, Miyuki Nitta, Kazuhiro Sato, Shuhei Nasuda
An X-ray mutant showing an early flowering phenotype has been identified in einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.), for which a major QTL for heading time was previously mapped in the telomeric region on the long arm of chromosome 3A. Recent advances in Triticeae genomics revealed that the gene order in this region is highly conserved between wheat and barley. Thus, we adopted a hypothetical gene order in barley, the so-called GenomeZipper, to develop DNA markers for fine mapping the target gene in wheat. We identified three genes tightly linked to the early heading phenotype...
2012: Genes & Genetic Systems
A R Bentley, R Horsnell, C P Werner, A S Turner, G A Rose, C Bedard, P Howell, E P Wilhelm, I J Mackay, R M Howells, A Greenland, D A Laurie, N Gosman
Flowering is a critical period in the life cycle of flowering plant species, resulting in an irreversible commitment of significant resources. Wheat is photoperiod sensitive, flowering only when daylength surpasses a critical length; however, photoperiod insensitivity (PI) has been selected by plant breeders for >40 years to enhance yield in certain environments. Control of flowering time has been greatly facilitated by the development of molecular markers for the Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) homeoloci, on the group 2 chromosomes...
April 2013: Journal of Experimental Botany
Satoshi Kitagawa, Sanae Shimada, Koji Murai
The photoperiod sensitivity gene Ppd-1 influences the timing of flowering in temperate cereals such as wheat and barley. The effect of Ppd-1 on the expression of flowering-time genes was assessed by examining the expression levels of the vernalization genes VRN1 and VRN3/WFT and of two CONSTANS-like genes, WCO1 and TaHd1, during vegetative and reproductive growth stages. Two near-isogenic lines (NILs) were used: the first carried a photoperiod-insensitive allele of Ppd-1 (Ppd-1a-NIL), the other, a photoperiod-sensitive allele (Ppd-1b-NIL)...
2012: Genes & Genetic Systems
Stijn Vervaeke, Melissa Dierens, Jos Besseler, Hugo De Bruyn
AIM: To elucidate the influence of initial soft tissue thickness on peri-implant bone remodeling. The research hypothesis was that implants installed in patients or at sites with thin mucosal tissues would show increased peri-implant bone loss. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 79 edentulous patients were consecutively treated with two non-splinted implants supporting an overdenture in the mandible. During recall-visits, peri-implant health was determined by means of probing pocket depth and the modified plaque/bleeding index...
April 2014: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
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