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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800601/sequence-homology-between-hla-bound-cytomegalovirus-and-human-peptides-a-potential-trigger-for-alloreactivity
#1
Charles E Hall, Vishal N Koparde, Maximilian Jameson-Lee, Abdelrhman G Elnasseh, Allison F Scalora, David J Kobulnicky, Myrna G Serrano, Catherine H Roberts, Gregory A Buck, Michael C Neale, Daniel E Nixon, Amir A Toor
Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) reactivation may often coincide with the development of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) in stem cell transplantation (SCT). Seventy seven SCT donor-recipient pairs (DRP) (HLA matched unrelated donor (MUD), n = 50; matched related donor (MRD), n = 27) underwent whole exome sequencing to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) generating alloreactive peptide libraries for each DRP (9-mer peptide-HLA complexes); Human CMV CROSS (Cross-Reactive Open Source Sequence) database was compiled from NCBI; HLA class I binding affinity for each DRPs HLA was calculated by NetMHCpan 2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800407/human-brown-adipose-tissue-function-and-therapeutic-potential-in-metabolic-disease
#2
REVIEW
Padmanabh Shrikant Bhatt, Waljit S Dhillo, Victoria Salem
There has been a resurgence of interest in brown adipose tissue (BAT) over the last decade. Key to this has been our ability to accurately image it, which has improved significantly. The role of BAT in regulating energy expenditure is important, and its pharmacological manipulation may hold therapeutic potential in metabolic disease. There is ample evidence of BAT activation by cold exposure, and pharmacological utilisation of similar pathways, using B3 receptor agonists holds promise since the development of selective agonists with limited cross-reactivity has rekindled interest...
August 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777067/schistosoma-mansoni-cercarial-elastase-smce-differences-in-immunogenic-properties-of-native-and-recombinant-forms
#3
Marwa H El-Faham, Katherine J Wheatcroft-Francklow, Helen P Price, Jon R Sayers, Michael J Doenhoff
The Schistosoma mansoni cercarial elastase (SmCE) has previously been shown to be poorly immunogenic in mice. However, a minority of mice were able to produce antibodies against SmCE after multiple immunizations with crude preparations containing the enzyme. These mice were partially protected against challenge infections of S. mansoni. In the present study, we show that in contrast to the poor immunogenicity of the enzymatically active native form of SmCE derived from a crude preparation (cercarial transformation fluid), immunization of CBA/Ca mice with two enzymatically inactive forms, namely purified native SmCE or a recombinant SmCE fused to recombinant Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase (rSmCE-SjGST), after adsorption onto aluminum hydroxide adjuvant, induced specific anti-SmCE immunoglobulin G (IgG) in all mice within 2 weeks of the second immunization...
September 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771001/abrogation-of-immunogenic-properties-of-gliadin-peptides-through-transamidation-by-microbial-transglutaminase-is-acyl-acceptor-dependent
#4
Lin Zhou, Yvonne M C Kooy-Winkelaar, Robert A Cordfunke, Irina Dragan, Allan Thompson, Jan Wouter Drijfhout, Peter A van Veelen, Hongbing Chen, Frits Koning
Wheat gluten confers superior baking quality to wheat based products but elicits a pro-inflammatory immune response in patients with celiac disease. Transamidation of gluten by microbial transglutaminase (mTG) and tissue transglutaminase (tTG) reduces the immunogenicity of gluten, however, little information is available on the minimal modification sufficient to eliminate gliadin immunogenicity nor has the effectiveness of transamidation been studied with T-cell clones from patients. Here we demonstrate that mTG can efficiently couple three different acyl-acceptor molecules, L-lysine, glycine ethyl ester and hydroxylamine, to gliadin peptides and protein...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765161/the-interplay-between-epigenetic-changes-and-the-p53-protein-in-stem-cells
#5
REVIEW
Arnold J Levine, Shelley L Berger
Epigenetic programs regulate the development and maintenance of organisms over a lifetime. These programs are carried out through chemical modifications of DNA and proteins such as histones and transcription factors. These epigenetic modifications are less stable than genetic alterations and even reversible under a variety of circumstances, such as developmental changes, regeneration of tissues, cell divisions, aging, and pathological conditions observed in many cancers. The p53 protein not only enforces the stability of the genome by the prevention of genetic alterations in cells but also plays a role in regulating the epigenetic changes that can occur in cells...
June 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759874/effects-of-vitamin-e-diffused-highly-cross-linked-uhmwpe-particles-on-inflammation-apoptosis-and-immune-response-against-s-%C3%A2-aureus
#6
Weishen Chen, David A Bichara, Jeremy Suhardi, Puyi Sheng, Orhun K Muratoglu
Particle-induced osteolysis and periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) are closely associated with periprosthetic tissue immune function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of polyethylene particles on inflammation and response against S. aureus. Effects that vitamin E-diffused cross-linked UHMWPE (VE-PE) particles had on apoptosis, inflammation, and bactericidal activities compared to virgin cross-linked UHMWPE (control PE) particles were examined. Murine RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to VE-PE particles in vitro were less apoptotic, secreted less tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and responded more effectively against lipopolysaccharide or S...
July 24, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758566/the-influence-of-level-of-spinal-cord-injury-on-adipose-tissue-and-its-relationship-to-inflammatory-adipokines-and-cardiometabolic-profiles
#7
Gary J Farkas, Ashraf S Gorgey, David R Dolbow, Arthur S Berg, David R Gater
OBJECTIVE: Level of injury (LOI) and the role of adipose tissue and its proinflammatory adipokines in cardiometabolic dysfunction following spinal cord injury (SCI) remains poorly understood. We aim to examine the influence of LOI on adipose tissue and its relationship to proinflammatory adipokines and cardiometabolic profiles following SCI. DESIGN: Cross sectional and correlational study. SETTING: Clinical hospital and academic setting. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-seven individuals with chronic motor complete SCI (age 43...
July 30, 2017: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758346/direct-detection-and-characterization-of-foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-in-east-africa-using-a-field-ready-real-time-pcr-platform
#8
E L A Howson, B Armson, N A Lyons, E Chepkwony, C J Kasanga, S Kandusi, N Ndusilo, W Yamazaki, D Gizaw, S Cleaveland, T Lembo, R Rauh, W M Nelson, B A Wood, V Mioulet, D P King, V L Fowler
Effective control and monitoring of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) relies upon rapid and accurate disease confirmation. Currently, clinical samples are usually tested in reference laboratories using standardized assays recommended by The World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). However, the requirements for prompt and serotype-specific diagnosis during FMD outbreaks, and the need to establish robust laboratory testing capacity in FMD-endemic countries have motivated the development of simple diagnostic platforms to support local decision-making...
July 30, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745142/pharmacological-effects-of-protocatechuic-acid-and-its-therapeutic-potential-in-neurodegenerative-diseases-review-on-the-basis-of-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-studies-in-rodents-and-humans
#9
Kinga Krzysztoforska, Dagmara Mirowska-Guzel, Ewa Widy-Tyszkiewicz
Protocatechuic acid has very promising properties potentially useful in the inhibition of neurodegenerative diseases progression. It is the main metabolite of the complex polyphenolic compounds and is believed to be responsible for beneficial effects associated with consumption of the food products rich in polyphenols. Protocatechuic acid is present in the circulation significantly longer and at higher concentrations than parent compounds and easily crosses the blood brain barrier. The aim of the following paper is to provide an extensive and actual report on protocatechuic acid and its pharmacological potential in prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases in humans based on existing data from both in vitro and in vivo studies...
July 26, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743889/limbal-stromal-cells-derived-from-porcine-tissue-demonstrate-mesenchymal-characteristics-in-vitro
#10
Julia Fernández-Pérez, Marcus Binner, Carsten Werner, Laura J Bray
Limbal stromal cells (LSCs) from the human ocular surface display mesenchymal stromal cell characteristics in vitro. In this study, we isolated cells from the porcine limbal stroma (pLSCs), characterised them, and evaluated their ability to support angiogenesis and the culture of porcine limbal epithelial stem cells (pLESCs). The isolated cells adhered to plastic and grew in monolayers in vitro using serum-supplemented or serum-free medium. The pLSCs demonstrated expression of CD29, and cross-reactivity with anti-human CD45, CD90, CD105, CD146, and HLA-ABC...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743843/-new-methods-for-the-evaluation-of-bone-quality-how-does-decay-bone-quality
#11
Mitsuru Saito, Keishi Marumo
The degree of mineralization and microstructure are regulated by bone turnover. Bone collagen enzymatic cross-links and advanced glycation end products(AGEs)are affected by various factors such as the levels of oxidative stress and glycation as well as tissue lifespan. Deterioration of bone material properties markedly advances due to increases in oxidative stress, glycation stress, reactive oxygen species, carbonyl stress associated with aging and reduced sex hormone levels, and glucocorticoid use. In this review, we described determinants of bone quality and strength...
2017: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735303/acid-fast-bacterium-detection-and-identification-from-paraffin-embedded-tissues-using-a-pcr-pyrosequencing-method
#12
Jian R Bao, Richard B Clark, Ronald N Master, Kileen L Shier, Lynn L Eklund
AIMS: Acid-fast bacterium (AFB) identification from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues is challenging and may not be readily available to the clinical laboratory. A method to detect and identify AFB from FFPE tissues using PCR and pyrosequencing (PCR-Seq) was developed and evaluated. METHODS: The method was validated using spiked cell-clotted paraffin blocks before use with patients' specimens. DNA was extracted from tissue sections, and a 16S rRNA gene fragment was amplified and a signature sequence was produced on a PyroMark ID system...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734566/long-term-outcome-of-eosinophilic-fasciitis-a-cross-sectional-evaluation-of-35-patients
#13
Jorre S Mertens, Rogier M Thurlings, Wietske Kievit, Marieke M B Seyger, Timothy R D Radstake, Elke M G J de Jong
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a connective tissue disease with an unknown long-term course. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate presence and determinants of residual disease damage in patients with EF after long-term follow-up. METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven EF were included for this cross-sectional study. Outcome measures included the Physician's Global Assessment of Disease Activity, Physician's Global Assessment of Damage (PhysGA-D), skin pliability scores, passive range of motion, and health-related quality of Life (HRQoL) questionnaires...
July 19, 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726542/generation-and-functional-characterization-of-anti-human-and-anti-mouse-il-36r-antagonist-monoclonal-antibodies
#14
Rajkumar Ganesan, Ernest L Raymond, Detlev Mennerich, Joseph R Woska, Gary Caviness, Christine Grimaldi, Jennifer Ahlberg, Rocio Perez, Simon Roberts, Danlin Yang, Kavita Jerath, Kristopher Truncali, Lee Frego, Eliud Sepulveda, Priyanka Gupta, Su-Ellen Brown, Michael D Howell, Keith A Canada, Rachel Kroe-Barrett, Jay S Fine, Sanjaya Singh, M Lamine Mbow
Deficiency of interleukin (IL)-36 receptor antagonist (DITRA) syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in IL36RN. IL-36R is a cell surface receptor and a member of the IL1R family that is involved in inflammatory responses triggered in skin and other epithelial tissues. Accumulating evidence suggests that IL-36R signaling may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis. Therapeutic intervention of IL-36R signaling offers an innovative treatment paradigm for targeting epithelial cell-mediated inflammatory diseases such as the life-threatening psoriasis variant called generalized pustular psoriasis (GPP)...
July 20, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708892/cross-recognition-of-a-pit-viper-crotalinae-polyspecific-antivenom-explored-through-high-density-peptide-microarray-epitope-mapping
#15
Mikael Engmark, Bruno Lomonte, José María Gutiérrez, Andreas H Laustsen, Federico De Masi, Mikael R Andersen, Ole Lund
Snakebite antivenom is a 120 years old invention based on polyclonal mixtures of antibodies purified from the blood of hyper-immunized animals. Knowledge on antibody recognition sites (epitopes) on snake venom proteins is limited, but may be used to provide molecular level explanations for antivenom cross-reactivity. In turn, this may help guide antivenom development by elucidating immunological biases in existing antivenoms. In this study, we have identified and characterized linear elements of B-cell epitopes from 870 pit viper venom protein sequences by employing a high-throughput methodology based on custom designed high-density peptide microarrays...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701401/evaluation-of-the-biological-properties-and-cross-reactive-antibody-response-to-h10-influenza-viruses-in-ferrets
#16
Troy C Sutton, Elaine W Lamirande, Rita Czako, Kanta Subbarao
The recent outbreak of avian origin H10N7 influenza among seals in Northern Europe, and two fatal human infections with an avian H10N8 virus in China, have demonstrated that H10 viruses can spread between mammals and cause severe disease in humans. To gain insight into the potential for H10 viruses to cross the species barrier and identify a candidate vaccine strain, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo properties and antibody response in ferrets to 20 diverse H10 viruses. H10 virus infection of ferrets caused variable weight loss and all 20 viruses replicated throughout the respiratory tract; however, replication in the lungs was highly variable...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698817/the-fabrication-of-biomimetic-biphasic-can-pac-hydrogel-with-a-seamless-interfacial-layer-applied-in-osteochondral-defect-repair
#17
Jinfeng Liao, Taoran Tian, Sirong Shi, Xueping Xie, Quanquan Ma, Guo Li, Yunfeng Lin
Cartilage tissue engineering based on biomimetic scaffolds has become a rapidly developing strategy for repairing cartilage defects. In this study, a biphasic CAN-PAC hydrogel for osteochondral defect (OCD) regeneration was fabricated based on the density difference between the two layers via a thermally reactive, rapid cross-linking method. The upper hydrogel was cross-linked by CSMA and NIPAm, and the lower hydrogel was composed of PECDA, AAm and PEGDA. The interface between the two layers was first grafted by the physical cross-linking of calcium gluconate and alginate, followed by the chemical cross-linking of the carbon-carbon double bonds in the other components...
2017: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679758/a-cell-fusion-based-screening-method-identifies-the-gpi-anchored-protein-ly6e-as-the-receptor-for-the-mouse-endogenous-retroviral-envelope-syncytin-a
#18
Agathe Bacquin, Caroline Bireau, Maxime Tanguy, Charlotte Romanet, Cécile Vernochet, Anne Dupressoir, Thierry Heidmann
Syncytins are envelope genes of retroviral origin that have been exapted for a role in placentation. They are involved in the formation of a syncytial structure (the syncytiotrophoblast) at the fetomaternal interface via their fusogenic activity. The mouse placenta is rather unique among placental mammals since the fetomaternal interface comprises two syncytiotrophoblast layers (ST-I and ST-II) instead of one, as observed in humans and all other hemochorial placentae. Each layer specifically expresses a distinct mouse syncytin, namely syncytin-A (SynA) for ST-I and syncytin-B (SynB) for ST-II, which have been shown to be essential to placentogenesis and embryo survival...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664417/epicardial-adipose-tissue-at-the-heart-of-the-obesity-complications
#19
Valeria Guglielmi, Paolo Sbraccia
In recent years, the anatomic and functional contiguity of epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) to myocardium and coronary arteries has gained increasing interest for its potential pathogenetic role in obesity-related cardiac diseases. Besides its known and attributed biochemical cardioprotective properties, it is becoming evident that, in metabolic disease states, EAT-secreted bioactive molecules may play an important role in the pathogenesis of coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmias. EAT-derived inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxidative species may, indeed, play a part in the development of a local proatherogenic milieu by paracrine and vasocrine mechanisms of interaction...
June 29, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662190/bone-tissue-blood-lipids-and-inflammatory-profiles-in-adolescent-male-athletes-from-sports-contrasting-in-mechanical-load
#20
Ricardo R Agostinete, João P Duarte, João Valente-Dos-Santos, Manuel J Coelho-E-Silva, Oscar M Tavares, Jorge M Conde, Carlos A Fontes-Ribeiro, Giancarlo Condello, Laura Capranica, Suziane U Caires, Rômulo A Fernandes
Exploring the effect of non-impact and impact sports is particular relevant to understand the interaction between skeletal muscle and bone health during growth. The current study aimed to compare total and regional bone and soft-tissue composition, in parallel to measurements of blood lipid and inflammatory profiles between adolescent athletes and non-athletes. Anthropometry, biological maturity, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, training load and lipid and inflammatory profiles were assessed in a cross-sectional sample of 53 male adolescents (20 non-athletes, 15 swimmers and 18 basketball players) aged 12-19 years...
2017: PloS One
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