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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143761/antibody-cross-reactivity-between-porcine-cytomegalovirus-pcmv-and-human-herpesvirus-6-hhv-6
#1
Uwe Fiebig, Angela Holzer, Daniel Ivanusic, Elena Plotzki, Hartmut Hengel, Frank Neipel, Joachim Denner
Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) infection is widely prevalent among pigs, and PCMV is one of the viruses which may be transmitted during xenotransplantation using pig cells, tissues, or organs. While human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a major risk factor for allotransplantation, it is still unclear whether PCMV is able to infect human cells or pose a risk for xenotransplantation. Previously, it was shown that transmission of PCMV after pig kidney to non-human primate transplantations resulted in a significantly reduced survival time of the transplanted organ...
October 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132177/an-insight-on-silk-protein-sericin-from-processing-to-biomedical-application
#2
Farogh Ahsan, Tarique Mahmood Ansari, Shazia Usmani, Paramdeep Bagga
Silks are naturally occurring polymers that have been used clinically as sutures for hundreds of years. It's so for obtained from insects or worms, silk consists of a filament core protein, termed fibroin, and a glue-like coating made up of sericin proteins. An important component of silk has an extended history of being discarded as a waste in the course of silk processing. The cost of sericin for tissue engineering is underestimated and its capability in using as regenerative remedy has simply began to be explored...
November 13, 2017: Drug Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127360/a-mouse-model-of-autoimmune-cholangitis-via-syngeneic-bile-duct-protein-immunization
#3
Wen-Tao Ma, Qing-Zhi Liu, Jing-Bo Yang, Yan-Qing Yang, Zhi-Bin Zhao, Hong-Di Ma, M Eric Gershwin, Zhe-Xiong Lian
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease characterized by the destruction of interlobular biliary ductules, which progressively leads to cholestasis, hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, and eventually liver failure. Several mouse models have been used to clarify the pathogenesis of PBC and are generally considered reflective of an autoimmune cholangitis. Most models focus on issues of molecular mimicry between the E2 subunit of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC-E2), the major mitochondrial autoantigen of PBC and xenobiotic cross reactive chemicals...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125589/human-organ-tissue-identification-by-targeted-rna-deep-sequencing-to-aid-the-investigation-of-traumatic-injury
#4
Erin Hanson, Jack Ballantyne
Molecular analysis of the RNA transcriptome from a putative tissue fragment should permit the assignment of its source to a specific organ, since each will exhibit a unique pattern of gene expression. Determination of the organ source of tissues from crime scenes may aid in shootings and other investigations. We have developed a prototype massively parallel sequencing (MPS) mRNA profiling assay for organ tissue identification that is designed to definitively identify 10 organ/tissue types using a targeted panel of 46 mRNA biomarkers...
November 10, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121774/sphingolipids-and-redox-signaling-in-renal-regulation-and-chronic-kidney-diseases
#5
Owais M Bhat, Xinxu Yuan, Guangbi Li, RaMi Lee, Pin Lan Li
SIGNIFICANCE: Sphingolipids play critical roles in the membrane biology and intracellular signaling events that influence cellular behavior and function. Our review focuses on the cellular mechanisms and functional relevance of the cross talk between sphingolipids and redox signaling, which may be critically implicated in the pathogenesis of different renal diseases. Recent Advances: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and sphingolipids can regulate cellular redox homeostasis through the regulation of NADPH oxidase, mitochondrial integrity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and antioxidant enzymes...
November 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118747/emerging-targets-for-developing-t-cell-mediated-vaccines-for-human-immunodeficiency-virus-hiv-1
#6
REVIEW
Danushka K Wijesundara, Charani Ranasinghe, Branka Grubor-Bauk, Eric J Gowans
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 has infected >75 million individuals globally, and, according to the UN, is responsible for ~2.1 million new infections and 1.1 million deaths each year. Currently, there are ~37 million individuals with HIV infection and the epidemic has already resulted in 35 million deaths. Despite the advances of anti-retroviral therapy (ART), a cost-effective vaccine remains the best long-term solution to end the HIV-1 epidemic especially given that the vast majority of infected individuals live in poor socio-economic regions of the world such as Sub-Saharan Africa which limits their accessibility to ART...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118502/bilateral-sensorineural-hearing-loss-secondary-to-sympathetic-ophthalmia-in-a-human-leukocyte-antigen-a2-positive-patient
#7
Konstantinos T Tsaousis, Vasileios E Konidaris, Theodoros Empeslidis
We report a case of sympathetic ophthalmia 1 month following trauma in a 71-year-old immunocompetent female patient of Indian origin. The patient was hospitalized with signs and symptoms of meningism, ataxia, and neurosensory deafness. We explore and provide further clinical evidence in supporting the hypothesis of antigen cross-reactivity derived from tissues with common neural crest embryological background such as the uvea and cells of the labyrinth. The patient was human leukocyte antigen-A2 positive and treatment with oral steroids and cyclosporine has managed to have favorable results and control the inflammation...
September 2017: Oman Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117962/lower-cardiac-index-levels-relate-to-lower-cerebral-blood-flow-in-older-adults
#8
Angela L Jefferson, Dandan Liu, Deepak K Gupta, Kimberly R Pechman, Jennifer M Watchmaker, Elizabeth A Gordon, Swati Rane, Susan P Bell, Lisa A Mendes, L Taylor Davis, Katherine A Gifford, Timothy J Hohman, Thomas J Wang, Manus J Donahue
OBJECTIVE: To assess cross-sectionally whether lower cardiac index relates to lower resting cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) among older adults. METHODS: Vanderbilt Memory & Aging Project participants free of stroke, dementia, and heart failure were studied (n = 314, age 73 ± 7 years, 59% male, 39% with mild cognitive impairment). Cardiac index (liters per minute per meter squared) was quantified from echocardiography. Resting CBF (milliliters per 100 grams per minute) and hypercapnia-induced CVR were quantified from pseudo-continuous arterial spin-labeling MRI...
November 8, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102863/negative-selection-epitope-mimicry-and-autoimmunity
#9
REVIEW
Noel R Rose
Infections often precede the onset of autoimmune disease and molecular (or epitope) mimicry is a plausible link. Cross-reacting epitopes are common between an infecting microorganism and the host because negative selection of self-reactive T-cells and B-cells is frequently incomplete. Complete eradication could lead to major voids in the immunologic repertoire. The association of an autoimmune disease with a microbial epitope may signify a causal relationship with the organism, an indirect connection through bystander effects, persistent infection or coincidence...
November 2, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089465/lack-of-specificity-of-antibodies-raised-against-cln3-the-lysosomal-endosomal-transmembrane-protein-mutated-in-juvenile-batten-disease
#10
Tarah Nelson, David A Pearce, Attila D Kovacs
Juvenile CLN3 (Batten) disease, a fatal, childhood neurodegenerative disorder, results from mutations in the CLN3 gene encoding a lysosomal/endosomal transmembrane protein. The exact physiological function of CLN3 is still unknown and it is unclear how CLN3 mutations lead to selective neurodegeneration. To study the tissue expression and subcellular localization of the CLN3 protein, a number of anti-CLN3 antibodies have been generated using either the whole CLN3 protein or short peptides from CLN3 for immunization...
October 31, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089163/peripheral-blood-detection-of-systemic-graft-specific-xeno-antibodies-following-transplantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-into-the-porcine-spinal-cord
#11
Jason J Lamanna, Juanmarco Gutierrez, Jaclyn R Espinosa, Jacob Wagner, Lindsey N Urquia, Cheryl Moreton, C Victor Hurtig, Muhibullah Tora, Allan D Kirk, Thais Federici, Nicholas M Boulis
Extensive pre-clinical and clinical studies have searched for therapeutic efficacy of cell-based therapeutics in diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS) with no other viable options. Allogeneic cells represent the primary source of these therapies and immunosuppressive regimens have been empirically employed based on experience with solid organ transplantation, attempting to avoid immune mediated graft rejection. In this study, we aimed to 1) characterize the host immune response to stem cells transplanted into the CNS and 2) develop a non-invasive method for detecting immune response to transplanted cell grafts...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084415/association-of-distinct-fine-specificities-of-anti-citrullinated-peptide-antibodies-with-elevated-immune-responses-to-prevotella-intermedia-in-a-subgroup-of-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-periodontitis
#12
Anja Schwenzer, Anne-Marie Quirke, Anna M Marzeda, Alicia Wong, Anna B Montgomery, Harlan R Sayles, Sigrun Eick, Katarzyna Gawron, Maria Chomyszyn-Gajewska, Katarzyna Łazarz-Bartyzel, Simon Davis, Jan Potempa, Benedikt M Kessler, Roman Fischer, Patrick J Venables, Jeffrey B Payne, Ted R Mikuls, Kim S Midwood
OBJECTIVE: In addition to the long-established link with smoking, periodontitis (PD) is a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was undertaken to elucidate the mechanism by which PD could induce antibodies to citrullinated peptides (ACPAs), by examining the antibody response to a novel citrullinated peptide of cytokeratin 13 (CK-13) identified in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF), and comparing the response to 4 other citrullinated peptides in patients with RA who were well-characterized for PD and smoking...
October 30, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079441/in-silico-and-in-vitro-analysis-of-cross-reactivity-between-yersinia-pseudotuberculosis-ompf-porin-and-thyroid-stimulating-hormone-receptor
#13
Olga Portnyagina, Elena Zelepuga, Valentina Khomenko, Elena Solov'eva, Tamara Solov'eva, Olga Novikova
This work is devoted to the ascertainment of serological cross-reactivity between OmpF porin from Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (YpOmpF) and human thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (hTSHR). Extracts containing hTSHR were isolated from surgical thyroid tissue of patients with clinical and diagnostic signs of diffuse toxic goiter. Monoclonal antibodies to hTSHR (mAbs) were shown to interact both with antigens in thyroid tissue extracts and with YpOmpF. Models of spatial structures of trimer and monomer complexes of YpOmpF with antibodies to hTSHR were also constructed...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073350/understanding-the-antibody-repertoire-in-neuropsychiatric-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-and-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-do-they-share-common-targets
#14
Simone Mader, Venkatesh Jeganathan, Yoshiyuki Arinuma, Yuichiro Fujieda, Irena Dujmovic, Jelena Drulovic, Yuka Shimizu, Yuko Sakuma, Joel N H Stern, Cynthia Aranow, Meggan Mackay, Shinsuke Yasuda, Tatsuya Atsumi, Shunsei Hirohata, Betty Diamond
OBJECTIVE: DWEYS-IgG cross-reactive with DNA and the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunits GluN2A/GluN2B has been associated with neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus (NPSLE). DWEYS-IgG has not been investigated in demyelinating NPSLE (dNPSLE) or in another demyelinating disorder, Neuromyelitis Optica Spectrum Disorder (NMOSD), which is also a disease of young women and associated with aquaporin-4 (AQP4) or myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies. We investigated the frequency of these brain-reactive antibodies in NPSLE, dNPSLE and NMOSD...
October 26, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058307/genetic-immunization-with-mouse-thyrotropin-hormone-receptor-plasmid-breaks-self-tolerance-for-a-murine-model-of-autoimmune-thyroid-disease-and-graves-orbitopathy
#15
Anke Schlüter, Mareike Horstmann, Salvador Diaz-Cano, Svenja Plöhn, Kerstin Stähr, Stefan Mattheis, Michael Oeverhaus, Stephan Lang, Ulrich Flögel, Utta Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Anja Eckstein, J Paul Banga
Experimental models of Graves' hyperthyroid disease accompanied by Graves' orbitopathy (GO) can be efficiently induced in susceptible inbred strains of mice by immunization by electroporation of heterologous human TSH receptor (TSHR) A-subunit plasmid. In this study, we report on the development of a bona fide murine model of autoimmune Graves' disease induced with homologous mouse TSHR A-subunit plasmid. Autoimmune thyroid disease in the self-antigen model was accompanied by GO and characterized by histopathology of hyperplastic glands with large thyroid follicular cells...
October 23, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046675/interpreting-t-cell-cross-reactivity-through-structure-implications-for-tcr-based-cancer-immunotherapy
#16
Dinler A Antunes, Maurício M Rigo, Martiela V Freitas, Marcus F A Mendes, Marialva Sinigaglia, Gregory Lizée, Lydia E Kavraki, Liisa K Selin, Markus Cornberg, Gustavo F Vieira
Immunotherapy has become one of the most promising avenues for cancer treatment, making use of the patient's own immune system to eliminate cancer cells. Clinical trials with T-cell-based immunotherapies have shown dramatic tumor regressions, being effective in multiple cancer types and for many different patients. Unfortunately, this progress was tempered by reports of serious (even fatal) side effects. Such therapies rely on the use of cytotoxic T-cell lymphocytes, an essential part of the adaptive immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994183/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitor-induced-angioedema-a-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Teresa Brown, Jimmy Gonzalez, Catherine Monteleone
According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012, one third of antihypertensive prescriptions in the United States in the past decade were for angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). An important and serious side effect of ACEIs is angioedema caused by a reduction in bradykinin degradation. In a national medical chart abstraction study conducted at the US Veterans Affairs Health Care System in 2008, 0.20% of ACEI initiators developed angioedema while on the medication. The angiotensin-converting enzyme is a part of the renin-angiotensin system that converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992321/pregnancy-associated-plasma-protein-a-predicts-survival-in-end-stage-renal-disease-confounding-and-modifying-effects-of-cardiovascular-disease-body-composition-and-inflammation
#18
Erik Nilsson, Yang Cao, Bengt Lindholm, Ayane Ohyama, Juan Jesus Carrero, Abdul Rashid Qureshi, Peter Stenvinkel
Background: High pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels are linked to atherosclerosis and associate with increased mortality in prevalent dialysis patients. We investigated associations of PAPP-A, measured at dialysis initiation, with cardiovascular disease (CVD), CVD risk factors and mortality in incident dialysis patients, and explored if body composition and inflammation modulated these associations. Methods: Baseline plasma PAPP-A levels, inflammation biomarkers and body composition, using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, were measured in 286 incident dialysis patients...
July 24, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971103/towards-developing-a-vaccine-for-rheumatic-heart-disease
#19
REVIEW
Geethanjali Devadoss Gandhi, Navaneethakrishnan Krishnamoorthy, Ussama M Abdel Motal, Magdi Yacoub
Rheumatic heart disease (RHD) is the most serious manifestations of rheumatic fever, which is caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS or Streptococcus pyogenes) infection. RHD is an auto immune sequelae of GAS pharyngitis, rather than the direct bacterial infection of the heart, which leads to chronic heart valve damage. Although antibiotics like penicillin are effective against GAS infection, improper medical care such as poor patient compliance, overcrowding, poverty, and repeated exposure to GAS, leads to acute rheumatic fever and RHD...
March 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964847/hazard-characterization-of-an-anti-human-tissue-factor-antibody-by-combining-results-of-tissue-cross-reactivity-studies-and-distribution-of-hemorrhagic-lesions-in-monkey-toxicity-studies
#20
Etsuko Fujii, Kazuto Watanabe, Kaori Nishihara, Masami Suzuki, Atsuhiko Kato
Tissue cross-reactivity (TCR) studies are conducted when developing therapeutic antibodies, but their value is sometimes questioned because the positive organs often do not match the target organs of toxicity. We conducted TCR studies in human and cynomolgus monkey tissues for the development of an anti-human tissue factor antibody (TFAb) and also for a commercially available antibody, to clarify the true distribution of the target antigen. Tissue factor (TF) was found to be distributed in a wide variety of organs and tissues, including the heart and urinary bladder, in human and monkey...
September 28, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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