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cotinine and acne

T De Smedt, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, S Fierens, B Mertens, I Van Overmeire, M Bader, P De Paepe, T Göen, B Nemery, T Schettgen, C Stove, H Van Oyen, J Van Loco, A Van Nieuwenhuyse
BACKGROUND: On Saturday May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in the village of Wetteren (Belgium) and caused a leak of acrylonitrile (ACN). OBJECTIVES: To assess the human exposure to acrylonitrile in the local population with the highest suspected exposure. METHODS: Between May 18-25, 242 residents participated in the study. N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV), a biomarker that is highly specific for ACN exposure, was measured in the blood...
December 15, 2014: Toxicology Letters
A Van Nieuwenhuyse, S Fierens, T De Smedt, K De Cremer, C Vleminckx, B Mertens, I Van Overmeire, M Bader, P De Paepe, T Göen, B Nemery, T Schettgen, C Stove, H Van Oyen, J Van Loco
BACKGROUND: On May 4, 2013, a train transporting chemicals derailed in Wetteren, Belgium. Several tanks loaded with acrylonitrile (ACN) exploded, resulting in a fire and a leakage of ACN. OBJECTIVES: To determine exposure to ACN and to assess discriminating factors for ACN exposure in the emergency responders involved in the on-site management of the train accident. METHODS: The study population consisted of 841 emergency responders. Between May 21 and June 28, they gave blood for the determination of N-2-cyanoethylvaline (CEV) hemoglobin adducts and urine for the measurement of cotinine...
December 15, 2014: Toxicology Letters
Guilherme Oliveira Petersen, Carlos Eduardo Leite, José Miguel Chatkin, Flavia Valladão Thiesen
Tobacco dependence reaches one-third of the world population, and is the second leading cause of death around the world. Cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, is the most appropriate parameter to evaluate tobacco exposure and smoking status due to its higher stability and half-life when compared to nicotine. The procedure involves liquid-liquid extraction, separation on a RP column (Zorbax XDB C(8)), isocratic pump (0.5 mL/min of water-methanol-sodium acetate (0.1 M)-ACN (50:15:25:10, v/v/v/v), 1.0 mL of citric acid (0...
March 2010: Journal of Separation Science
Yanqing Li, Qian Liu, Shouzhuo Yao
The cationic double-chained surfactant didodecyldimethylammonium bromide (DDAB) was used as pseudostationary phase (PSP) in micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Its performance on the three kinds of drugs, i.e., basic, acidic, and neutral drugs, was systematically investigated. Nicotine, cotinine, caffeine, lidocaine, and procaine were selected as the model basic drugs. Good baseline separation and high efficiency were obtained under the optimal separation condition that consisted of 50mM phosphate (pH 4...
May 15, 2008: Talanta
Karina Cogo, Michelle Franz Montan, Cristiane de Cássia Bergamaschi, Eduardo D Andrade, Pedro Luiz Rosalen, Francisco Carlos Groppo
The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effects of nicotine, cotinine, and caffeine on the viability of some oral bacterial species. It also evaluated the ability of these bacteria to metabolize those substances. Single-species biofilms of Streptococcus gordonii, Porphyromonas gingivalis, or Fusobacterium nucleatum and dual-species biofilms of S. gordonii -- F. nucleatum and F. nucleatum -- P. gingivalis were grown on hydroxyapatite discs. Seven species were studied as planktonic cells, including Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Propionibacterium acnes, Actinomyces naeslundii, and the species mentioned above...
June 2008: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
Michael Bader, Renate Wrbitzky
The analysis of protein adducts is a valuable tool for the biomonitoring of humans exposed to alkylating compounds. In case of single or intermittent exposures, however, the significance and validity of adduct analysis is limited due to the typically small increase in adduct levels and a nonlinear adduct elimination kinetic. This issue was addressed in a follow-up observation of four workers accidentally exposed to acrylonitrile (ACN) in a train depot. N-2-Cyanoethylvaline (CEV) in hemoglobin was analyzed in blood samples of the workers and of seven rescue team and hospital members, approximately, 25 days after the accident...
April 10, 2006: Toxicology Letters
Pavel Rössner, Blanka Binková, Irena Chvátalová, Radim J Srám
Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a compound widely used in the synthesis of a variety of organic products. It has been found that ACN is carcinogenic in rats, and some epidemiological studies also suggest a possible carcinogenic effect of ACN in humans. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of ACN exposure on the expression of p53 and p21(WAF1) proteins in vitro as well as in vivo. In vitro ACN exposure of human lung fibroblasts resulted in the induction of both p53 and p21(WAF1) proteins. To evaluate the effect of ACN on the levels of p53 and p21(WAF1) proteins in the blood plasma of ACN-exposed workers, samples from 49 subjects (average age 44 years, 88% males, 12% females) exposed to ACN in the petrochemical industry (ACN concentration ranged from 0...
May 27, 2002: Mutation Research
T R Fennell, J P MacNeela, R W Morris, M Watson, C L Thompson, D A Bell
Acrylonitrile (ACN) is used to manufacture plastics and fibers. It is carcinogenic in rats and is found in cigarette smoke. Ethylene oxide (EO) is a metabolite of ethylene, also found in cigarette smoke, and is carcinogenic in rodents. Both ACN and EO undergo conjugation with glutathione. The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between cigarette smoking and hemoglobin adducts derived from ACN and EO and to investigate whether null genotypes for glutathione transferase (GSTM1 and GSTT1) alter the internal dose of these agents...
July 2000: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
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