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antibiotics resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909820/genomic-analysis-reveals-the-presence-of-a-class-d-beta-lactamase-with-broad-substrate-specificity-in-animal-bite-associated-capnocytophaga-species
#1
S Zangenah, A F Andersson, V Özenci, P Bergman
Capnocytophga canimorsus and Capnocytophga cynodegmi can be transmitted from cats and dogs to humans, and can cause a wide range of infections including wound infections, sepsis, or endocarditis. We and others recently discovered two new Capnocytophaga species, C. canis and C. stomatis, mainly associated with wound infections. The first-line treatment of animal bite related infections is penicillin, and in case of allergy, doxycycline and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. However, there is a lack of antibiotic susceptibility patterns for animal bite associated Capnocytophaga species...
December 1, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909433/sponge-microbiota-are-a-reservoir-of-functional-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#2
Dennis Versluis, Mari Rodriguez de Evgrafov, Morten O A Sommer, Detmer Sipkema, Hauke Smidt, Mark W J van Passel
Wide application of antibiotics has contributed to the evolution of multi-drug resistant human pathogens, resulting in poorer treatment outcomes for infections. In the marine environment, seawater samples have been investigated as a resistance reservoir; however, no studies have methodically examined sponges as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Sponges could be important in this respect because they often contain diverse microbial communities that have the capacity to produce bioactive metabolites. Here, we applied functional metagenomics to study the presence and diversity of functional resistance genes in the sponges Aplysina aerophoba, Petrosia ficiformis, and Corticium candelabrum...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909252/nurses-as-antibiotic-brokers-institutionalized-praxis-in-the-hospital
#3
Alex Broom, Jennifer Broom, Emma Kirby, Graham Scambler
We are likely moving rapidly toward a post-antibiotic era, as a result of escalating antimicrobial resistance, rapidly declining antibiotic production and profligate overuse. Hitherto research has almost exclusively focused on doctors' prescribing, with nurses' roles in antibiotic use remaining virtually invisible. Drawing on interviews with 30 nurses, we focus on nurses as brokers of doctors' antibiotic decisions, nursing capacity to challenge doctors' decisions, and, "back stage" strategies for circumnavigating organizational constraints...
November 30, 2016: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908743/exploring-antimicrobial-resistance-and-antibiotic-trends
#4
Jane Chiodini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908581/sonodynamic-inactivation-of-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-bacteria-using-a-rose-bengal-antimicrobial-peptide-conjugate
#5
David Costley, Heather Nesbitt, Nigel Ternan, James Dooley, Ying-Ying Huang, Michael R Hamblin, Anthony P McHale, John F Callan
Combating antimicrobial resistance is one of the most serious public health challenges facing society today. The development of new antibiotics or alternative techniques that can help combat antimicrobial resistance is being prioritised by many governments and stakeholders across the globe. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy is one such technique that has received considerable attention but is limited by the inability of light to penetrate through human tissue, reducing its effectiveness when used to treat deep-seated infections...
November 17, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907971/-interpretation-of-bacterial-susceptibility-resistance-to-antibiotics
#6
Milan Kolář
Bacterial resistance may be defined from a microbiological, clinical and pharmacological perspective. Microbiological resistance refers to the presence of genetic information coding for the relevant mechanism of resistance of a bacterium to a particular antibiotic. In case of clinical interpretation, breakpoints are of key importance as their role is to distinguish bacterial pathogens in which successful therapy is highly probable from isolates with a high likelihood of failure. However, it is questionable whether this approach is suitable for all patients, particularly those receiving intensive care for life-threatening infections...
September 2016: Klinická Mikrobiologie a Infekc̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907224/single-versus-combination-intravenous-anti-pseudomonal-antibiotic-therapy-for-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#7
REVIEW
Heather E Elphick, Alison Scott
BACKGROUND: Choice of antibiotic, and the use of single or combined therapy are controversial areas in the treatment of respiratory infection due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis (CF). Advantages of combination therapy include wider range of modes of action, possible synergy and reduction of resistant organisms; advantages of monotherapy include lower cost, ease of administration and reduction of drug-related toxicity. Current evidence does not provide a clear answer and the use of intravenous antibiotic therapy in cystic fibrosis requires further evaluation...
December 1, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907208/interaction-between-salmonella-and-schistosomiasis-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Amber Hsiao, Trevor Toy, Hye Jin Seo, Florian Marks
The interaction between schistosomiasis and Salmonella is a particularly important issue in Africa, where dual infection by the parasite and the bacterium are likely common. In this review, the ways in which schistosomiasis affects human biology as it relates to Salmonella are described. Those who are infected by both organisms experience reduced immunological functioning, exhibit irreversible organ damage due to prolonged schistosomiasis infection, and become latent carriers of Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi and S...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907154/pheromone-recognition-and-selectivity-by-comr-proteins-among-streptococcus-species
#9
Erin Shanker, Donald A Morrison, Antoine Talagas, Sylvie Nessler, Michael J Federle, Gerd Prehna
Natural transformation, or competence, is an ability inherent to bacteria for the uptake of extracellular DNA. This process is central to bacterial evolution and allows for the rapid acquirement of new traits, such as antibiotic resistance in pathogenic microorganisms. For the Gram-positive bacteria genus Streptococcus, genes required for competence are under the regulation of quorum sensing (QS) mediated by peptide pheromones. One such system, ComRS, consists of a peptide (ComS) that is processed (XIP), secreted, and later imported into the cytoplasm, where it binds and activates the transcription factor ComR...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907117/the-composition-and-spatial-patterns-of-bacterial-virulence-factors-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-19-wastewater-treatment-plants
#10
Bing Zhang, Yu Xia, Xianghua Wen, Xiaohui Wang, Yunfeng Yang, Jizhong Zhou, Yu Zhang
Bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance are of concern for environmental safety and public health. Accumulating evidence suggests that wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are as an important sink and source of pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Virulence genes (encoding virulence factors) are good indicators for bacterial pathogenic potentials. To achieve a comprehensive understanding of bacterial pathogenic potentials and antibiotic resistance in WWTPs, bacterial virulence genes and ARGs in 19 WWTPs covering a majority of latitudinal zones of China were surveyed by using GeoChip 4...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906990/surveillance-of-helicobacter-pylori-antibiotic-susceptibility-in-indonesia-different-resistance-types-among-regions-and-with-novel-genetic-mutations
#11
Muhammad Miftahussurur, Ari Fahrial Syam, Iswan Abbas Nusi, Dadang Makmun, Langgeng Agung Waskito, Lukman Hakim Zein, Fardah Akil, Willy Brodus Uwan, David Simanjuntak, I Dewa Nyoman Wibawa, Jimmy Bradley Waleleng, Alexander Michael Joseph Saudale, Fauzi Yusuf, Syifa Mustika, Pangestu Adi, Ummi Maimunah, Hasan Maulahela, Yudith Annisa Ayu Rezkitha, Phawinee Subsomwong, Nasronudin, Dadik Rahardjo, Rumiko Suzuki, Junko Akada, Yoshio Yamaoka
Information regarding Helicobacter pylori antibiotic resistance in Indonesia was previously inadequate. We assessed antibiotic susceptibility for H. pylori in Indonesia, and determined the association between virulence genes or genetic mutations and antibiotic resistance. We recruited 849 dyspeptic patients who underwent endoscopy in 11 cities in Indonesia. E-test was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of five antibiotics. PCR-based sequencing assessed mutations in 23S rRNA, rdxA, gyrA, gyrB, and virulence genes...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906650/structure-of-the-70s-ribosome-from-human-pathogen-staphylococcus-aureus
#12
Iskander Khusainov, Quentin Vicens, Anthony Bochler, François Grosse, Alexander Myasnikov, Jean-François Ménétret, Johana Chicher, Stefano Marzi, Pascale Romby, Gulnara Yusupova, Marat Yusupov, Yaser Hashem
Comparative structural studies of ribosomes from various organisms keep offering exciting insights on how species-specific or environment-related structural features of ribosomes may impact translation specificity and its regulation. Although the importance of such features may be less obvious within more closely related organisms, their existence could account for vital yet species-specific mechanisms of translation regulation that would involve stalling, cell survival and antibiotic resistance. Here, we present the first full 70S ribosome structure from Staphylococcus aureus, a Gram-positive pathogenic bacterium, solved by cryo-electron microscopy...
October 18, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906556/combination-effect-of-cefuroxime-and-levofloxacin-against-bacteria-isolated-from-the-healthy-conjunctival-sac-and-endophthalmitis-cases-using-a-fractional-inhibitory-concentration-index
#13
Takashi Suzuki, Toshihiro Yamamoto, Tomohiko Torikai, Yuichi Ohashi
PURPOSE: Intracameral cefuroxime (CXM) and antibiotic eye drops such as fluoroquinolone are widely used for preventing endophthalmitis after cataract surgery. However, few reports are available regarding their interactions. This study was conducted to examine the in vitro interaction of CXM and levofloxacin (LVFX) against bacterial isolates from the healthy conjunctival sac before cataract surgery and from endophthalmitis cases. METHODS: The activity of each drug was determined using a broth dilution method...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906436/iliac-crest-bone-graft-a-23-years-hystory-of-infection-at-donor-site-in-vertebral-arthrodesis-and-a-review-of-current-bone-substitutes
#14
L Babbi, G Barbanti-Brodano, A Gasbarrini, S Boriani
OBJECTIVE: This is an exemplary case report underlining a relevant morbidity which could be associated to the use of autologous iliac crest bone graft (ICBG) for spine fusion. CASE REPORT: Starting from 1990, a 25-years-old woman underwent two subsequent surgical treatments for non-Hodgkin lymphoma vertebral localizations. In the second surgery, arthrodesis was obtained with autograft through right posterior iliac crest osteotomy. During the chemotherapy treatment following the surgery, the patient suffered from infection at posterior iliac crest scar, the site of previous graft, caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus...
November 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906139/myxobacteria-mediated-synthesis-of-silver-nanoparticles-and-their-impregnation-in-wrapping-paper-used-for-enhancing-shelf-life-of-apples
#15
Swati Bhople, Swapnil Gaikwad, Swapna Deshmukh, Shital Bonde, Aniket Gade, Sanjib Sen, Anna Brezinska, Hanna Dahm, Mahendra Rai
The authors report Myxobacteria virescens (M. virescens) mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and its efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC-33591), Salmonella typhi (ATCC-51812), Escherichia coli (E. coli) (ATCC-14948), Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC-4030) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC-4673). The organism exhibiting resistance to various antibiotics showed remarkable sensitivity, when used in combination of antibiotics and AgNPs. Antimicrobial property of AgNPs is playing a significant role in medicine and food storage...
December 2016: IET Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906089/esophageal-perforation-after-perioperative-transesophageal-echocardiography-a-case-report
#16
Hyun-Chang Kim, Jung-Hyou Oh, Yong-Cheol Lee
BACKGROUND: Transesophageal echocardiography is widely used in cardiac surgery. Transesophageal echocardiography probe insertion and manipulation can injure the esophagus. CASE PRESENTATION: A 76-year-old Asian man was admitted to our hospital for coronary artery bypass graft revascularization surgery. A right carotid endarterectomy was successfully performed 2 days before coronary artery bypass graft revascularization surgery. After the coronary artery bypass graft revascularization surgery was done successfully, postoperative computed tomography and esophagography revealed perforation of the middle esophagus...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905836/invasive-pneumococcal-disease-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-the-post-vaccine-era
#17
Sevgen Tanır Basaranoglu, Eda Karadag Oncel, Kubra Aykac, Yasemin Ozsurekci, Ali Bulent Cengiz, Ates Kara, Mehmet Ceyhan
A breakthrough infection occurring with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) in Turkey are previously described. A breakthrough infection is defined as IPD in a child who had received ≥1 PCV-7 or PCV-13 and for which the pneumococcal isolate was a vaccine serotype. During one year period, among six patients with invasive pneumococcal infection, two patients were considered to have a vaccine failure with serotype 19F. Antibiotic resistance results were remarkable; macrolide resistance were observed in all strains except one, and high and intermediate penicillin resistance were determined in two strains...
December 1, 2016: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905486/biochemical-and-structural-analysis-of-a-novel-esterase-from-caulobacter-crescentus-related-to-penicillin-binding-protein-pbp
#18
Bum Han Ryu, Tri Duc Ngo, Wanki Yoo, Sojeong Lee, Boo-Young Kim, Euijoo Lee, Kyeong Kyu Kim, T Doohun Kim
Considering that the prevalence of antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria is largely increasing, a thorough understanding of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) is of great importance and crucial significance because this enzyme family is a main target of β-lactam-based antibiotics. In this work, combining biochemical and structural analysis, we present new findings that provide novel insights into PBPs. Here, a novel PBP homologue (CcEstA) from Caulobacter crescentus CB15 was characterized using native-PAGE, mass spectrometry, gel filtration, CD spectroscopy, fluorescence, reaction kinetics, and enzyme assays toward various substrates including nitrocefin...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905467/direct-identification-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-on-single-plasmid-molecules-using-crispr-cas9-in-combination-with-optical-dna-mapping
#19
Vilhelm Müller, Fredrika Rajer, Karolin Frykholm, Lena K Nyberg, Saair Quaderi, Joachim Fritzsche, Erik Kristiansson, Tobias Ambjörnsson, Linus Sandegren, Fredrik Westerlund
Bacterial plasmids are extensively involved in the rapid global spread of antibiotic resistance. We here present an assay, based on optical DNA mapping of single plasmids in nanofluidic channels, which provides detailed information about the plasmids present in a bacterial isolate. In a single experiment, we obtain the number of different plasmids in the sample, the size of each plasmid, an optical barcode that can be used to identify and trace the plasmid of interest and information about which plasmid that carries a specific resistance gene...
December 1, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905262/should-the-patients-colonized-with-extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing-gram-negative-bacilli-e-gnb-coming-to-hospital-from-the-community-with-pneumonia-get-anti-e-gnb-active-empirical-treatment
#20
Lara Peterlin, Mateja Žagar, Tatjana Lejko Zupanc, Marija Paladin, Bojana Beović
Extended-spectrum beta-lactamases are responsible for resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to several beta-lactam antibiotics, including those prescribed for treatment pneumonia. To evaluate the importance of colonization with E-GNB for the choice of empirical treatment we performed a retrospective case-control study including 156 patients, hospitalized for treatment of pneumonia from 2009 through 2013. Empirical treatment success and in-hospital survival were significantly lower in patients colonized with E-GNB compared to non-colonized (p = 0...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Chemotherapy
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