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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353420/properties-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-isolated-from-onsite-wastewater-treatment-plant-in-relation-to-biofilm-formation
#1
Łukasz Jałowiecki, Joanna Żur, Joanna Chojniak, Helene Ejhed, Grażyna Płaza
The aim of the present study was to determine some properties of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains isolated from onsite wastewater technology in relation to biofilm formation, e.g., autoaggregation and motility. Additionally, biosurfactant production by the isolates was also evaluated. The ability of selected strains to develop a biofilm was assessed by using the crystal violet method, which allows to indirectly quantify the attached bacterial biomass (live, dead cells, and polysaccharides as well). Obtained results showed that 19 of the analyzed strains were able to produce biofilm after 72 h of incubation...
January 20, 2018: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353415/investigation-of-lactic-acid-bacteria-isolated-from-giant-panda-feces-for-potential-probiotics-in-vitro
#2
Qian Liu, Xueqin Ni, Qiang Wang, Zhirong Peng, Lili Niu, Meiling Xie, Yicen Lin, Yi Zhou, Hao Sun, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing, Dong Zeng
The present study aimed to isolate an optimal lactic acid bacterial strain from the feces of healthy giant pandas. The strain exhibited good stability at low pH and high bile salt concentrations, activity against pathogens relevant to pandas, and antibiotic susceptibility. In the current study, 25 isolates were obtained from de Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe agar. Two (E21 and G83) and eight (E1, E2, E16, E18, E21, E69, E70, and G83) isolates demonstrated good performance at pH 2.0 and bile 2% (w/v), respectively...
January 20, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353378/secular-trends-in-the-appropriateness-of-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-in-patients-with-bacteremia-a-comparison-between-three-prospective-cohorts
#3
Vered Daitch, Yulia Akayzen, Yasmin Abu-Ghanem, Noa Eliakim-Raz, Mical Paul, Leonard Leibovici, Dafna Yahav
The objective of this study was to explore whether the percentage of inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment in patients with bacteremia changed over time and to understand the factors that brought on the change. Three prospective cohorts of patients with bacteremia in three different periods (January 1st, 1988 to December 31st, 1989; May 1st, 2004 to November 30, 2004; May 1st, 2010 to April 30, 2011) were compared. Analysis was performed on a total of 811 patients. In 2010-2011, 55.9% (76/136) of patients with bacteremia received inappropriate empirical treatment, compared with 34...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353377/highly-synergistic-activity-of-melittin-with-imipenem-and-colistin-in-biofilm-inhibition-against-multidrug-resistant-strong-biofilm-producer-strains-of-acinetobacter-baumannii
#4
Ali Mohammadi Bardbari, Mohammad Reza Arabestani, Manoochehr Karami, Fariba Keramat, Hossein Aghazadeh, Mohammad Yousef Alikhani, Kamran Pooshang Bagheri
The rapid increase of drug resistance and failure of available antibiotics to treat biofilm-associated infections is of great health concern. Accordingly, our study aimed to evaluate the synergistic antibacterial, biofilm inhibitory, and biofilm removal activities of melittin in combination with colistin, imipenem, and ciprofloxacin against multidrug-resistant (MDR) strong biofilm producer Acinetobacter baumannii isolates. The kinetics of biofilm formation were evaluated for the isolates for 144 h. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs), minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBICs), and biofilm removal activities for melittin and combinations with antibiotics were determined...
January 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353310/nod-like-receptor-s-and-host-immune-responses-with-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection
#5
REVIEW
Alaa Alhazmi
INTRODUCTION: Molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the common opportunistic pathogen in cystic fibrosis individuals, and host induce a number of marked inflammatory responses and associate with complex therapeutic problems due to bacterial resistance to antibiotics in chronic stage of infection. METHODS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is recognized by number of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs); NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a class of PRRs, which can recognize a variety of endogenous and exogenous ligands, thereby playing a critical role in innate immunity...
January 20, 2018: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353050/helicobacter-pylori-infection-an-update-for-the-internist-in-the-age-of-increasing-global-antibiotic-resistance
#6
REVIEW
Osama Siddique, Anais Ovalle, Ayesha S Siddique, Steven F Moss
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infects approximately half the world's population and is especially prevalent in the developing world. H. pylori is as an important cause of global ill health due to its known etiological role in peptic ulcer disease, dyspepsia, gastric cancer, lymphoma and, more recently recognised in iron deficiency anemia and idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. Increased antibiotic usage worldwide has led to antibiotic resistance among many bacteria, including H. pylori, resulting in falling success rates of first-line anti-H...
January 15, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352811/single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-genes-encoding-penicillin-binding-proteins-in-%C3%AE-lactamase-negative-ampicillin-resistant-haemophilus-influenzae-in-japan
#7
Kazuhisa Misawa, Norihito Tarumoto, Shinsuke Tamura, Morichika Osa, Takaaki Hamamoto, Atsushi Yuki, Yuji Kouzaki, Kazuo Imai, Runtuwene Lucky Ronald, Toshiyuki Yamaguchi, Takashi Murakami, Shigefumi Maesaki, Yutaka Suzuki, Akihiko Kawana, Takuya Maeda
OBJECTIVE: β-Lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae is a common opportunistic pathogen of hospital- and community-acquired infections, harboring multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ftsI gene, which codes for penicillin-binding protein-3. The objectives of this study were to perform comprehensive genetic analyses of whole regions of the penicillin-binding proteins in H. influenzae and to identify additional single nucleotide polymorphisms related to antibiotic resistance, especially to ampicillin and other cephalosporins...
January 20, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#8
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352435/outcome-of-hip-and-knee-periprosthetic-joint-infections-caused-by-pathogens-resistant-to-biofilm-active-antibiotics-results-from-a-prospective-cohort-study
#9
Doruk Akgün, Carsten Perka, Andrej Trampuz, Nora Renz
BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infections (PJI) caused by pathogens, for which no biofilm-active antibiotics are available, are often referred to as difficult-to-treat (DTT). However, it is unclear whether the outcome of DTT PJI is worse than those of non-DTT PJI. We evaluated the outcome of DTT and non-DTT PJI in a prospective cohort treated with a two-stage exchange according to a standardized algorithm. METHODS: Patients with hip and knee PJI from 2013 to 2015 were prospectively included and followed up for ≥ 2 years...
January 19, 2018: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352318/temozolomide-induced-increase-of-tumorigenicity-can-be-diminished-by-targeting-of-mitochondria-in-in-vitro-models-of-patient-individual-glioblastoma
#10
Doreen William, Madlin Walther, Björn Schneider, Michael Linnebacher, Carl Friedrich Classen
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive brain tumor with a dismal prognosis. Development of resistance towards cytostatic drugs like the GBM standard drug temozolomide is a severe problem in GBM treatment. One potential source of GBM relapse could be so called cancer stem like cells (CSCs). These represent an undifferentiated subpopulation of cells with high potential for tumor initiation. Furthermore, it has been shown that differentiated GBM cells can regain CSC properties when exposed to continuous temozolomide treatment in vitro...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352198/orid-structure-controls-repd-initiation-during-rolling-circle-replication
#11
Algirdas Toleikis, Martin R Webb, Justin E Molloy
Bacterial antibiotic resistance is often carried by circular DNA plasmids that are copied separately from the genomic DNA and can be passed to other bacteria, spreading the resistance. The chloramphenicol-resistance plasmid pC221 from Staphylococcus aureus is duplicated by a process called asymmetric rolling circle replication. It is not fully understood how the replication process is regulated but its initiation requires a plasmid-encoded protein called RepD that nicks one strand of the parent plasmid at the double-stranded origin of replication (oriD)...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352085/the-expression-of-bacteriocin-production-and-self-resistance-in-lactobacillus-brevis-174a-is-mediated-by-two-regulatory-proteins
#12
Masafumi Noda, Rumi Miyauchi, Narandalai Danshiitsoodol, Yasuyuki Matoba, Takanori Kumagai, Masanori Sugiyama
We have previously shown that a lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus (Lb.) brevis 174A isolated from a Citrus iyo fruit produces bacteriocin designated brevicin 174A, which is comprised of two antibacterial polypeptides (designated brevicin 174A-β and 174A-γ). We have also found a gene cluster, composed of eight open reading frames (ORFs), that contains genes for the biosynthesis of brevicin 174A, self-resistance to its own bacteriocin, and two transcriptional regulatory proteins.Some lactic acid bacterial strains have a system to start the production of bacteriocin at an adequate stage of the growth...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352081/expression-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-biofilm-antibiotic-resistance-gene-ndvb-requires-the-rpos-stationary-phase-sigma-factor
#13
Clayton W Hall, Aaron J Hinz, Luke B-P Gagnon, Li Zhang, Jean-Paul Nadeau, Sarah Copeland, Bratati Saha, Thien-Fah Mah
Chronic, biofilm-based bacterial infections are exceptionally difficult to eradicate due to the high degree of antibiotic recalcitrance exhibited by cells in biofilm communities. In the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, biofilm recalcitrance is multifactorial and arises in part from the preferential expression of resistance genes in biofilms compared to exponential phase planktonic cells. One such mechanism involves ndvB, which we have previously shown to be expressed specifically in biofilms. In this study, we investigated the regulatory basis of this lifestyle-specific expression by developing an unstable GFP transcriptional reporter to observe the expression pattern of ndvB We found that, in addition to its expression in biofilms, ndvB was also upregulated in planktonic cells as they enter stationary phase...
January 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351771/characterization-of-salmonella-enterica-from-invasive-bloodstream-infections-and-water-sources-in-rural-ghana
#14
Denise Dekker, Ralf Krumkamp, Daniel Eibach, Nimako Sarpong, Kennedy Gyau Boahen, Michael Frimpong, Elina Fechtner, Sven Poppert, Ralf Matthias Hagen, Norbert Georg Schwarz, Yaw Adu-Sarkodie, Ellis Owusu-Dabo, Justin Im, Florian Marks, Hagen Frickmann, Jürgen May
BACKGROUND: Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) cause the majority of bloodstream infections in Ghana, however the mode of transmission and source of invasive NTS in Africa are poorly understood. This study compares NTS from water sources and invasive bloodstream infections in rural Ghana. METHODS: Blood from hospitalised, febrile children and samples from drinking water sources were analysed for Salmonella spp. Strains were serotyped to trace possible epidemiological links between human and water-derived isolates...
January 19, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351769/protocol-to-disseminate-a-hospital-site-controlled-intervention-using-audit-and-feedback-to-implement-guidelines-concerning-inappropriate-treatment-of-asymptomatic-bacteriuria
#15
Barbara W Trautner, Pooja Prasad, Larissa Grigoryan, Sylvia J Hysong, Jennifer R Kramer, Suja Rajan, Nancy J Petersen, Tracey Rosen, Dimitri M Drekonja, Christopher Graber, Payal Patel, Paola Lichtenberger, Timothy P Gauthier, Steve Wiseman, Makoto Jones, Anne Sales, Sarah Krein, Aanand Dinkar Naik
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship to combat the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has become a national priority. This project focuses on reducing inappropriate use of antimicrobials for asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB), a very common condition that leads to antimicrobial overuse in acute and long-term care. We previously conducted a successful intervention, entitled "Kicking Catheter Associated Urinary Tract Infection (CAUTI): the No Knee-Jerk Antibiotics Campaign," to decrease guideline-discordant ordering of urine cultures and antibiotics for ASB...
January 19, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351668/evaluation-of-the-rapid-carbapenem-inactivation-method-rcim-a-phenotypic-screening-test-for-carbapenemase-producing-enterobacteriaceae
#16
Madalina-Maria Muntean, Andrei-Alexandru Muntean, Lauraine Gauthier, Elodie Creton, Garance Cotellon, Mircea Ioan Popa, Rémy A Bonnin, Thierry Naas
Objectives: Fast and accurate diagnostic tests to identify carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are mandatory for proper antimicrobial therapy and implementing infection control measures. Here, we have developed a rapid Carbapenem Inactivation Method (rCIM) for CPE detection. Methods: The rCIM consists of the incubation of a potential carbapenemase producer with meropenem discs and use of the resulting supernatant to challenge a susceptible indicator strain...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351260/fatty-acid-based-microemulsions-to-combat-ophthalmia-neonatorum-caused-by-neisseria-gonorrhoeae-and-staphylococcus-aureus
#17
Ummara Butt, Amr ElShaer, Lori A S Snyder, Ali A Al-Kinani, Adam Le Gresley, Raid G Alany
The bacterial species Neisseria gonorrhoeae (N. gonorrhoeae) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) are amongst the main microorganisms that cause ophthalmia neonatorum. The current treatment involves the use of various antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin, cephalosporin, ceftriaxone and cefotaxime. However, this treatment strategy is becoming more ineffective due to the antibiotic resistance in N. gonorrhoeae. The current study explores the potential use of fatty acid based microemulsions (ME) to prevent N. gonorrhoeae and S...
January 19, 2018: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351236/trends-in-resistance-to-extended-spectrum-cephalosporins-and-carbapenems-among-escherichia-coli-and-klebsiella-spp-isolates-in-a-district-in-western-india-during-2004-2014
#18
Ingvild Odsbu, Smita Khedkar, Frida Lind, Uday Khedkar, Sandeep S Nerkar, Nicola Orsini, Ashok J Tamhankar, Cecilia Stålsby Lundborg
Surveillance data on the level of resistant bacteria is needed to inform strategies to reduce the development and spread of antibiotic resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the non-susceptibility trends to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and carbapenems among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp. isolates from the district of Nashik in Western India during the period 2004-2014. Antibacterial susceptibility testing of clinical isolates was performed using Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method to determine inhibitory zone diameters...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351202/antimicrobial-peptides-diversity-mechanism-of-action-and-strategies-to-improve-the-activity-and-biocompatibility-in-vivo
#19
REVIEW
Prashant Kumar, Jayachandran N Kizhakkedathu, Suzana K Straus
Antibiotic resistance is projected as one of the greatest threats to human health in the future and hence alternatives are being explored to combat resistance. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have shown great promise, because use of AMPs leads bacteria to develop no or low resistance. In this review, we discuss the diversity, history and the various mechanisms of action of AMPs. Although many AMPs have reached clinical trials, to date not many have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to issues with toxicity, protease cleavage and short half-life...
January 19, 2018: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351189/the-role-of-cadaverine-synthesis-on-pneumococcal-capsule-and-protein-expression
#20
Mary F Nakamya, Moses B Ayoola, Seongbin Park, Leslie A Shack, Edwin Swiatlo, Bindu Nanduri
Invasive infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, a commensal in the nasopharynx, pose significant risk to human health. Limited serotype coverage by the available polysaccharide-based conjugate vaccines coupled with increasing incidence of antibiotic resistance complicates therapeutic strategies. Bacterial physiology and metabolism that allows pathogens to adapt to the host are a promising avenue for the discovery of novel therapeutics. Intracellular polyamine concentrations are tightly regulated by biosynthesis, transport and degradation...
January 19, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
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