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antibiotics resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225917/oxacillin-magnetically-targeted-for-the-treatment-of-methicillin-resistant-s-aureus-infection-in-rats
#1
Juliana Fernandes de Carvalho, Ítalo Medeiros de Azevedo, Keyla Borges Ferreira Rocha, Aldo Cunha Medeiros, Artur da Silva Carriço
Purpose: To evaluate the effect of oxacillin bonded to magnetic nanoparticles in local infection model in rat. Methods: Twelve Wistar rats weighing 290±18g were randomly divided into four groups (n=6, each) and all rats had a magnet ring sutured on their right thighs. In the biodistribution group rats 0.1mL of 99mTc-magnetite (0.66 MBq) was injected i.v and after 30 minutes, biodistribution of 99mTc-magnetite was evaluated in right and left thighs. The other groups were inoculated with MRSA in each thigh muscles...
January 2017: Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225903/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#2
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
March 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225897/sphygmomanometers-and-thermometers-as-potential-fomites-of-staphylococcus-haemolyticus-biofilm-formation-in-the-presence-of-antibiotics
#3
Bruna Pinto Ribeiro Sued, Paula Marcele Afonso Pereira, Yuri Vieira Faria, Juliana Nunes Ramos, Vanessa Batista Binatti, Kátia Regina Netto Dos Santos, Sérgio Henrique Seabra, Raphael Hirata, Verônica Viana Vieira, Ana Luíza Mattos-Guaraldi, José Augusto Adler Pereira
BACKGROUND: The association between Staphylococcus haemolyticus and severe nosocomial infections is increasing. However, the extent to which fomites contribute to the dissemination of this pathogen through patients and hospital wards remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: In the present study, sphygmomanometers and thermometers were evaluated as potential fomites of oxacillin-resistant S. haemolyticus (ORSH). The influence of oxacillin and vancomycin on biofilm formation by ORSH strains isolated from fomites was also investigated...
February 16, 2017: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225711/reactive-oxygen-therapy-a-novel-therapy-in-soft-tissue-infection
#4
Matthew Dryden
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global burden of disease in skin and soft tissue lesions is enormous. Many chronic, poorly healing lesions get treated with antibiotics despite the lack of evidence for long-term antibiotics. There is a global antibiotic resistance crisis driven largely by inappropriate use of large volumes of antibiotics. One solution is to reduce the selection pressure on bacteria by reducing the volume of antibiotic use in medicine, agriculture and the environment. There are few novel antimicrobials...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225264/fatty-acid-comprising-lysine-conjugates-anti-mrsa-agents-that-display-in-vivo-efficacy-by-disrupting-biofilms-with-no-resistance-development
#5
Mohini Mohan Konai, Jayanta Haldar
Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have developed resistance to antibiotics of last resort such as vancomycin, linezolid and daptomycin. Additionally, their biofilm forming capability has set an alarming situation in the treatment of bacterial infections. Herein we report the potency of fatty acid comprising lysine conjugates as novel anti-MRSA agents, which were not only capable of killing growing planktonic MRSA at low concentration (MIC = 3.1-6.3 µg/mL), but also displayed potent activity against non-dividing stationary phase cells...
February 22, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225263/bactericidal-effect-of-gold-chitosan-nanocomposites-in-co-culture-models-of-pathogenic-bacteria-and-human-macrophages
#6
Gracia Mendoza, Anna Regiel-Futyra, Vanesa Andreu, Victor Sebastian, Agnieszka Kyzioł, Grazyna Stochel, Manuel Arruebo
Pathogenic bacteria are able to develop resistance mechanisms to avoid the antimicrobial potential of antibiotics becoming an increasing problem for the healthcare systems. The search for more effective and selective antimicrobial materials, though not harmful to mammalian cells, seems imperative. Herein we propose the use of gold-chitosan nanocomposites as effective bactericidal materials avoiding the damage to human cells. Nanocomposites were obtained taking advantage of the reductive and stabilizing action of chitosan solutions on two different gold precursor concentrations...
February 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224049/the-role-of-topical-antiseptic-agents-within-antimicrobial-stewardship-strategies-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-surgical-site-and-chronic-open-wound-infection
#7
Christopher D Roberts, David J Leaper, Ojan Assadian
Scope and Significance: The topical use of antiseptics for wound care has a role in an antimicrobial stewardship strategy. However, the details of this role need clarification. Further clinical research into the use of topical antiseptics in wound care would lower the risk of furthering antibiotic resistance and contribute to more effective antibiotic use. As part of this research, experimental and surveillance data are needed on the resistance and tolerance patterns associated with topical antiseptic use in wound infections...
February 1, 2017: Advances in Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224028/evaluation-of-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-integron-carriage-in-helicobacter-pylori-isolates-from-patients
#8
Mehdi Goudarzi, Mohsen Heidary, Mehdi Azad, Maryam Fazeli, Hossein Goudarzi
AIM: The purpose of this study was to determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern and distribution of integron in H. pylori isolates collected from patients referred to private health care centers in Tehran, Iran. BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is the main reason for failure of Helicobacter pylori therapy. Integrons as genetic reservoirs play main roles in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance gene. METHODS: During a 12-month cross-sectional study period, 65 H...
December 2016: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223974/determination-of-antibacterial-and-technological-properties-of-vaginal-lactobacilli-for-their-potential-application-in-dairy-products
#9
Lorenzo Siroli, Francesca Patrignani, Diana I Serrazanetti, Carola Parolin, Rogers A Ñahui Palomino, Beatrice Vitali, Rosalba Lanciotti
Functional foods could differently affect human health in relation to the gender. Recent studies have highlighted the anti-Candida and anti-Chlamydia activities of some Lactobacillus strains isolated from the vagina of healthy women. Considering these important beneficial activities on women's health, the preparation of functional food containing active vaginal lactobacilli can represent a great scientific challenge for the female gender. In this context, the aim of this work was to study some functional and technological properties of 17 vaginal strains belonging to the species Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Lactobacillus vaginalis in the perspective to include them in dairy products...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223970/tet-c-gene-transfer-between-chlamydia-suis-strains-occurs-by-homologous-recombination-after-co-infection-implications-for-spread-of-tetracycline-resistance-among-chlamydiaceae
#10
Hanna Marti, Hoyon Kim, Sandeep J Joseph, Stacey Dojiri, Timothy D Read, Deborah Dean
Chlamydia suis is a swine pathogen that has also recently been found to cause zoonotic infections of the human eye, pharynx, and gastrointestinal tract. Many strains contain a tetracycline class C gene [tet(C)] cassette that confers tetracycline resistance. The cassette was likely originally acquired by horizontal gene transfer from a Gram-negative donor after the introduction of tetracycline into animal feed in the 1950s. Various research groups have described the capacity for different Chlamydia species to exchange DNA by homologous recombination...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223861/biogenic-nanoparticles-bearing-antibacterial-activity-and-their-synergistic-effect-with-broad-spectrum-antibiotics-emerging-strategy-to-combat-drug-resistant-pathogens
#11
Syed Baker, Azmath Pasha, Sreedharamurthy Satish
The present study emphasizes on synthesis of bimetallic silver-gold nanoparticles from cell free supernatant of Pseudomonas veronii strain AS41G inhabiting Annona squamosa L. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using hyphenated techniques with UV-Visible spectra ascertained absorbance peak between 400 and 800 nm. Possible interaction of biomolecules in mediating and stabilization of nanoparticles was depicted with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed Bragg's peak conferring the 1 0 0, 1 1 1, 2 0 0, and 2 2 0 facets of the face centered cubic symmetry of nanoparticles suggesting that these nanoparticles were crystalline in nature...
January 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223804/decreased-bacterial-growth-on-titanium-nanoscale-topographies-created-by-ion-beam-assisted-evaporation
#12
Michelle Stolzoff, Jason E Burns, Arash Aslani, Eric J Tobin, Congtin Nguyen, Nicholas De La Torre, Negar H Golshan, Katherine S Ziemer, Thomas J Webster
Titanium is one of the most widely used materials for orthopedic implants, yet it has exhibited significant complications in the short and long term, largely resulting from poor cell-material interactions. Among these many modes of failure, bacterial infection at the site of implantation has become a greater concern with the rise of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Nanostructured surfaces have been found to prevent bacterial colonization on many surfaces, including nanotextured titanium. In many cases, specific nanoscale roughness values and resulting surface energies have been considered to be "bactericidal"; here, we explore the use of ion beam evaporation as a novel technique to create nanoscale topographical features that can reduce bacterial density...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223450/raising-the-alarmone-within-host-evolution-of-antibiotic-tolerant-enterococcus-faecium
#13
Daria Van Tyne, Michael S Gilmore
Enterococci are ancient commensal bacteria that recently emerged as leading causes of antibiotic-resistant, hospital-acquired infection. Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) epitomize why drug-resistant enterococcal infections are a problem: VRE readily colonize the antibiotic-perturbed gastrointestinal (GI) tract where they amplify to large numbers, and from there, they infect other body sites, including the bloodstream, urinary tract, and surgical wounds. VRE are resistant to many antimicrobials and host defenses, which facilitates establishment at the site of infection and confounds therapeutic clearance...
February 21, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223383/requirement-of-the-crors-two-component-system-for-resistance-to-cell-wall-targeting-antimicrobials-in-enterococcus-faecium
#14
Stephanie L Kellogg, Jaime L Little, Jessica S Hoff, Christopher J Kristich
Enterococci are serious opportunistic pathogens that are resistant to many cell-wall-targeting antibiotics. The CroRS two-component signaling system responds to antibiotic-mediated cell-wall stress and is critical for resistance to cell-wall-targeting antibiotics in Enterococcus faecalis Here, we identify and characterize an orthologous two-component system found in Enterococcus faecium that is functionally equivalent to the CroRS system of E. faecalis Deletion of croRS in E. faecium resulted in marked susceptibility to cell-wall-targeting agents including cephalosporins and bacitracin, as well as moderate susceptibility to ampicillin and vancomycin...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223380/vitamin-k3-induces-the-expression-of-the-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-smevwx-multidrug-efflux-pump
#15
P Blanco, F Corona, M B Sánchez, J L Martínez
Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen, with increasing prevalence, able to cause infections in immunocompromised patients or in those with a previous pathology. The treatment of the infections caused by this bacterium is often complicated due to the several intrinsic antibiotic resistance mechanisms that it presents. Multidrug efflux pumps are among the best studied mechanisms of S. maltophilia antibiotic resistance. Some of these efflux pumps have a basal expression level but, in general, their expression is often low and only reaches high levels when the local regulator is mutated or bacteria are in the presence of an effector...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223377/exopolysaccharide-repressing-small-molecules-with-antibiofilm-and-antivirulence-activity-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
Erik van Tilburg Bernardes, Laetitia Charron-Mazenod, David J Reading, Shauna L Reckseidler-Zenteno, Shawn Lewenza
Biofilm formation is a universal virulence strategy in which bacteria grow in dense microbial communities enmeshed within a polymeric extracellular matrix that protects them from antibiotic exposure and the immune system. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an archetypal biofilm-forming organism that utilizes a biofilm growth strategy to cause chronic lung infections in Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients. The extracellular matrix of P. aeruginosa biofilms is comprised mainly of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and DNA. Both mucoid and non-mucoid isolates of P...
February 21, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223246/physical-key-properties-of-antibiotic-free-plga-hpmc-based-in-situ-forming-implants-for-local-periodontitis-treatment
#17
K Agossa, M Lizambard, T Rongthong, E Delcourt-Debruyne, J Siepmann, F Siepmann
In-situ forming implants (ISFI) offer an interesting potential for the treatment of periodontitis, allowing for time-controlled drug release directly at the site of action (which is difficult to reach). For this purpose, ISFI loaded with antibiotics have been reported in the literature. But the use of antibiotic drugs at low doses over prolonged periods of time can lead to the development of bacterial resistances. This risk should be avoided. The aim of this study was to develop a novel type of in-situ forming implants, loaded with the antiseptic drug chlorhexidine...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222811/recurring-septic-shock-in-a-patient-with-blunt-abdominal-and-pelvic-trauma-how-mandatory-is-source-control-surgery-a-case-report
#18
Antonella Frattari, Giustino Parruti, Rocco Erasmo, Luigi Guerra, Ennio Polilli, Rosamaria Zocaro, Giuliano Iervese, Paolo Fazii, Tullio Spina
BACKGROUND: In critically ill patients with colonization/infection of multidrug-resistant organisms, source control surgery is one of the major determinants of clinical success. In more complex cases, the use of different tools for sepsis management may allow survival until complete source control. CASE PRESENTATION: A 42-year-old white man presented with traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Unstable pelvic fractures led to emergency stabilization surgery. Fever ensued with diarrhea, followed by septic shock...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222699/suspicion-of-respiratory-tract-infection-with-multidrug-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-epidemiology-and-risk-factors-from-a-paediatric-intensive-care-unit
#19
Hanna Renk, Lenja Stoll, Felix Neunhoeffer, Florian Hölzl, Matthias Kumpf, Michael Hofbeck, Dominik Hartl
BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) infections are a serious concern for children admitted to the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU). Tracheal colonization with MDR Enterobacteriaceae predisposes to respiratory infection, but underlying risk factors are poorly understood. This study aims to determine the incidence of children with suspected infection during mechanical ventilation and analyses risk factors for the finding of MDR Enterobacteriaceae in tracheal aspirates. METHODS: A retrospective single-centre analysis of Enterobacteriaceae isolates from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated PICU patients from 2005 to 2014 was performed...
February 21, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222482/functional-reconstitution-of-the-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-long-chain-acyl-coa-carboxylase-from-multiple-acyl-coa-subunits
#20
Bernardo Bazet Lyonnet, Lautaro Diacovich, Gabriela Gago, Lucie Spina, Fabienne Bardou, Anne Lemassu, Annaïk Quémard, Hugo Gramajo
Mycobacterium tuberculosis produces a large number of structurally diverse lipids that have been implicated in the pathogenicity, persistence and antibiotic resistance of this organism. Most building blocks involved in the biosynthesis of all these lipids are generated by acyl-CoA carboxylases (ACCase) whose subunit composition and physiological roles have not yet been clearly established. A rather controversial data in the literature refers to the exact protein composition and substrate specificity of the enzyme complex that produces the long-chain α-carboxy-acyl-CoAs; one of the substrates involved in the last step of condensation mediated by the polyketide synthase Pks13 to synthesize mature mycolic acids...
February 21, 2017: FEBS Journal
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