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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165604/carbapenemase-producing-organisms-a-global-scourge
#1
Robert A Bonomo, Eileen M Burd, John Conly, Brandi M Limbago, Laurent Poirel, Julie A Segre, Lars F Westblade
The dramatic increase in the prevalence and clinical impact of infections caused by bacteria producing carbapenemases is a global health concern. Carbapenemase production is especially problematic when encountered in members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Due to their ability to readily spread and colonize patients in health care environments, preventing the transmission of these organisms is a major public health initiative and coordinated international effort is needed to contain the risk of infection...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165505/-evolutionary-interactions-as-a-possible-mechanism-of-drug-interactions-an-approach-to-the-control-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria
#2
Héctor Holguín, Pedro Amariles, William Ospina
In the 21st century, the world is facing a post-antibiotic era, in which the appearance of infections with a minor or no therapeutic alternative is common. In this context, it is essential to implement measures that optimize the available therapeutic tool, thus generating new strategies that strengthen the fight against growing bacterial resistance. The evolutionary interactions suggest that the development of sensitivity or resistance of a microorganism to an antimicrobial will have an inverse effect (collateral sensitivity) or similar (cross resistance) in a second antimicrobial that is involved in this system...
August 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165361/the-obscure-world-of-integrative-and-mobilizable-elements-highly-widespread-elements-that-pirate-bacterial-conjugative-systems
#3
REVIEW
Gérard Guédon, Virginie Libante, Charles Coluzzi, Sophie Payot, Nathalie Leblond-Bourget
Conjugation is a key mechanism of bacterial evolution that involves mobile genetic elements. Recent findings indicated that the main actors of conjugative transfer are not the well-known conjugative or mobilizable plasmids but are the integrated elements. This paper reviews current knowledge on "integrative and mobilizable elements" (IMEs) that have recently been shown to be highly diverse and highly widespread but are still rarely described. IMEs encode their own excision and integration and use the conjugation machinery of unrelated co-resident conjugative element for their own transfer...
November 22, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165345/activity-in-vitro-of-clotrimazole-against-canine-methicillin-resistant-and-susceptible-staphylococcus-pseudintermedius
#4
Sian-Marie Frosini, Ross Bond
Emergence of multidrug-resistance in Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (SP) has increased interest in topical therapy as an alternative to systemic antibiotics in canine pyoderma. The antifungal imidazole, clotrimazole, is contained in numerous licensed canine ear preparations. Its in vitro activity against SP has not been evaluated, although previous studies have shown that the related imidazole, miconazole, has significant anti-staphylococcal efficacy. We therefore determined minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of clotrimazole amongst 50 SP isolates (25 methicillin-resistant [MR]SP and susceptible [MS]SP) collected from dogs in Germany during 2010-2011 using an agar dilution method (CLSI VET01-A4)...
November 22, 2017: Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165152/detection-of-antibiotic-resistant-acinetobacter-baumannii-in-various-hospital-environments-potential-sources-for-transmission-of-acinetobacter-infections
#5
Zahra Shamsizadeh, Mahnaz Nikaeen, Bahram Nasr Esfahani, Seyed Hamed Mirhoseini, Maryam Hatamzadeh, Akbar Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistant Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as one of the most problematic hospital acquired pathogens around the world. This study was designed to investigate the presence of antibiotic resistant A. baumannii in various hospital environments. METHODS: Air, water and inanimate surface samples were taken in different wards of four hospitals and analyzed for the presence of A. baumannii. Confirmed A. baumannii isolates were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility and also screened for the presence of three most common OXA- type carbapenemase-encoding genes...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165065/electrochemical-nucleic-acid-based-biosensing-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-pharmaceuticals
#6
Susana Campuzano, Maia Pedrero, Jose M Pingarron
Nowadays, studies of the interactions of DNA with small molecular drugs, especially anti-tumor agents, antibiotics and drugs of abuse are currently performed to explore their mechanism of action and develop new drugs with lower side effects and high curative properties. Currently, electrochemical biosensors are considered a very promising alternative analytical tool to conventional more complex techniques for drug determination due to rapidness, low cost, high sensitivity, compatibility with microfabrication technology, intuitively understandable design and simple operation mode...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165063/high-throughput-screening-strategies-for-the-development-of-anti-virulence-inhibitors-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#7
Xiaodan Cai, Weihao Zheng, Zigang Li
The increasing threats of antibiotic resistance urge the need for developing new approaches to combat bacterial infections. Unlike conventional antibiotics that aim to kill bacteria or inhibit their growth, targeting bacterial virulence may be a promising alternative approach, which imposes weaker selective pressure for the generation of resistance. Here, we review the pathways related to staphylococcal virulence, summarize the high-throughput screening strategies used to identify novel anti-virulence inhibitors, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these strategies...
November 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164717/antibiotics-reduce-genetic-diversity-of-core-species-in-the-honeybee-gut-microbiome
#8
Kasie Raymann, Louis-Marie Bobay, Nancy A Moran
The gut microbiome plays a key role in animal health, and perturbing it can have detrimental effects. One major source of perturbation to microbiomes, in humans and human-associated animals, is exposure to antibiotics. Most studies of how antibiotics affect the microbiome have used amplicon sequencing of highly conserved 16S rRNA sequences, as in a recent study showing that antibiotic treatment severely alters the species-level composition of the honeybee gut microbiome. But because the standard 16S rRNA-based methods cannot resolve closely related strains, strain-level changes could not be evaluated...
November 22, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164489/antimicrobial-stewardship-opportunities-in-critically-ill-patients-with-gram-negative-lower-respiratory-tract-infections-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-analysis
#9
Kimberly C Claeys, Evan J Zasowski, Trang D Trinh, Abdalhamid M Lagnf, Susan L Davis, Michael J Rybak
INTRODUCTION: Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are a major cause of morbidity and death. Because of changes in how LRTIs are defined coupled with the increasing prevalence of drug resistance, there is a gap in knowledge regarding the current burden of antimicrobial use for Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-defined LRTIs. We describe the infection characteristics, antibiotic consumption, and clinical and economic outcomes of patients with Gram-negative (GN) LRTIs treated in intensive care units (ICUs)...
November 21, 2017: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164486/adaptation-and-probiotic-potential-of-lactobacilli-isolated-from-the-oral-cavity-and-intestines-of-healthy-people
#10
Yulia Chervinets, Vyacheslav Chervinets, Boris Shenderov, Ekaterina Belyaeva, Andrey Troshin, Sergey Lebedev, Valery Danilenko
The present study shows that, from 300 Lactobacillus strains isolated from the oral cavity and large intestine of 600 healthy people, only 9 had high antagonistic activity against pathogens and opportunistic pathogens. All antagonistic strains of lactobacilli have been identified by 16S rRNA sequencing and assigned to four species: Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus casei. In addition, these lactobacilli appeared to be nonpathogenic and had some probiotic potential: the strains produced lactic acid and bacteriocins, showed high sensitivity to broad-spectrum antibiotics, and were capable of forming biofilms in vitro...
November 21, 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164140/phenotypic-and-genotypic-features-of-a-salmonella-heidelberg-strain-isolated-in-broilers-in-brazil-and-their-possible-association-to-antibiotics-and-short-chain-organic-acids-resistance-and-susceptibility
#11
Elizabeth Santin, Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Jessica Caroline Wammes, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Caio César de Melo Freire, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha
Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg is a human pathogen also found in broilers. A strain (UFPR1) has been associated with field reports of resistance to short-chain organic acids (SCOA) in broilers in the South of Brazil, but was susceptible to a Bacillus subtilis-based probiotic added in feed in a related study. This work aimed to (i) report clinical symptoms caused by SH UFPR1 in broilers, (ii) study its susceptibility to some antibiotics in vitro, and (iii) SCOA in vivo; and (iv) relate these phenotypic observations with its genome characteristics...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164074/systemic-responses-of-multidrug-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-acinetobacter-baumannii-following-exposure-to-the-antimicrobial-peptide-cathelicidin-bf-imply-multiple-intracellular-targets
#12
Cunbao Liu, Bin Shan, Jialong Qi, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin-BF, derived from the banded krait (Bungarus fasciatus), is a typically cationic, amphiphilic and α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with 30 amino acids that exerts powerful effects on multidrug-resistant (MDR) clinical isolates, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae, but whether it targets plasma membranes or intracellular targets to kill bacteria is still controversial. In the present study, we demonstrated that the disruption of bacterial membranes with high concentrations of cathelicidin-BF was the cause of bacterial death, as with conventional antibiotics at high concentrations...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164044/characterization-of-clostridium-difficile-strains-isolated-from-patients-with-c-difficile-associated-disease-in-korea
#13
Seung-Hak Cho, Jung-Whan Chon, Kun-Ho Seo, Young Kwon Kim, Jung-Beom Kim, Young-Seok Bak, Woon-Won Jung, Cheorl-Ho Kim, Jong Tae Choi
Objectives: Studies on Clostridium difficile are rare in Korea. We investigated the epidemiological characteristics of C. difficile isolates from patients with C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) in Korea. Methods: Multiplex polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect the presence of tcdA and tcdB toxin genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was carried out by the disk-dilution method. C. difficile strains were subtyped by automated repetitive-element palindromic PCR (rep-PCR)...
October 2017: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163651/molecular-detection-of-virulence-genes-and-multi-drug-resistance-patterns-in-escherichia-coli-stec-in-clinical-bovine-mastitis-alborz-province-iran
#14
M Tavakoli, H Pourtaghi
The aim of this study was to identify virulence genes and antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli isolated from bovine clinical mastitis in dairy herds in Iran. Sampling was done from 86 inflamed quarters of dairy cows in 8 commercial farms of Alborz province, Iran in summer 2015. Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) virulence genes were detected by multiplex PCR and multi-drug resistance profiles were confirmed using disk diffusion method. Among 60 E. coli isolated from examined samples, 13 (21.6%) of them were STEC...
2017: Iranian journal of veterinary research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163551/host-antimicrobial-peptides-the-promise-of-new-treatment-strategies-against-tuberculosis
#15
REVIEW
Javier Arranz-Trullén, Lu Lu, David Pulido, Sanjib Bhakta, Ester Boix
Tuberculosis (TB) continues to be a devastating infectious disease and remerges as a global health emergency due to an alarming rise of antimicrobial resistance to its treatment. Despite of the serious effort that has been applied to develop effective antitubercular chemotherapies, the potential of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains underexploited. A large amount of literature is now accessible on the AMP mechanisms of action against a diversity of pathogens; nevertheless, research on their activity on mycobacteria is still scarce...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163430/pdtas-deficiency-affects-resistance-of-mycobacteria-to-ribosome-targeting-antibiotics
#16
Karolina Dadura, Renata Płocińska, Anna Rumijowska-Galewicz, Przemysław Płociński, Anna Żaczek, Bożena Dziadek, Andrzej Zaborowski, Jarosław Dziadek
Two-component regulatory systems (TCSSs) are key regulatory elements responsible for the adaptation of bacteria to environmental stresses. A classical TCSS is typically comprised of a sensory histidine kinase and a corresponding response regulator. Here, we used homologous recombination to construct a Mycobacterium smegmatis mutant defective in the synthesis of cytosolic histidine kinase PdtaS (Msmeg_1918). The resulting ΔpdtaS mutant strain was tested in the Phenotype Microarray screening system, which allowed us to identify aminoglycoside antibiotic sensitivity, tetracyclines antibiotic resistance as well as membrane transport and respiration, as the main processes affected by removal of pdtaS...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163425/features-of-crispr-cas-regulation-key-to-highly-efficient-and-temporally-specific-crrna-production
#17
Andjela Rodic, Bojana Blagojevic, Magdalena Djordjevic, Konstantin Severinov, Marko Djordjevic
Bacterial immune systems, such as CRISPR-Cas or restriction-modification (R-M) systems, affect bacterial pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance by modulating horizontal gene flow. A model system for CRISPR-Cas regulation, the Type I-E system from Escherichia coli, is silent under standard laboratory conditions and experimentally observing the dynamics of CRISPR-Cas activation is challenging. Two characteristic features of CRISPR-Cas regulation in E. coli are cooperative transcription repression of cas gene and CRISPR array promoters, and fast non-specific degradation of full length CRISPR transcripts (pre-crRNA)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163416/diagnostic-evasion-of-highly-resistant-microorganisms-a-critical-factor-in-nosocomial-outbreaks
#18
Xuewei Zhou, Alexander W Friedrich, Erik Bathoorn
Highly resistant microorganisms (HRMOs) may evade screening strategies used in routine diagnostics. Bacteria that have evolved to evade diagnostic tests may have a selective advantage in the nosocomial environment. Evasion of resistance detection can result from the following mechanisms: low-level expression of resistance genes not resulting in detectable resistance, slow growing variants, mimicry of wild-type-resistance, and resistance mechanisms that are only detected if induced by antibiotic pressure. We reviewed reports on hospital outbreaks in the Netherlands over the past 5 years...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163414/control-of-antimicrobial-resistance-requires-an-ethical-approach
#19
REVIEW
Ben Parsonage, Philip K Hagglund, Lloyd Keogh, Nick Wheelhouse, Richard E Brown, Stephanie J Dancer
Ethical behavior encompasses actions that benefit both self and society. This means that tackling antimicrobial resistance (AMR) becomes an ethical obligation, because the prospect of declining anti-infectives affects everyone. Without preventive action, loss of drugs that have saved lives over the past century, will condemn ourselves, people we know, and people we don't know, to unacceptable risk of untreatable infection. Policies aimed at extending antimicrobial life should be considered within an ethical framework, in order to balance the choice, range, and quality of drugs against stewardship activities...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163413/lipoprotein-glycosylation-by-protein-o-mannosyltransferase-mab_1122c-contributes-to-low-cell-envelope-permeability-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-mycobacterium-abscessus
#20
Katja Becker, Klara Haldimann, Petra Selchow, Lukas M Reinau, Michael Dal Molin, Peter Sander
Lipoproteins are important components of the mycobacterial cell envelope due to their function in cell wall homeostasis and bacterial virulence. They are post-translationally modified with lipid- and glycosyl-residues in various species and interference with acylation or glycosylation leads to reduced growth and attenuated virulence in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Lipoproteins are also expressed in the emerging and highly drug resistant pathogen Mycobacterium abscessus which frequently affects the lungs of patients with chronic pulmonary disease or cystic fibrosis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
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