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Athletic inflammation pathophysiology

M Darragh Flannery, Jonathan M Kalman, Prashanthan Sanders, André La Gerche
Exercise has substantial health benefits with pleomorphic vascular, metabolic, psychological and anti-neoplastic actions resulting in improved quality of life and longevity. Despite these many benefits, numerous studies have shown that endurance athletes are more likely to develop atrial fibrillation (AF) than non-athletes. The type, intensity and amount of sport appears to influence the risk of developing AF. Several endurance sport activities have been shown to increase the risk of developing AF but an excess in AF has not been shown in non-endurance sports...
September 2017: Heart, Lung & Circulation
J H Hull, J W Dickinson, A R Jackson
Cough is the most common respiratory symptom reported by athletes and can significantly impact on health status, ability to train and athletic performance. The presence of cough in an athlete is typically taken to indicate exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), yet in many athletes with chronic cough there is no objective evidence of airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR) or heightened airway inflammation. Moreover, cough in athletes often fails to respond to a therapeutic asthma strategy, thus further work is urgently needed to progress our understanding of the pathophysiology of exercise-associated cough in this unique population...
April 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Gian M Salzmann, Stefan Preiss, Marcy Zenobi-Wong, Laurent P Harder, Dirk Maier, Jirí Dvorák
Football is currently the most popular sporting activity in the world. Multiple reports have shown that a high incidence of osteoarthritis is found in football players. Evidence clearly shows that traumatic injury significantly predisposes players for such pathophysiology. Injuries are frequent in amateur as well as professional football players, with knee and ankle accounting for the most severe injuries. Many professional athletes lose playing time due to injuries and many are forced into early retirement...
April 2017: Cartilage
Jacqueline R Kulbe, James W Geddes
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) affects millions of people annually and is difficult to diagnose. Mild injury is insensitive to conventional imaging techniques and diagnoses are often made using subjective criteria such as self-reported symptoms. Many people who sustain a mTBI develop persistent post-concussive symptoms. Athletes and military personnel are at great risk for repeat injury which can result in second impact syndrome or chronic traumatic encephalopathy. An objective and quantifiable measure, such as a serum biomarker, is needed to aid in mTBI diagnosis, prognosis, return to play/duty assessments, and would further elucidate mTBI pathophysiology...
January 2016: Experimental Neurology
Christos A Goudis, Ioannis V Ntalas, Dimitrios G Ketikoglou
Atrial fibrillation is the most common arrhythmia in athletes and may be associated with endurance sport practice. Atrial ectopic beats, chronic systemic inflammation, autonomic system alterations, anatomic adaptation, myocardial injury and illicit drugs seem to be implicated in the increased prevalence of atrial fibrillation in athletes, but clear evidence is lacking. Treatment of the arrhythmia is a challenging issue, as atrial fibrillation may impair athletic performances and deteriorate athletes' quality of life...
September 2015: Cardiology in Review
Christopher C Giza, Jeffrey S Kutcher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Concussions are a major public health issue, and particularly so in the setting of sports. Millions of athletes of all ages may face the risks of concussion and repeat concussion. This article introduces the terminology, epidemiology, and underlying pathophysiology associated with concussion, focused on sports-related injuries. RECENT FINDINGS: Concussion is a clinical syndrome of symptoms and signs occurring after biomechanical force is imparted to the brain...
December 2014: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
F Winston Gwathmey, Warren R Kadrmas
The physical demands of the military expose the hip to extreme forces and stresses and generate a high incidence of hip disorders within this population. Fundamental to the pathophysiology of hip injuries is the underlying anatomy of the joint because problematic femoroacetabular mechanics predispose to injury. FAI is increasingly recognized as the underlying cause of hip disorders and should be considered when assessing a patient with hip complaints. Young, male patients are at increased risk of FAI, especially cam impingement, and high levels of athletic activity during skeletal growth may contribute to the development of cam morphology...
October 2014: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Louise L Toennesen, Celeste Porsbjerg, Lars Pedersen, Vibeke Backer
INTRODUCTION: Elite athletes frequently experience asthma and airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). We aimed to investigate predictors of airway pathophysiology in a group of unselected elite summer-sport athletes, training for the summer 2008 Olympic Games, including markers of airway inflammation, systemic inflammation, and training intensity. METHODS: Fifty-seven Danish elite summer-sport athletes with and without asthma symptoms all gave a blood sample for measurements of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), completed a respiratory questionnaire, and underwent spirometry...
May 2015: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Oliver S Schindler
PURPOSE: To comprise current knowledge on morphology, embryology and pathophysiology of synovial plicae as well as on clinical and therapeutic aspects of the plica syndrome. METHODS: Review of the literature combined with a meta-analysis of studies assessing the outcome of open or arthroscopic plica excision including the author's own series. RESULTS: The term synovial plica has been devised to describe a number of intra-capsular folds thought to represent remnants of a membranous knee joint partition present during foetal development...
February 2014: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Rowland B Mayor
Tendinopathy is a general term that describes any painful condition that occurs in or around a tendon. Historically, treatments have been directed at inflammation, but an improved understanding of the pathophysiology of tendinopathy has led to redirecting the treatment toward methods that address the underlying pathophysiology. Anti-inflammatory treatments such as NSAIDs and corticosteroid injections are still in common use. Novel treatments such as topical nitrates and platelet rich plasma injections aim to address the biological changes seen in tendinopathy, but evidence of clinical benefit is scant...
September 2012: Connecticut Medicine
Sarah Breitbach, Suzan Tug, Perikles Simon
The phenomenon of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations is of importance for many biomedical disciplines including the field of exercise physiology. Increases of cfDNA due to exercise are described to be a potential hallmark for the overtraining syndrome and might be related to, or trigger adaptations of, immune function induced by strenuous exercise. At the same time, exercise provides a practicable model for studying the phenomenon of cfDNA that is described to be of pathophysiological relevance for different topics in clinical medicine like autoimmune diseases and cancer...
July 1, 2012: Sports Medicine
Kim van Wijck, Kaatje Lenaerts, Joep Grootjans, Karolina A P Wijnands, Martijn Poeze, Luc J C van Loon, Cornelis H C Dejong, Wim A Buurman
Physical exercise places high demands on the adaptive capacity of the human body. Strenuous physical performance increases the blood supply to active muscles, cardiopulmonary system, and skin to meet the altered demands for oxygen and nutrients. The redistribution of blood flow, necessary for such an increased blood supply to the periphery, significantly reduces blood flow to the gut, leading to hypoperfusion and gastrointestinal (GI) compromise. A compromised GI system can have a negative impact on exercise performance and subsequent postexercise recovery due to abdominal distress and impairments in the uptake of fluid, electrolytes, and nutrients...
July 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Jean-Frédéric Brun, Emmanuelle Varlet-Marie, Ahmed-Jérôme Romain, Eric Raynaud de Mauverger
It is well known that body composition influences blood rheology (higher blood viscosity and RBC aggregation in obese individuals). On the other hand, blood rheology is related to exercise performance (the fitter the athlete the more fluid the blood). The 'paradox of hematocrit' is that most of the time trained athletes have a lower hematocrit while doping aims at increasing it, a situation which seems to challenge physiology and can be explained by the fact that systemic hematocrit may have poor physiological relevance at the microcirculatory level in exercising muscles...
2011: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
P V Michelotto, L A Muehlmann, A L Zanatta, E W R Bieberbach, L C Fernandes, A Nishiyama
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory airway disease (IAD) is prevalent in young racehorses during training, being the 2nd most commonly diagnosed ailment interrupting training of 2-year-old Thoroughbred racehorses. HYPOTHESIS: That stabling and exercise cause oxidative stress, release of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and inflammation in airways of Thoroughbred colts. ANIMALS: Colts in breeding farms (NC, n = 45), stabled for 30 days (EC, n = 40), and race trained (EX, n = 34)...
March 2010: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
J A Paoloni, C Milne, J Orchard, B Hamilton
INTRODUCTION: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) are commonly used in sports medicine. NSAID have known anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic and antithrombotic effects, although their in-vivo effects in treating musculoskeletal injuries in humans remain largely unknown. NSAID analgesic action is not significantly greater than paracetamol for musculoskeletal injury but they have a higher risk profile, with side-effects including asthma exacerbation, gastrointestinal and renal side-effects, hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases...
October 2009: British Journal of Sports Medicine
Andres J Quintero, Vonda J Wright, Freddie H Fu, Johnny Huard
Skeletal muscle injuries are extremely common, accounting for up to 35%-55% of all sports injuries and quite possibly affecting all musculoskeletal traumas. These injuries result in the formation of fibrosis, which may lead to the development of painful contractures, increases patients' risk for repeat injuries, and limits their ability to return to a baseline or pre-injury level of function. The development of successful therapies for these injuries must consider the pathophysiology of these musculoskeletal conditions...
January 2009: Clinics in Sports Medicine
Stéphane Bermon
Upper Respiratory Tract Infection (URTI) is regarded as the most common medical condition affecting both highly trained and elite athletes, in particular those participating in endurance events. The causes of these disturbances, also occurring during training, remain unclear. Viruses such as rhinovirus, adenovirus and para-influenza virus are frequently reported as the source of URTI. However, in a few comprehensive laboratory and epidemiological studies which reported at least a 30% incidence of URTI, no identifiable pathogens were either reported or studied...
2007: Exercise Immunology Review
Lisa R Leon
Heat stroke is a life-threatening illness that affects all segments of society, including the young, aged, sick, and healthy. The recent high death toll in France (Dorozynski, 2003) and the death of high-profile athletes has increased public awareness of the adverse effects of heat injury. However, the etiology of the long-term consequences of this syndrome remains poorly understood such that preventive/treatment strategies are needed to mitigate its debilitating effects. Cytokines are important modulators of the acute phase response (APR) to stress, infection, and inflammation...
2007: Progress in Brain Research
Bareket Falk, Ruti Gorev, Levana Zigel, Ami Ben-Amotz, Ittai Neuman
BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that exercise-induced bronchoconstriction may involve oxidative stress. Strenuous exercise promotes free radical production, which can lead to many of the pathophysiologic changes associated with asthma, including bronchoconstriction, mucus secretion, and microvascular leakage. Lycopene has been shown to have high antioxidative activity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of lycopene supplementation on airway hyperreactivity and inflammation in young athletes who complain of difficulty in breathing related to physical exertion...
April 2005: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
P Gunnar Brolinson, Michael Sampson
The art and science of the management of musculoskeletal pain has advanced significantly over the past several years. With greater understanding of the nervous system's response to pain, and the biochemistry of this response, practitioners have a wider range of treatment options than ever before. The recognition of the importance of pain control in the recovery from musculoskeletal injury has resulted in the development of newer and more aggressive pain management strategies employing a variety of clinical techniques...
December 2003: Current Sports Medicine Reports
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