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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229056/experimental-visualization-of-labyrinthine-structure-with-optical-coherence-tomography
#1
Saleh Mohebbi, Marjan Mirsalehi, Lüder-Alexander Kahrs, Tobias Ortmaier, Thomas Lenarz, Omid Majdani
INTRODUCTION: Visualization of inner ear structures is a valuable strategy for researchers and clinicians working on hearing pathologies. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a high-resolution imaging technology which may be used for the visualization of tissues. In this experimental study we aimed to evaluate inner ear anatomy in well-prepared human labyrinthine bones. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three fresh human explanted temporal bones were trimmed, chemically decalcified with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and mechanically drilled under visual control using OCT in order to reveal the remaining bone shell...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229036/direct-surgery-of-previously-coiled-large-internal-carotid-ophthalmic-aneurysm-for-the-purpose-of-optic-nerve-decompression
#2
Shuhei Kawabata, Shingo Toyota, Tetsuya Kumagai, Tetsu Goto, Kanji Mori, Takuyu Taki
Background Progressive visual loss after coil embolization of a large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm has been widely reported. It is generally accepted that the primary strategy for this complication should be conservative, including steroid therapy; however, it is not well known as to what approach to take when the conservative therapy is not effective. Case Presentation We report a case of a 55-year-old female presenting with progressive visual loss after the coiling of a ruptured large internal carotid ophthalmic aneurysm...
January 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223179/biological-aspects-of-axonal-damage-in-glaucoma-a-brief-review
#3
REVIEW
Ernst R Tamm, C Ross Ethier, Claude Burgoyne, C Ross Ethier, Ernst R Tamm, Cheri Stowell, John E Dowling, Crawford Downs, Mark H Ellisman, Steven Fisher, Brad Fortune, Marcus Fruttiger, Tatjana Jakobs, Geoffrey Lewis, Claire H Mitchell, John Morrison, Sansar C Sharma, Ian Sigal, Michael Sofroniew, Lin Wang, Janey Wiggs, Samuel Wu, Richard H Masland
Intraocular pressure (IOP) is a critical risk factor in glaucoma, and the available evidence derived from experimental studies in primates and rodents strongly indicates that the site of IOP-induced axonal damage in glaucoma is at the optic nerve head (ONH). However, the mechanisms that cause IOP-induced damage at the ONH are far from understood. A possible sequence of events could originate with IOP-induced stress in the ONH connective tissue elements (peripapillary sclera, scleral canal and lamina cribrosa) that leads to an increase in biomechanical strain...
February 18, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218915/one-step-optogenetics-with-multifunctional-flexible-polymer-fibers
#4
Seongjun Park, Yuanyuan Guo, Xiaoting Jia, Han Kyoung Choe, Benjamin Grena, Jeewoo Kang, Jiyeon Park, Chi Lu, Andres Canales, Ritchie Chen, Yeong Shin Yim, Gloria B Choi, Yoel Fink, Polina Anikeeva
Optogenetic interrogation of neural pathways relies on delivery of light-sensitive opsins into tissue and subsequent optical illumination and electrical recording from the regions of interest. Despite the recent development of multifunctional neural probes, integration of these modalities in a single biocompatible platform remains a challenge. We developed a device composed of an optical waveguide, six electrodes and two microfluidic channels produced via fiber drawing. Our probes facilitated injections of viral vectors carrying opsin genes while providing collocated neural recording and optical stimulation...
February 20, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211263/increased-regurgitant-flow-causes-endocardial-cushion-defects-in-an-avian-embryonic-model-of-congenital-heart-disease
#5
Stephanie M Ford, Matthew T McPheeters, Yves T Wang, Pei Ma, Shi Gu, James Strainic, Christopher Snyder, Andrew M Rollins, Michiko Watanabe, Michael W Jenkins
BACKGROUND: The relationship between changes in endocardial cushion and resultant congenital heart diseases (CHD) has yet to be established. It has been shown that increased regurgitant flow early in embryonic heart development leads to endocardial cushion defects, but it remains unclear how abnormal endocardial cushions during the looping stages might affect the fully septated heart. The goal of this study was to reproducibly alter blood flow in vivo and then quantify the resultant effects on morphology of endocardial cushions in the looping heart and on CHDs in the septated heart...
February 17, 2017: Congenital Heart Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187473/-imaging-of-the-intrascleral-aqueous-drainage-system-new-insights-for-glaucoma-surgery-targeting-the-trabecular-meshwork
#6
C van Oterendorp
Numerous new techniques in glaucoma surgery target the trabecular meshwork, which is considered to be the main site of aqueous outflow resistance. These approaches rely on a functioning aqueous drainage system distal to the site of surgery. Thus, the intrascleral aqueous outflow tract comprises Schlemm's canal, collector channels and aqueous veins and has become an object of increasing research interest. The intrascleral outflow tract contributes approximately 25-50 % to the total aqueous outflow resistance, but the outflow capacity differs greatly over the segments of the eye...
February 10, 2017: Klinische Monatsblätter Für Augenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146238/collagen-architecture-of-the-posterior-pole-high-resolution-wide-field-of-view-visualization-and-analysis-using-polarized-light-microscopy
#7
Ning-Jiun Jan, Kira Lathrop, Ian A Sigal
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to leverage polarized light microscopy (PLM) to visualize the collagen fiber architecture of posterior pole and optic nerve head with micrometer-scale resolution and to identify and quantify major organizational components. Methods: Eight sheep posterior poles were cryosectioned and imaged using PLM. Collagen fiber orientation was determined by using custom scripts, and the resulting orientation maps were inspected and quantified to identify major structural elements and tested for differences in mean fiber orientation and anisotropy, using linear mixed effect models...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134820/a-novel-earphone-type-sensor-for-measuring-mealtime-consideration-of-the-method-to-distinguish-between-running-and-meals
#8
Kazuhiro Taniguchi, Hikaru Chiaki, Mami Kurosawa, Atsushi Nishikawa
In this study, we describe a technique for estimating meal times using an earphone-type wearable sensor. A small optical sensor composed of a light-emitting diode and phototransistor is inserted into the ear hole of a user and estimates the meal times of the user from the time variations in the amount of light received. This is achieved by emitting light toward the inside of the ear canal and receiving light reflected back from the ear canal. This proposed technique allowed "meals" to be differentiated from having conversations, sneezing, walking, ascending and descending stairs, operating a computer, and using a smartphone...
January 27, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113296/pressure-in-the-cochlea-during-infrared-irradiation
#9
Nan Xia, Xiaodong Tan, Yingyue Xu, Wensheng Hou, Teresa Mao, Claus-Peter Richter
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to demonstrate laser evoked pressure waves in small confined volumes such as the cochlea. METHODS: Custom fabricated pressure probes were used to determine the pressure in front of the optical fiber in a small dish and patch pipettes to measure temperature changes. Pressure probes were inserted into scala tympani or vestibuli during laser stimulation. With a sensitive microphone the pressure was measured in the outer ear canal...
December 7, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108959/innovative-root-end-filling-materials-based-on-calcium-silicates-and-calcium-phosphates
#10
Ali Abedi-Amin, Arlinda Luzi, Massimo Giovarruscio, Gaetano Paolone, Atanaz Darvizeh, Victoria Vivó Agulló, Salvatore Sauro
This in vitro study evaluated the apical sealing ability, bioactivity and biocompatibility of an experimental calcium silicate-based and two light-curing calcium silicate/calcium-phosphate cements as potential root end filling materials. A calcium silicate Portland-based (Control PC), an experimental calcium silicate (Exp. PC) and two light-curing cements (LC-CaP; LC-Si/CaP) were assessed for their alkalinising activity (pH) and biocompatibility. Single-rooted human canines were endodontically treated, filled with gutta-percha and finally submitted to apicoectomy...
February 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108173/broach-handle-design-changes-force-distribution-in-the-femur-during-total-hip-arthroplasty
#11
Dustin A Greenhill, Pooyan Abbasi, Kurosh Darvish, Andrew M Star
BACKGROUND: Curved broach handles were developed to overcome limited surgical exposures during total hip arthroplasty. Some authors report increased intraoperative fracture rates during limited exposures. This study evaluates mechanical force ratios transmitted to the bone while broaching with curved vs straight handles. METHODS: An experimental model utilized a 6-axis load cell to measure force distributions produced by 4 different broach handles, each with increasing offset and curvature...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088936/endoscopic-decompression-of-the-optic-canal-for-traumatic-optic-neuropathy
#12
Zhen-Hua He, Zheng-Bo Lan, Ao Xiong, Guo-Kuo Hou, Ya-Wen Pan, Qiang Li, Xin-Ding Zhang
PURPOSE: Traumatic optic neuropathy (TON) is a serious complication of head trauma with the incidence rate of 0.5%-5%. The aim of this study was to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of endoscopic decompression of the optic canal for optic nerve injuries. METHODS: In this study, 11 patients treated in our hospital from January 2009 to January 2015 with the visual loss resulting from TON were retrospectively reviewed for preoperative vision, visual evoked potential (VEP) scan, surgical approach, postoperative visual acuity, complications, and follow-up results...
December 1, 2016: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079655/microarchitecture-of-schlemm-canal-before-and-after-selective-laser-trabeculoplasty-in-enhanced-depth-imaging-optical-coherence-tomography
#13
Alon Skaat, Michael S Rosman, Jason L Chien, Mark P Ghassibi, Jeffrey M Liebmann, Robert Ritch, Sung Chul Park
PURPOSE: To characterize the in vivo effect of selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) on the Schlemm canal (SC) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eighty-one serial horizontal enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomograph B-scans (interval between B-scans, ∼35 μm) of the nasal corneoscleral limbus were obtained before and 4 weeks after SLT. Fifty B-scans in the overlapping regions before and after SLT were selected for analysis based on the structures of aqueous and blood vessels as landmarks...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060988/-neuromyelitis-optica-presenting-concomitantly-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-report-of-one-case
#14
Felipe Suárez H, Daniela Urrutia E, Felipe Canales P, Camila Gutiérrez O
Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a severe demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, which preferentially attacks the optic nerve and spinal cord. It is associated with antibodies against aquaporin 4. Morbidity and mortality are higher than in multiple sclerosis and its treatment focuses on immunosuppressive drugs. Immunomodulators are contraindicated. We report a previously healthy 35-year-old man, presenting with NMO concomitantly with systemic lupus erythematosus. His evolution was torpid with three outbreaks in the 10 months after the diagnosis, requiring a first-line therapy with methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide and then a second-line therapy with rituximab...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050353/an-osteologic-study-of-cranial-opening-of-optic-canal-in-gujarat-region
#15
Binita Jigneshkumar Purohit, Praveen R Singh
INTRODUCTION: Optic canal is a bony canal situated in between the roots of lesser wings of sphenoid, lateral to body of sphenoid. It transmits optic nerve and ophthalmic artery, surrounded by meninges. Various authors have studied variations in skull foramina and correlated clinically, as variants in the body structures have been found to be associated with many inherited or acquired diseases. AIM: The present study aimed to examine morphologic and morphometric variations in cranial openings of optic canals...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28048228/su-f-p-26-study-of-radiation-dose-evaluation-for-organs-at-risk-using-mri-in-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#16
G Gong, Y Guo, Y Yin
PURPOSE: To study the contour and dosimetric feature of organs at risk (OARs) applying magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) compared to computed tomography (CT) images. METHODS: 35 NPC patients was selected into this trail. CT simulation with non-contrast and contrast enhanced scan, MRI simulation with non-contrast and contrast enhanced T1, T2 and diffusion weighted imaging were achieved sequentially...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042017/-the-extended-lateral-supraorbital-approach-and-extradural-anterior-clinoidectomy-through-a-fronto-pterio-orbital-window-technical-note-and-pilot-surgical-series
#17
Hugo Andrade-Barazarte, Max Jägersberg, Sirajeddin Belkhair, Rachel Tymianski, Mazda K Turel, Karl Schaller, Juha A Hernesniemi, Michael Tymianski, Ivan Radovanovic
BACKGROUND: Lateral approaches to treat anterior cranial fossa lesions have evolved since the first frontotemporal approach described by Dandy in 1918 OBJECTIVE: To describe a less invasive approach to perform an extradural anterior clinoidectomy (EAC) through a lateral supraorbital approach (LSO) for anterior circulation aneurysms and antero-lateral skull base lesions METHODS: The extended LSO involves performing a standard lateral supraorbital craniotomy, followed by drilling of the sphenoid wing and the lateral wall of the orbit through the frontal bony opening of the LSO without any temporal extension of the craniotomy...
December 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003733/mmp19-expression-in-the-human-optic-nerve
#18
Kathleen R Chirco, Ralph J Hazlewood, Kathy Miller, Grefachew Workalemahu, Lee M Jampol, G Robert Lesser, Robert F Mullins, Markus H Kuehn, John H Fingert
PURPOSE: The defining feature of glaucoma is excavation of the optic nerve head; however, the mechanism of this loss of tissue is not well understood. We recently discovered a copy number variation upstream of matrix metalloproteinase 19 (MMP19) in a large, autosomal dominant pedigree with a congenital malformation of the optic disc called cavitary optic disc anomaly (CODA). Patients with CODA have abnormal optic discs that exhibit an excavated shape similar to cupping seen in glaucoma...
2016: Molecular Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002526/micro-ct-and-optical-microscopy-imagistic-investigations-of-root-canal-morphology
#19
Emanuela Lidia Crăciunescu, Marius Boariu, Ciprian IoniŢă, Daniela Maria Pop, Cosmin Sinescu, Mihai Romînu, Meda Lavinia NegruŢiu
Protecting the root's internal morphology is the first key toward the success of the endodontic treatment. Due to the vast diversity of endodontic space, it is difficult to visualize and to establish the shape and limits of the root canal, especially the morphology of apical area and lateral root canals. Optical microscopy is a classical imagistic investigation method, widely used along classical methods like radiographs that also offer limited information about root morphology and extension of decay. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), a modern imagistic investigation method can provide detailed three-dimensional reconstructions of root canal...
2016: Romanian Journal of Morphology and Embryology, Revue Roumaine de Morphologie et Embryologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27982176/on-the-causality-between-dentinal-defects-and-root-canal-preparation-a-micro-ct-assessment
#20
Gustavo De-Deus, Felipe Gonçalves Belladonna, Juliana Roter Marins, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva, Aline de Almeida Neves, Erick Miranda Souza, Alessandra de Castro Machado, Ricardo Tadeu Lopes, Marco Aurélio Versiani
This study aimed to evaluate the cause-effect relationship between canal preparation with ProTaper Universal (PTU) system and dentinal defects formation using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) analysis. Forty mesial canals of mandibular molars with a type II Vertucci's canal configuration were scanned at an isotropic resolution of 14.16 µm. The sample was assigned to an experimental (n = 30) and a control (n = 10) groups, and the mesial canals were prepared with PTU system up to F2 instrument. The specimens from the experimental group were scanned and the cross-section images of the mesial roots, before and after preparation, were screened to identify the presence of dentinal defects...
October 2016: Brazilian Dental Journal
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