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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290112/protecting-bone-health-in-pediatric-rheumatic-diseases-pharmacological-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Yujuan Zhang, Diana Milojevic
Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health...
March 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288080/management-of-pediatric-type-i-open-fractures-in-the-emergency-department-or-operating-room-a-multicenter-perspective
#2
Jenna Godfrey, Paul D Choi, Lior Shabtai, Sarah B Nossov, Amy Williams, Antoinette W Lindberg, Selina Silva, Michelle S Caird, Mathew D Schur, Alexandre Arkader
BACKGROUND: The management of pediatric type I open fractures remains controversial. The aim of this study is to compare outcomes in type I open fractures managed with superficial wound debridement and antibiotics in the emergency department (ED) (nonoperative management) to patients managed with operative debridement and antibiotics (operative management). METHODS: A multicenter retrospective review was performed of all pediatric type I open forearm, wrist, and tibia fractures treated at 4 high volume pediatric centers between 2000 and 2015...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286625/radiographic-evaluation-of-common-pediatric-elbow-injuries
#3
REVIEW
Steven F DeFroda, Heather Hansen, Joseph A Gil, Ashraf H Hawari, Aristides I Cruz
Normal variations in anatomy in the skeletally immature patient may be mistaken for fracture or injury due to the presence of secondary centers of ossification. Variations in imaging exist from patient to patient based on sex, age, and may even vary from one extremity to the other on the same patient. Despite differences in the appearance of the bony anatomy of the elbow there are certain landmarks and relationships, which can help, distinguish normal from abnormal. We review common radiographic parameters and pitfalls associated in the evaluation of pediatric elbow imaging...
February 20, 2017: Orthopedic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277468/the-outcomes-of-nonelongating-intramedullary-fixation-of-the-lower-extremity-for-pediatric-osteogenesis-imperfecta-patients-a-meta-analysis
#4
Joseph P Scollan, Julio J Jauregui, Christina M Jacobsen, Joshua M Abzug
BACKGROUND: Osteogenesis imperfecta is usually due to autosomal dominant mutations in type I collagen, leading to an increase in fractures and bone deformities, especially in the long bones of the lower extremities. The use of nonelongating intramedullary rods is an established surgical intervention to address such deformities. The rate of surgical complications has been reported to be as high as 187%, with revision rates as high as 90%, although exact global rates are unknown. As such, we sought to determine the published rates of (1) bone-related complications (including both fracture and deformity), (2) rod migration, and (3) complications that require reoperation...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277467/high-energy-pediatric-scapula-fractures-and-their-associated-injuries
#5
Steven F Shannon, Nicholas M Hernandez, Stephen A Sems, Annalise N Larson, Todd A Milbrandt
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate pediatric scapula fractures occurring in high-energy motorized vehicle accidents and their associated injury patterns in a pediatric patient population. METHODS: One thousand nine hundred sixty-eight pediatric patients who presented after either on-road or off-road motorized vehicle accidents between 1996 and 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. Thirty-eight patients were found to have scapula fractures and the remaining 1930 were identified as controls...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266698/complications-associated-with-pediatric-supracondylar-humeral-fractures
#6
Ernesto Del Valle-Hernández, Pablo A Marrero-Barrera, David Beaton, Dalibel Bravo, Sergio Santiago, Humberto Guzmán-Pérez, Nestor Ramos-Alconini
OBJECTIVE: To measure pediatric supracondylar fracture epidemiology, fracture rate, and complications in the island's pediatric population. The study aims to compare our results to the national rates reported in the literature. METHODS: In this retrospective record review we examined 330 patients who underwent open reduction internal fixation or closed reduction percutaneous pinning in pediatric supracondylar fractures at the University Pediatric Hospital of Puerto Rico Medical Center (HOPU)...
March 2017: Puerto Rico Health Sciences Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261435/flexible-intramedullary-nailing-of-forearm-fractures-at-the-distal-metadiaphyseal-junction-in-adolescents
#7
Byung Sung Kim, Yong Sung Lee, Sung Yong Park, Jae Hwi Nho, Sun Geun Lee, Young Hwan Kim
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to analyze the radiographic and functional outcomes of flexible intramedullary (IM) nailing in adolescent patients with forearm fractures at the diaphysis or at the metadiaphyseal junction (MDJ). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the results of 40 patients who underwent IM nailing for pediatric forearm fractures. Thirty males and 10 females were followed for an average of 16 months (range, 12 to 20 months). Their average age was 11 years (range, 10 to 16 years)...
March 2017: Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259272/current-evidence-regarding-diagnostic-imaging-methods-for-pediatric-lumbar-spondylolysis-a-report-from-the-scoliosis-research-society-evidence-based-medicine-committee
#8
Charles G T Ledonio, Douglas C Burton, Charles H Crawford, Robert Shay Bess, Jacob M Buchowski, Serena S Hu, Baron S H Lonner, David W Polly, Justin S Smith, James O Sanders
BACKGROUND: Spondylolysis is common among the pediatric population, yet no formal systematic literature review regarding diagnostic imaging has been performed. The Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) requested an assessment of the current state of peer reviewed evidence regarding pediatric spondylolysis. METHODS: Literature was searched professionally and citations retrieved. Abstracts were reviewed and analyzed by the SRS Evidence-Based Medicine Committee. Level I studies were considered to provide Good Evidence for the clinical question...
March 2017: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258940/low-bone-mineral-density-and-fractures-are-highly-prevalent-in-pediatric-patients-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-regardless-of-disease-severity
#9
Halley M Wasserman, Lindsey N Hornung, Peggy J Stenger, Meilan M Rutter, Brenda L Wong, Irina Rybalsky, Jane C Khoury, Heidi J Kalkwarf
Patients with Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA) are at risk for poor bone health. The prevalence of fractures, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD; Z-score ≤-2.0) of the lateral distal femur and of osteoporosis by SMA subtype is not known. We aimed to describe the natural history of bone health in patients with SMA prior to bisphosphonate treatment. We reviewed data from 85 eligible patients with SMA ages 12 months to 18 years, seen at a single institution between January 2005 and July 2016. Fracture history was reported at annual clinic visits...
February 1, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28244925/variation-among-pediatric-orthopaedic-surgeons-when-diagnosing-and-treating-pediatric-and-adolescent-distal-radius-fractures
#10
Karan Dua, Matthew K Stein, Nathan N O'Hara, Brian K Brighton, William L Hennrikus, Martin J Herman, J Todd Lawrence, Charles T Mehlman, Norman Y Otsuka, M Wade Shrader, Brian G Smith, Paul D Sponseller, Joshua M Abzug
BACKGROUND: Distal radius fractures are the most common injury in the pediatric population. The purpose of this study was to determine the variation among pediatric orthopaedic surgeons when diagnosing and treating distal radius fractures. METHODS: Nine pediatric orthopaedic surgeons reviewed 100 sets of wrist radiographs and were asked to describe the fracture, prescribe the type of treatment and length of immobilization, and determine the next follow-up visit...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231580/pediatric-hangman-s-fracture-a-comprehensive-review
#11
Michael Montalbano, Christian Fisahn, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, Jens R Chapman, R Shane Tubbs
PURPOSE: Over 170 years ago, traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis or hangman's fracture was described. Most descriptions of this entity have focused on adult presentations. METHODS: We review the literature on pediatric cases of hangman's fracture emphasizing the embryological as well as presentation aspects. RESULTS: The majority of cervical spine fractures in children occur at C1 and C2 vertebrae. A normal anterolisthesis of C2 can be seen in younger children and can mimic the anterolisthesis seen after traumatic spondylolisthesis...
February 24, 2017: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208961/fracture-supracondylar-humerus-a-review
#12
REVIEW
Vineet Kumar, Ajai Singh
Fracture supracondylar humerus is one of the most common fractures encountered in pediatric age group at all levels (both rural and urban). Thus it needs a special review in its management protocol as per the changing trend. Modified Gartland classification is the most accepted classification and has its importance in decision making regarding management and prognosis. Neurovascular complications are mostly associated with Type III A, III B and Type IV variety and they most of the time need surgical intervention for stabilization, exploration of brachial artery, sometimes median nerve exploration and reduction of fracture...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190518/brain-computed-tomography-compared-with-facial-3-dimensional-computed-tomography-for-diagnosis-of-facial-fractures
#13
Sun Hwa Lee, Seong Jong Yun, Seokyong Ryu, Seoung Won Choi, Hye Jin Kim, Tae Kyug Kang, Sung Chan Oh, Suk Jin Cho
OBJECTIVES: To compare the detection of facial fractures and radiation dose between brain computed tomography (CT) and facial 3-dimensional (3D) CT in pediatric patients who have experienced a trauma. STUDY DESIGN: Four hundred pediatric patients who experienced a trauma and underwent immediate brain CT and facial 3D CT between January 2016 and June 2016 were included in this retrospective study. Two reviewers independently analyzed and determined the presence of the facial fractures of 8 anatomic regions based on brain CT and facial 3D CT over a 1-week interval...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141694/toddler-s-fractures-time-to-weight-bear-with-regard-to-immobilization-type-and-radiographic-monitoring
#14
Jennifer M Bauer, Steven A Lovejoy
BACKGROUND: The toddler's fracture is a common pediatric nondisplaced spiral tibia fracture that is considered stable with a course of immobilization. However, there is no widely accepted type of immobilization, expected time to weight-bear, nor guidelines for radiographic monitoring. We aimed to compare immobilization type with respect to displacement and time to weight-bear, as well as determine the usefulness of follow-up radiographs. METHODS: A 3-year retrospective chart review of all children aged 9 months to 4 years who had a lower leg radiograph was performed...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117081/post-traumatic-forearm-nonunion-in-healthy-skeletally-immature-children-a-report-on-15-cases
#15
Giovanni Luigi Di Gennaro, Stefano Stilli, Giovanni Trisolino
BACKGROUND: Nonunion is a rare but severe complication following forearm fracture in skeletally immature patients. The purpose of this study is to describe a case series of pediatric forearm nonunions treated at our Institute. MATERIALS AND METHOD: We retrospectively reviewed medical charts and radiographs of healthy children affected by post-traumatic nonunion of the forearm, from April 1992 to July 2015. An overall series of 15 cases was included in the study...
January 9, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109486/a-population-based-analysis-of-the-implementation-of-pediatric-facemasks-in-girls-youth-lacrosse
#16
Andrew Walls, David Kasle, Nicole Aaronson, Earl Harley, Erik Waldman
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence, relative risk reduction, odds ratio and absolute risk reduction of head and ear injuries associated with the implementation of pediatric facial eye guards in lacrosse events. STUDY DESIGN: Cross Sectional Review of a National Database. STUDY LOCATION: National Emergency Injury Survelliance System. METHODS: Our group retrospectively reviewed a nationwide sampling estimate of 809 patients who presented to emergency rooms with head and ear injuries during lacrosse events...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109483/otorhinolaryngology-head-and-neck-surgery-in-a-low-income-country-the-haitian-experience
#17
Maxwell P Kligerman, Anahuma Alexandre, Patrick Jean-Gilles, David Walmer, Mack L Cheney, Anna H Messner
OBJECTIVE: Little is known regarding the diagnosis and management of pediatric surgical conditions of the head and neck in low-income countries. Haiti, the western hemisphere's poorest country, recently developed its first Otorhinolaryngology (ORL) department at the Hopital de L'Universite d'Etat d'Haiti (HUEH). This manuscript assesses the caseload at HUEH with a special emphasis on pediatric cases, with the aim of characterizing ORL related conditions and their treatments in low-income countries...
February 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108423/isolated-transverse-process-fractures-a-systematic-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Daniel T Nagasawa, Timothy T Bui, Carlito Lagman, Seung J Lee, Lawrance K Chung, Tianyi Niu, Alexander Tucker, Bilwaj Gaonkar, Isaac Yang, Luke Macyszyn
OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on isolated transverse process fractures (ITPFs) and provide evidence for and validate the current practice of conservative management. METHODS: The PubMed database was searched for published literature related to ITPFs. Baseline patient (age, sex, presentation, mechanism of injury) and fracture (number of fractures, level, single or multi-segmental) characteristics were extracted. Management, and outcomes were also recorded. Statistical comparisons were ascertained through N-1 Pearson Chi-squared tests...
January 17, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106692/use-of-resorbable-fixation-system-in-pediatric-facial-fractures
#19
Frankie K Wong, Saleigh Adams, Donald A Hudson, Wayne Ozaki
INTRODUCTION: Resorbable fixation system (RFS) is an alternative to titanium in open reduction and internal fixation of pediatric facial fractures. METHODS: This study retrospectively reviewed all medical records in a major metropolitan pediatric hospital in Cape Town, South Africa from September 2010 through May 2014. Inclusion criteria were children under the age of 13 with facial fractures who have undergone open reduction and internal fixation using RFS. Intraoperative and postoperative complications were reviewed...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106673/outcomes-of-pediatric-fractures-managed-with-closed-reduction-by-orthopaedic-residents-in-the-emergency-department
#20
Vivek Natarajan, Ermias Abebe, James Dunlap, Patrick Bosch, Ozgur Dede, W Timothy Ward, James Roach
BACKGROUND: Closed reduction of pediatric fractures is commonly performed by orthopaedic residents using conscious sedation in the emergency department (ED). The purpose of this study was to determine the rate of satisfactory reductions as performed by residents, and to determine the outcomes of these procedures. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of all fractures that underwent closed reduction under conscious sedation in the ED of a level 1 pediatric trauma center between January 1, 2010 and November 30, 2014...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
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