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essays and sign

Charu Chanana, Nishant Gupta, Itisha Bansal, Kusum Hooda, Pranav Sharma, Mohit Gupta, Darshan Gandhi, Yogesh Kumar
Vaginal bleeding in the first trimester has wide differential diagnoses, the most common being a normal early intrauterine pregnancy, with other potential causes including spontaneous abortion and ectopic pregnancy. The incidence of ectopic pregnancy is approximately 2% of all reported pregnancies and is one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide. Clinical signs and symptoms of ectopic pregnancy are often nonspecific. History of pelvic pain with bleeding and positive β-human chorionic gonadotropin should raise the possibility of ectopic pregnancy...
2017: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
Goran Mitreski, Tom Sutherland
The perinephric space, shaped as an inverted cone, sits between the anterior and posterior renal fasciae. It can play host to a variety of clinical conditions encountered daily in the reporting schedule for a radiologist. Lesions may be classified and diagnosed based on their imaging characteristics, location and distribution. A broad range of differential diagnoses can be attributed to pathology sitting within this space, often without clinical signs or symptoms. An understanding of commonly encountered conditions affecting the perinephric space, along with characteristic imaging findings, can illustrate and often narrow the likely diagnosis...
February 2017: Insights Into Imaging
A Di Legge, P Pollastri, R Mancari, M Ludovisi, F Mascilini, D Franchi, D Jurkovic, M E Coccia, D Timmerman, G Scambia, A Testa, L Valentin
OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the ultrasound characteristics, the indications for surgery and the histological diagnoses of surgically removed adnexal masses with largest diameter <2.5 cm ("very small tumors"), to estimate sensitivity and specificity with regard to malignancy of subjective assessment of ultrasound images of very small tumors, and to present a gallery of ultrasound images of surgically removed very small tumors especially those causing diagnostic difficulties...
December 22, 2016: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
Nicanor Pier Giorgio Austriaco
In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that the totally brain-dead patient is able to continue to live and to maintain some integrated functions, albeit with the necessary assistance of mechanical ventilation. Several years ago, the autopsy report of a totally brain-dead patient named TK who was kept on life support for nearly twenty years was published in the Journal of Child Neurology. He remains the individual kept on life support the longest after suffering total brain failure. In this essay, I argue that the clinical data described in the autopsy report demonstrate that TK's long-term survival after total brain failure supports the claim acknowledged by the President's Council on Bioethics that the brain-dead patient retains his bodily integrity...
May 2016: Linacre Quarterly
Eric Wong, Jasmine J Leslie, Judith A Soon, Wendy V Norman
BACKGROUND: The Virtual Interprofessional Patients-Computer-Assisted Reproductive Health Education for Students (VIP-CARES) Project took place during the summers of 2010-2012 for eight weeks each year at the University of British Columbia (UBC). Undergraduate health care students worked collaboratively to develop virtual patient case-based learning modules on the topic of family planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the changes in perception towards interprofessional collaboration (IPC) among the participants, before and after the project...
October 19, 2016: BMC Medical Education
Yaseen Oweis, Zachary Viets, Anup S Shetty
In the acute care setting, radiologists are frequently asked to assist in the evaluation of patients presenting with signs and symptoms of lower extremity peripheral vascular disease. Non-traumatic peripheral vascular emergencies are most commonly the result of thrombosis, either in a native vessel or within a bypass graft or stent. Arterial emboli, peripheral aneurysm with embolus or thrombosis, and direct arterial trauma are additional, less common causes. Traumatic peripheral vascular emergencies include vessel occlusion, transection, pseudoaneurysms, active extravasation, and arteriovenous fistulas...
October 11, 2016: Abdominal Radiology
Sorin Hostiuc, Eduard Drima, Octavian Buda
James Parkinson, in his "Essay on the Shaking Palsy" from 1817 described for the first time the disease that later on carried his name. Its anatomical substrate remained controversial for over 100 years. The first case that suggested the association between Parkinson's disease and substantia nigra was published in 1893 Blocq and Marinesco, two scientists who worked at Salpêtrière. The article described a 38 years-old man, with tuberculosis, who was admitted to the Charcot's neurological ward because he also showed signs of unilateral Parkinsonism...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
Benjamin P Brown, Lee Hasselbacher, Julie Chor
Since abortion became legal nationwide, federal and state "conscience clauses" have been established to define the context in which health professionals may decline to participate in contested services. Patients and health care providers may act according to conscience in making health care decisions and in deciding whether to abstain from or to participate in contested services. Historically, however, conscience clauses largely have equated conscience in health care with provider abstinence from such services...
August 2016: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Davis Rierson, Juliana Bueno
Routine posteroanterior chest radiographs and computed tomography scans are more sensitive for detecting pneumothoraces than anteroposterior chest radiographs. However, supine chest radiographs are commonly performed as part of the initial and routine assessment of trauma and critically ill patients. Rates of occult pneumothorax can be as high as 50% and have a significant impact in the mortality of these patients; thus, a prompt diagnosis of this entity is important. This pictorial essay will illustrate the pleural anatomy, explain the distribution of air within the pleural space in the supine position, and review the radiologic findings that characterize this entity...
July 2016: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
E Christian Brugger
According to the biological definition of death, a human body that has not lost the capacity to holistically organize itself is the body of a living human individual. Reasonable doubt against the conclusion that it has lost the capacity exists when the body appears to express it and no evidence to the contrary is sufficient to rule out reasonable doubt against the conclusion that the apparent expression is a true expression (i.e., when the conclusion that what appears to be holistic organization is in fact holistic organization remains a reasonable explanatory hypothesis in light of the best evidence to the contrary)...
June 2016: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Michael Behnes, Ibrahim Akin, Benjamin Sartorius, Christian Fastner, Ibrahim El-Battrawy, Martin Borggrefe, Holger Haubenreisser, Mathias Meyer, Stefan O Schoenberg, Thomas Henzler
BACKGROUND: A standardized imaging proposal evaluating implanted left atrial appendage (LAA) occlusion devices by cardiac computed tomography angiography (cCTA) has never been investigated. METHODS: cCTA datasets were acquired on a 3(rd) generation dual-source CT system and reconstructed with a slice thickness of 0.5 mm. An interdisciplinary evaluation was performed by two interventional cardiologists and one radiologist on a 3D multi-planar workstation. A standardized multi-planar reconstruction algorithm was developed in order to assess relevant clinical aspects of implanted LAA occlusion devices being outlined within a pictorial essay...
March 24, 2016: BMC Medical Imaging
Antoine Lentacker
This essay reviews four recent studies representing a new direction in the history of pharmaceuticals and pharmaceutical science. To this end, it introduces the notion of a symbolic economy of drugs, defined as the production, circulation, and reception of signs that convey information about drugs and establish trust in them. Each of the studies under review focuses on one key signifier in this symbolic economy, namely the brand, the patent, the clinical trial, and the drug itself. Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's theory of the economy of symbolic goods, I conceptualize these signifiers as symbolic assets, that is, as instruments of communication and credit, delivering knowledge, carrying value, and producing authority...
February 2016: Social Studies of Science
Marcelo Menezes Medeiros, Luciana Graziano, Juliana Alves de Souza, Camila Souza Guatelli, Miriam Rosalina B Poli, Rafael Yoshitake
Hyperechoic lesions are not a frequent finding at breasts ultrasonography, and most of times are associated with benign pathologies that do not require further evaluation. However, some neoplasms such as invasive breast carcinomas and metastases may present with hyperechogenicity. Thus, the knowledge about differential diagnoses and identification of signs of lesion aggressiveness are of great relevance to avoid unnecessary procedures or underdiagnosis, and to support the correct clinical/surgical approach...
January 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
Ashwini Kumar Jha, Wen Hao Tang, Zhi Bin Bai, Jia Quan Xiao
INTRODUCTION: To perform a meta-analysis to review the sensitivity and specificity of computed tomography and different known computed yomography signs for the diagnosis of strangulation in patients with acute small bowel obstruction. METHODS: A comprehensive Pubmed search was performed for all reports that evaluated the use of CT and discussed different CT criteria for the diagnosis of acute SBO. Articles published in English language from January 1978 to June 2008 were included...
January 2014: JNMA; Journal of the Nepal Medical Association
Colin Webster
In the first century B.C.E., a group of Greek physicians called the Methodists denied that medicine could be based on such "hidden causes" as humors, atoms, or elements. They argued that the inner workings of the body were ultimately unknowable, existing beyond the limits of human knowledge and inference. Yet they insisted that medical certainty was still possible, claiming that every disease shared one of three directly apprehensible "manifest commonalities"--stricture, laxity, or some mixture of the two. Medicine could therefore be a science; it was simply noncausal in structure...
September 2015: Isis; An International Review Devoted to the History of Science and its Cultural Influences
Seyed Mahmoud Tabatabaei, Nastaran Sabetkish, Seyed Mohammad Ali Tabatabaei
Despite the fact that ophthalmology is one of the foremost branches of medicine, conceptualization of the structure and function of the eye barely advanced in ancient Western civilizations. At the early recovery of Persian civilization (9(th) century AD) after the extinction of the Sassanid Empire (7(th) century AD), translations of Greek medical textbooks played an important role in the development of medicine and the emergence of great Persian physicians such as Rhazes, Avicenna and others. Rhazes was a leading Persian physician whose medical teachings have as yet not been thoroughly explored...
2014: Journal of Medical Ethics and History of Medicine
Hanna Hopia, Mari Punna, Teemu Laitinen, Eila Latvala
Background: Digital technologies have transformed nearly every aspect of our lives. However, for many of us, they have not yet improved the way we receive or participate in our health services and disease care. Hostetter et al. (2014) explore in a new multimedia essay the changes occurring with the arrival of new digital tools, from mobile apps and data-driven software solutions to wearable sensors that transmit information to a patient's team of health care providers. Digitisation will revolutionise health technology to a new extent, as the self-measurement, cloud services, teleconsultation and robotics technologies are being used to get health expenditure under control...
December 2015: Nurse Education Today
Maria Pagano, Caterina Faggio
The erythrocytes of mammals represent a good model to evaluate the cytotoxicity of molecules, organic and inorganic, natural or synthetic, by cellular damage measure. Indeed, before any investigation on the mechanism of action of different molecules, it is important to perform a cytotoxicity assay. Among the different cytotoxicity assays that assess a possible toxicity in the red blood cells is the rate of haemolysis. This essay is based on the evaluation of the alterations of red cell membranes in the presence of an eventual xenobiotic...
August 2015: Cell Biochemistry and Function
Teri Chettiar
This essay examines how marriage relationships came to be constituted as therapeutic objects after WWII and the impact that this had on British postwar understandings of the meaning of marriage. In contrast to prevailing concerns during the interwar decades about sexual dissatisfaction as the chief impediment to marital stability, post-WWII marriage counselors and therapists framed marital harmony as dependent upon spouses' psychological maturity. An inability to sustain a stable marriage was interpreted as a sign of arrested development, most often stemming from a dysfunctional relationship with one or both parents in childhood...
August 2015: History of Psychology
Athiyappan Kumaresh, Mitesh Kumar, Bhawna Dev, Rajani Gorantla, Pm Venkata Sai, Vijayalakshmi Thanasekaraan
There are a few signs in radiology which are based on many common objects or patterns that we come across in our routine lives. The objective behind the association between such common objects and the corresponding pathologies is to make the reader understand and remember the disease process. These signs do not necessarily indicate a particular disease, but are usually suggestive of a group of similar pathologies which will facilitate in the narrowing down of the differential diagnosis. These signs can be seen in different imaging modalities like plain radiograph and computed tomography...
2015: Journal of Clinical Imaging Science
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