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Gynaecological pathology

Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Kenechi Anderson Uwakwe, Uchenna Chidi Anyanwagu, Ntat Charles Ibiok, Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ngozi Ekeke
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings with low doctor-population ratio, there is need for equitable distribution of healthcare workforce. The specialty preferences of medical students determine the future composition of physician workforce hence its relevance in career guidance, healthcare planning and policy formulation. This study was aimed at determining the specialty preferences of final year medical students in medical schools of southeast Nigeria, the gender differences in choice of specialty and the availability of career guidance to the students during the period of training...
October 4, 2016: BMC Medical Education
F Siedentopf, E Wowro, M Möckel, H Kentenich, M David
Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Veluppillai Vathanan, Nii Adjeidu Armar
Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of saline hydrosonography (HSGM) (also known as saline infusion sonography (SIS)) against transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cavity lesions. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy is considered as the "gold standard" to diagnose intrauterine abnormalities. The introduction of HSGM has improved the diagnostic capability of ultrasound. It is important to establish the efficacy and safety of HSGM before it is widely recommended for use...
2016: International Journal of Reproductive Medicine
Leora Witkowski, W Glenn McCluggage, William D Foulkes
The introduction of new sequencing technologies has resulted in the discovery of commonly mutated genes in uncommon cancers, including non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms and other rare gynaecological tumours, such as cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In some of these neoplasms, mutations in certain genes are both frequent and specific enough for the genomic mutations and sometimes their associated protein loss or overexpression to be used as an aid to diagnosis. In this review, we contrast previous gene identification methods with newer ones, and discuss how the new sequencing technologies (collectively referred to as 'next-generation sequencing') have permitted the identification of specific molecular events that characterize several rare gynaecological neoplasms...
August 9, 2016: Histopathology
Bharat Talukdar, Sangita Mahela
BACKGROUND: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequently encountered gynecologic complaint in perimenopausal woman and also the most common cause of hysterectomy in this age group. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of various clinical presentations of perimenopausal AUB and it is ultrasonographic and histopathological correlation of hysterectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology among perimenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for AUB...
April 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
Anju Sahdev
CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings...
2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
Carlos Sanhueza, Joaquín Araos, Luciano Naranjo, Eric Barros, Mario Subiabre, Fernando Toledo, Jaime Gutiérrez, Delia I Chiarello, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Luis Sobrevia
Nitric oxide plays several roles in cellular physiology, including control of the vascular tone and defence against pathogen infection. Neuronal, inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms synthesize nitric oxide. Cells generate acid and base equivalents, whose physiological intracellular concentrations are kept due to membrane transport systems, including Na(+) /H(+) exchangers and Na(+) /HCO3 (-) transporters, thus maintaining a physiological pH at the intracellular (~7.0) and extracellular (~7...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
A H James, J Eikenboom, A B Federici
The State of the Art in von Willebrand disease (VWD) has been impacted not only by discoveries in the field of haemostasis, but also by changes in practice in other fields. The development of bleeding assessment tools has led to the clarification of bleeding symptoms and phenotype in VWD. New discoveries in the biology and genetics of von Willebrand factor (VWF) are challenging our existing diagnostics and classification(s). An improved understanding of reproductive physiology and the pathology of VWD along with changing obstetric, gynaecologic and haemostatic therapies necessitate an evolving response to the care of women with VWD...
July 2016: Haemophilia: the Official Journal of the World Federation of Hemophilia
Lufei Wang, Jin He, Hongmei Xu, Longjie Xu, Na Li
A series of recent studies suggested that miR-143 might involve in the tumorigenesis and metastasis of various cancer types. However, the biological function and underlying mechanisms of miR-143 in human epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) remain unknown. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the miR-143 expression and its clinical diagnosis significance in patients suffering EOC and to analyze its role and underlying molecular mechanism in EOC. Our result showed that the expression levels of miR-143 were downregulated in EOC tissues and cell lines, was associated with International Federation of Gynaecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) stage, pathological grade and lymph node metastasis (all P < 0...
2016: American Journal of Translational Research
Hellen McKinnon Edwards, Mette Calundann Noer, Cecilie Dyg Sperling, Mary Nguyen-Nielsen, Lene Lundvall, Ib Jarle Christensen, Claus Høgdall
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has a high mortality rate, especially in Denmark where mortality rates have been reported higher than in adjacent countries with similar demographics. This study therefore examined recent survival and mortality among Danish ovarian cancer patients over an 18-year study period. METHODS: This nationwide registry-based observational study used data from the Danish Gynecology Cancer Database, Danish Pathology Registry, and Danish National Patient Registry...
June 2016: Acta Oncologica
Hayato Mitaka, Hidetaka Kitazono, Gautam A Deshpande, Eiji Hiraoka
A 23-year-old Japanese woman, previously a commercial sex worker, presented with a 2-day history of right upper quadrant (RUQ) abdominal pain, worse on deep inspiration. She had noticed increased vaginal discharge 2 months earlier and had developed dull, lower abdominal pain 3 weeks prior to presentation. Although pelvic examination and transvaginal ultrasonography revealed neither a tubal nor ovarian pathology, abdominal CT scan with contrast demonstrated early enhancement of the hepatic capsule, a finding pathognomonic for Fitz-Hugh-Curtis syndrome (FHCS)...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Sergio Vásquez-Ciriaco, David Isla-Ortiz, Antonio Palomeque-Lopez, Jaime Aron García-Espinoza, Arturo Jarquín-Arremilla, Néstor Alonso Lechuga-García
BACKGROUND: The history of laparoscopic surgery in gynaecological diseases progressed with the advances of Semm, as well as with the development of tools, equipment, and energy that led to its development in all surgical areas, including oncology. OBJECTIVE: To present the initial experience in the laparoscopic treatment of benign and malignant gynaecological disease in the Hospital Regional de Alta Especialidad in Oaxaca. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An analysis was performed on a total of 44 cases, distributed into: type III radical hysterectomy for invasive cervical cancer, hysterectomy type I cervical cancer in situ, extrafascial hysterectomy for benign disease, routine endometrium, ovary and routine salpingo-oophorectomy...
June 16, 2016: Cirugia y Cirujanos
Maja Milosavljevic, Dusica Lecic Tosevski, Ivan Soldatovic, Olivera Vukovic, Cedo Miljevic, Amir Peljto, Milutin Kostic, Miranda Olff
Although severe gynaecological pathology during delivery and negative outcome have been shown to be related with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) little is known about traumatic experiences following regular delivery, at the expected time and with a healthy child. The objective of our study was to determine the prevalence of PTSD during postpartum period after vaginal delivery and its risk factors. The sample included 126 primiparous women. Monthly, for the next three months, the women were assessed for PTSD using the gold standard interview for PTSD, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS)...
2016: Scientific Reports
Serdar Kirmizi, Demet Aydogan Kirmizi, Reyhan Karagul, Kerem Tolan
Meckel's diverticulum is a real diverticulum located at the antimesenteric portion of intestinal loops and including all layers of the intestinal wall. It is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, and its incidence is 1-3%. Many asymptomatic cases are diagnosed when complications occur. A 23-year-old female patient applied to gynaecology emergency clinic with pelvic pain complaint. Laparotomy was performed with the diagnosis of acute abdomen because the physical examination and imaging studies did not exclude tuboovary pathology...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
(no author information available yet)
One in 20 of all patients attending A&E have an obstetric or gynaecological complaint. Many of these cases are fraught with difficulty in that the diagnosis is unclear, but the possibility exists of life-threatening underlying pathology. Pregnant women also come to accident and emergency with the same illnesses and injuries that effect the non-pregnant population. The expression of their condition, however, is altered by the physiological and anatomical changes which accompany pregnancy, and their treatment often needs to be modified to safeguard the fetus...
February 1, 1997: Emergency Nurse: the Journal of the RCN Accident and Emergency Nursing Association
V Mravčík, Z Florián, V Nečas, J Štolfa
BACKGROUND: Problem drug use is associated with excess risk of infectious and other somatic diseases resulting mainly from injecting drug use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: At the end of 2013, a complete medical history and physical examination was done in 40 problem drug users (30 males and 10 females), mean age 35.5 years (37.0 and 30.9, respectively), recruited in 4 low-threshold facilities in Prague. Of them, 37 were ex- or active injecting drug users, predominantly of methamphetamine (pervitin) and less often of buprenorphine...
2016: Epidemiologie, Mikrobiologie, Imunologie
Kameliya Vinketova, Milena Mourdjeva, Tsvetelina Oreshkova
The human decidua is a specialized tissue characterized by embryo-receptive properties. It is formed during the secretory phase of menstrual cycle from uterine mucosa termed endometrium. The decidua is composed of glands, immune cells, blood and lymph vessels, and decidual stromal cells (DSCs). In the process of decidualization, which is controlled by oestrogen and progesterone, DSCs acquire specific functions related to recognition, selection, and acceptance of the allogeneic embryo, as well as to development of maternal immune tolerance...
2016: Journal of Pregnancy
Xue-Lian Li, Dan-Feng Du, Shang-Jie Chen, Sai-Hua Zheng, Arier C Lee, Qi Chen
BACKGROUND: Ectopic pregnancies, miscarriages and hydatidiform moles are the major types of pathological pregnancies in the early gestations of pregnancy and constitute an important public health problem. The trends and incidences of these pathological pregnancies may vary by ethnicity and geographical regions. This has not been fully investigated in the Chinese population. In this study we retrospectively report the trends of pathological pregnancies in Chinese population. METHODS: Data on 22,511 women with ectopic pregnancy, hydatidiform mole and miscarriage were collected from the largest obstetrics and gynaecology hospital in China from 2003 to 2013...
2016: Reproductive Health
Sara Smith, Raji Ganesan, Jan Martin
This study investigated the role of 'flipping', the practice-based pathology laboratory and classroom to support the development of trainee pathologist practitioners' in the field of gynaecological cytopathology, addressing development of their knowledge and practical application in the clinical setting. Content-rich courses traditionally involve lecture led delivery which restricts tutors from adopting approaches that support greater student engagement in the topic area and application of knowledge to practice...
May 7, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
E Piaton, M Fabre, I Goubin-Versini, M-F Bretz-Grenier, M Courtade-Saïdi, S Vincent, G Belleannée, F Thivolet, J Boutonnat, H Debaque, J Fleury-Feith, P Vielh, C Egelé, J-P Bellocq, J-F Michiels, B Cochand-Priollet
OBJECTIVE: Since the guidelines of the International Committee for Standardisation in Haematology (ICSH) in 1984 and those of the European Committee for External Quality Assessment Programmes in Laboratory Medicine (EQALM) in 2004, no leading organisation has published technical recommendations for the preparation of air-dried cytological specimens using May-Grünwald-Giemsa (MGG) staining. DATA SOURCES: Literature data were retrieved using reference books, baseline-published studies, articles extracted from PubMed/Medline and Google Scholar, and online-available industry datasheets...
October 2016: Cytopathology: Official Journal of the British Society for Clinical Cytology
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