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Gynaecological pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054715/tubal-origin-of-ovarian-cancer-the-double-edged-sword-of-haemoglobin
#1
Shiou-Fu Lin, Emily Gerry, Ie-Ming Shih
Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the gynaecologic tract. While the origins of many human malignant neoplasms are clear, the origin of HGSC remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge limits our understanding of its pathogenesis and compromises efforts devoted to develop better early detection tools and effective preventative intervention. The tubal origin of HGSC has been put forward since the initial report of dysplastic lesions (now known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas, or STICs) that morphologically resemble HGSC in the fallopian tube...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028390/spectrum-of-childhood-and-adolescent-ovarian-tumors-in-india-25-years-experience-at-a-single-institution
#2
Ruchi Rathore, Sonal Sharma, Deepshikha Arora
BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumour in children and adolescent girls form an uncommon but important part of gynaecological malignancies. They account for 1% of all the childhood malignancies and 8% of all abdominal tumours in children. Since the ovarian cysts are thought to arise from mature follicles, these tumours were considered to be infrequent in the paediatric population. AIM: The rarity of this condition prompted us to conduct this study and share our experience on the incidence and clinicopathological features of different ovarian tumours in girls up to 20 years of age observed in last 25 years at a single tertiary care hospital...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006819/better-resource-utilisation-and-quality-of-care-for-ovarian-cancer-patients-using-internet-based-pathology-review
#3
S Kommoss, F Kommoss, J Diebold, S Lax, D Schmidt, A Staebler, A du Bois, J Pfisterer
BACKGROUND: The current literature indicates that a considerable number of patients in ovarian carcinoma clinical trials have histopathological diagnoses in conflict with inclusion criteria. It has been suggested that specialised pathology review prior to randomisation should become the standard procedure in study protocols. We hypothesised that our new, internet-based high-throughput infrastructure would be capable of providing specialised pathology review within 10 working days (w.d...
December 22, 2016: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993794/5th-ovarian-cancer-consensus-conference-of-the-gynecologic-cancer-intergroup-gcig-clinical-trial-design-for-rare-ovarian-tumours
#4
A F Leary, M Quinn, K Fujiwara, R L Coleman, E Kohn, T Sugiyama, R Glasspool, I Ray-Coquard, N Colombo, M Bacon, A Zeimet, A Westermann, E Gomez-Garcia, D Provencher, S Welch, W Small, D Millan, A Okamoto, G Stuart, K Ochiai
This manuscript reports the consensus statements on designing clinical trials in rare ovarian tumours reached at the 5th Ovarian Cancer Consensus Conference (OCCC) held in Tokyo, November 2015. Three important questions were identified concerning rare ovarian tumours (rare epithelial ovarian cancers (eOC), sex-cord stromal tumours (SCST) and germ cell tumours (GCT)): (1) What are the research and trial issues that are unique to rare ovarian tumours? There is a lack of randomised phase III data defining standards of care which makes it difficult to define control arms, but identifies unmet needs that merit investigation...
December 19, 2016: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979878/implications-of-telomeres-and-telomerase-in-endometrial-pathology
#5
REVIEW
D K Hapangama, A Kamal, G Saretzki
BACKGROUND: Eukaryotic chromosomal ends are linear and are protected by nucleoprotein complexes known as telomeres. The complex structural anatomy and the diverse functions of telomeres as well as the unique reverse transcriptase enzyme, telomerase that maintains telomeres are under intensive scientific scrutiny. Both are involved in many human diseases including cancer, but also in ageing and chronic disease such as diabetes. Their intricate involvement in many cellular processes and pathways is being dynamically deciphered in many organs including the endometrium...
December 15, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960241/the-changing-landscape-of-gynaecological-cancer-diagnosis-implications-for-histopathological-practice-in-the-21st-century
#6
REVIEW
Naveena Singh, C Blake Gilks
The era of molecular medicine has led to dramatically improved understanding of the genetic events that give rise to different types of cancers. In the case of gynaecological malignancies, this has resulted in distinct shifts in how these tumours are diagnosed in routine surgical pathology practice, with an increased emphasis on accurate subtype diagnosis. This has happened across all sites in the gynaecological tract and for most cell types, but in ways that are site-specific and may appear to be subtle, as in most instances the diagnostic terminology has not changed...
January 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920066/new-concepts-for-an-old-problem-the-diagnosis-of-endometrial-hyperplasia
#7
REVIEW
Peter A Sanderson, Hilary O D Critchley, Alistair R W Williams, Mark J Arends, Philippa T K Saunders
BACKGROUND: Endometrial hyperplasia (EH) is a uterine pathology representing a spectrum of morphological endometrial alterations. It is predominantly characterized by an increase in the endometrial gland-to-stroma ratio when compared to normal proliferative endometrium. The clinical significance of EH lies in the associated risk of progression to endometrioid endometrial cancer (EC) and 'atypical' forms of EH are regarded as premalignant lesions. Traditional histopathological classification systems for EH exhibit wide and varying degrees of diagnostic reproducibility and, as a consequence, standardized patient management can be challenging...
December 4, 2016: Human Reproduction Update
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914160/infectious-postpartum-sacroiliitis-the-importance-and-difficulty-of-early-diagnosis
#8
Emídio Vale-Fernandes, Fedra Rodrigues, Carla Monteiro, Luís Carvalho
The sacroiliitis accounts for about 1.5% - 10% of all cases of septic arthritis and it is strongly associated with gynaecological infections, pelvic trauma or drug abuse (3.4% - 12.8% of cases occur during the postpartum period). Early diagnosis is difficult because the symptoms are nonspecific in pregnancy and in the postpartum period, making the delay of treatment a serious risk of irreversible damage to the joint and development of post-infectious complications. The authors describe the case of a 37-year-old puerperal woman presented to hospital, weeks after urgent caesarean section, with endometritis, post-anesthetic epidural hematoma and secondary infectious postpartum sacroiliitis...
August 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27835633/tumor-specific-d-dimer-concentration-ranges-and-influencing-factors-a-cross-sectional-study
#9
Jing Yu, Dongqing Li, Dansheng Lei, Feng Yuan, Feng Pei, Huifeng Zhang, Anming Yu, Kun Wang, Hu Chen, Liang Chen, Xianglei Wu, Xianli Tong, Yefu Wang
D-dimer level in cancer patients is associated with risk of venous thromboembolism and deep venous thrombosis. Most cancer patients have "abnormal" D-dimer levels based on the current normal reference range. To investigate tumor-specific D-dimer reference range, we compared D-dimer levels for nine different tumour types with healthy controls by using simultaneous quantile regression and constructing a median, 5th percentile, and 95th percentile model of normal tumour D-dimer concentration. Associations with tumour primary site, stage, pathological type, and treatment were also explored...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816832/the-nature-of-early-stage-endometrial-cancer-recurrence-a-national-cohort-study
#10
Mette Moustgaard Jeppesen, Pernille Tine Jensen, Dorte Gilså Hansen, Maria Iachina, Ole Mogensen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The aim of the study was to present a comprehensive analysis of disease recurrence in a large Danish cohort of women with early-stage endometrial cancer treated according to national guidelines. METHODS: All women diagnosed with stage I or II endometrial cancer in 2005-2009 were included in a population-based historical cohort derived from the Danish Gynaecological Cancer Database. Disease recurrence up to 3 years after the primary diagnosis was identified using national registers and hospital charts...
November 3, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806812/frequency-of-thyroid-peroxidase-antibody-and-its-association-with-miscarriages-among-pregnant-women
#11
Sahar Iqbal, Farooq Ghani, Rahat Qureshi
OBJECTIVE: To measure the frequency of thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO Ab) among clinically euthyroid pregnant women during first trimester and determine its association with pregnancy outcome as miscarriage or live birth by estimating the relative risk. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Chemical Pathology, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine and the Gynaecology and Obstetric outpatient clinics of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from July to December 2012...
October 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798862/non-epithelial-ovarian-cancer-elucidating-uncommon-gynaecological-malignancies
#12
REVIEW
Stergios Boussios, George Zarkavelis, Esmeralda Seraj, Ioannis Zerdes, Konstantina Tatsi, George Pentheroudakis
Non-epithelial ovarian cancers (NEOC) are a group of fascinating but uncommon malignancies which can be extremely challenging to treat. Collectively, these tumours only represent 10-15% of all ovarian cancers and occur in all age groups from childhood to old age. This broad term includes diverse tumours of germ cell origin, sex cord-stromal cell origin, as well as extremely rare types of ovarian cancer, such as small-cell carcinomas and sarcomas, each of which require specialist management. It is imperative that these rare tumours are managed with accurate diagnosis, staging and treatment in order to optimize patient outcomes...
2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796894/telocytes-in-inflammatory-gynaecologic-diseases-and-infertility
#13
Xiao-Jun Yang
Women suffered with inflammatory gynecologic diseases, such as endometriosis (EMs) and acute salpingitis (AS) often complained of sub- or infertility, even in those women without obvious macroscopic anatomical pelvic abnormalities also have unexplained infertility. Generally, besides the well-known impairment of classically described oviduct cells caused by inflammatory diseases, such as the ciliated cells, fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, the involvement of the newly identified telocytes (TCs) in disease-affected oviduct tissues and potential pathophysiological roles in fertility problems remain unknown...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716155/specialty-preferences-among-final-year-medical-students-in-medical-schools-of-southeast-nigeria-need-for-career-guidance
#14
Edmund Ndudi Ossai, Kenechi Anderson Uwakwe, Uchenna Chidi Anyanwagu, Ntat Charles Ibiok, Benedict Ndubueze Azuogu, Ngozi Ekeke
BACKGROUND: In resource-poor settings with low doctor-population ratio, there is need for equitable distribution of healthcare workforce. The specialty preferences of medical students determine the future composition of physician workforce hence its relevance in career guidance, healthcare planning and policy formulation. This study was aimed at determining the specialty preferences of final year medical students in medical schools of southeast Nigeria, the gender differences in choice of specialty and the availability of career guidance to the students during the period of training...
October 4, 2016: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681519/patients-presenting-to-the-emergency-unit-with-gynaecological-lower-abdominal-pain-with-and-without-pathological-clinical-findings-service-utilisation-pain-history-implications
#15
F Siedentopf, E Wowro, M Möckel, H Kentenich, M David
Introduction: Few studies have evaluated the utilisation of emergency gynaecological services, although lower abdominal pain (LAP) is one of the most common symptoms prompting emergency presentation. Although such pain may be caused by potentially life-threatening gynaecological diseases, very often no clinical cause is found. The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of emergency presentations in order to enable quicker identification of real emergencies in routine clinical practice. Materials and Methods: Standardised, so-called first aid cards of 1066 consecutive patients with LAP presenting acutely to one emergency unit were analysed in this retrospective, cross-sectional study...
September 2016: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597989/a-comparative-observational-study-of-the-use-of-saline-uterine-hydrosonography-for-the-diagnosis-and-assessment-of-uterine-cavity-lesions-in-women
#16
Veluppillai Vathanan, Nii Adjeidu Armar
Aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of saline hydrosonography (HSGM) (also known as saline infusion sonography (SIS)) against transvaginal ultrasound scan (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the diagnosis of uterine cavity lesions. Diagnostic hysteroscopy with biopsy is considered as the "gold standard" to diagnose intrauterine abnormalities. The introduction of HSGM has improved the diagnostic capability of ultrasound. It is important to establish the efficacy and safety of HSGM before it is widely recommended for use...
2016: International Journal of Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504996/recently-characterized-molecular-events-in-uncommon-gynaecological-neoplasms-and-their-clinical-importance
#17
REVIEW
Leora Witkowski, W Glenn McCluggage, William D Foulkes
The introduction of new sequencing technologies has resulted in the discovery of commonly mutated genes in uncommon cancers, including non-epithelial ovarian neoplasms and other rare gynaecological tumours, such as cervical embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. In some of these neoplasms, mutations in certain genes are both frequent and specific enough for the genomic mutations and sometimes their associated protein loss or overexpression to be used as an aid to diagnosis. In this review, we contrast previous gene identification methods with newer ones, and discuss how the new sequencing technologies (collectively referred to as 'next-generation sequencing') have permitted the identification of specific molecular events that characterize several rare gynaecological neoplasms...
December 2016: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27499594/abnormal-uterine-bleeding-in-perimenopausal-women-correlation-with-sonographic-findings-and-histopathological-examination-of-hysterectomy-specimens
#18
Bharat Talukdar, Sangita Mahela
BACKGROUND: Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is a frequently encountered gynecologic complaint in perimenopausal woman and also the most common cause of hysterectomy in this age group. OBJECTIVE: Evaluation of various clinical presentations of perimenopausal AUB and it is ultrasonographic and histopathological correlation of hysterectomy specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was carried out in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology among perimenopausal women who underwent hysterectomy for AUB...
April 2016: Journal of Mid-life Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27484100/ct-in-ovarian-cancer-staging-how-to-review-and-report-with-emphasis-on-abdominal-and-pelvic-disease-for-surgical-planning
#19
REVIEW
Anju Sahdev
CT of the abdomen and pelvis is the first line imaging modality for staging, selecting treatment options and assessing disease response in ovarian cancer. The staging CT provides disease distribution, disease burden and is the imaging surrogate for surgico-pathological FIGO staging. Optimal cyto-reductive surgery offers patients' the best chance for disease control or cure, but sub-optimal resection confers no advantage over chemotherapy and adversely increases the risk of post surgical complications. Although there is extensive literature comparing performance of CT against laparoscopy and surgery, for the staging abdominal and pelvic CT, there are currently no accepted guidelines for interpretation or routinely used minimum data set templates for reporting these complex CT scans often with extensive radiological findings...
August 2, 2016: Cancer Imaging: the Official Publication of the International Cancer Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27469435/nitric-oxide-and-ph-modulation-in-gynaecological-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Carlos Sanhueza, Joaquín Araos, Luciano Naranjo, Eric Barros, Mario Subiabre, Fernando Toledo, Jaime Gutiérrez, Delia I Chiarello, Fabián Pardo, Andrea Leiva, Luis Sobrevia
Nitric oxide plays several roles in cellular physiology, including control of the vascular tone and defence against pathogen infection. Neuronal, inducible and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms synthesize nitric oxide. Cells generate acid and base equivalents, whose physiological intracellular concentrations are kept due to membrane transport systems, including Na(+) /H(+) exchangers and Na(+) /HCO3(-) transporters, thus maintaining a physiological pH at the intracellular (~7.0) and extracellular (~7...
December 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
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