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gynaecological cancer

Mudra Binju, Monica Amaya Padilla, Terence Singomat, Pritinder Kaur, Yohan Suryo Rahmanto, Paul Cohen, Yu Yu
BACKGROUND: Advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is one of the hardest human malignancies to treat. Standard treatment involves cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy, however, median progression-free survival for patients diagnosed with advanced stage disease (FIGO stages III and IV) is approximately 18 months. There has been little improvement in overall survival over the past decade and less than half of women with advanced stage disease will be living 5 years after diagnosis...
November 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
M G Kimlin, D R Youlden, A M Brodie, T DiSipio, P Youl, V Nair-Shalliker, P D Baade
Invasive melanoma survivors have an increased risk of developing second primary cancers, however, similar risks associated with in situ melanoma haven't been established. We evaluated 43,829 first primary in situ melanoma survivors diagnosed from 1982-2012 in Queensland, Australia. Risk of second non-melanoma primary cancers was estimated from standardized incidence ratios with 95% confidence intervals. A total of 4,917 (11.3%) in situ melanoma survivors developed a second primary cancer. No net increased risk compared with the general population was found...
November 10, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Sine Roelsgaard Obling, Benedicte Vibjerg Wilson, Jens Kjeldsen
PURPOSE: It is uncertain if home parenteral support (HPS) is of advantage in patients with incurable cancer and intestinal failure, functional obstruction or severe malabsorption. From a single centre cohort we present characteristics of patients with incurable cancer treated with HPS. METHODS: Over a ten year period (2005-2015) data were retrospectively collected on patients with incurable cancer discharged on HPS from a Danish tertiary referral centre. Data on socio-demographics, catheters and parenteral nutrition, catheter related complications, re-admissions and mortality were analysed...
December 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Khadra Galaal, Alberto Lopes, Colin Pritchard, Andrew Barton, Jennifer Wingham, Elsa M R Marques, John Faulds, Joanne Palmer, Patricia Jane Vickery, Catherine Ralph, Nicole Ferreira, Paul Ewings
INTRODUCTION: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecological cancer, with more than 7000 new cases registered in the UK in 2014. In patients suitable for surgery, the National Institute of Health and Care Excellence guidance for treatment recommends surgical resection of all macroscopic tumour, followed by chemotherapy. The surgical procedure can be extensive and associated with substantial blood loss which is conventionally replaced with a donor blood transfusion. While often necessary and lifesaving, the use of donor blood is associated with increased risks of complications and adverse surgical outcomes...
November 1, 2018: BMJ Open
O Raglan, I Kalliala, G Markozannes, S Cividini, M J Gunter, J Nautiyal, H Gabra, E Paraskevaidis, P Martin-Hirsch, K K Tsilidis, M Kyrgiou
Although many risk factors could have causal association with endometrial cancer, they are also prone to residual confounding or other biases which could lead to over- or underestimation. This umbrella review evaluates the strength and validity of evidence pertaining risk factors for endometrial cancer. Systematic reviews or meta-analyses of observational studies evaluating the association between non-genetic risk factors and risk of developing or dying from endometrial cancer were identified from inception to April 2018 using PubMed, the Cochrane database and manual reference screening...
November 2, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Penelope Knapp, Belinda Eva, Gemma Reseigh, Adrian Gibbs, Lucy Sim, Tiffany Daly, Judith Cox, Anne Bernard
INTRODUCTION: For gynaecological cancers, volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) offers comparable plan quality with shorter treatment delivery times when compared to intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The clinical IMRT plans of twenty gynaecological cancer patients were compared with a retrospectively generated VMAT plan. Planning target volume (PTV) metrics compared were D95 > 99%, homogeneity index, and conformity index. Organs at risk (OAR) doses compared were bladder V45 < 35%, bowel V40 < 30%, femoral head and neck (FHN) V30 < 50%, V44 < 35% and V44 < 5%...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Oana Trifanescu, Maria Iuliana Gruia, Laurentia Gales, Raluca Trifanescu, Rodica Anghel
Introduction: Epithelial ovarian cancer is worldwide the second cause of gynaecological cancer but the commonest cause of gynaecological cancer-associated death. AIM: To determine the intensity of oxidative stress in ovarian cancer patients and to establish a connection between the presence of the tumor and reactive oxygen species (ROS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-five patients diagnosed with epithelial ovarian carcinoma stage II-IV between 2010 and 2017, who underwent multimodality treatment (surgery and chemotherapy) were included in the study...
2018: Chirurgia
Deborah Margatho, Nelsilene Mota Carvalho, Larissa Eloy, Luis Bahamondes
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the serum levels of the following biomarkers in women with endometriosis-associated pelvic pain before and after six months of using the etonogestrel (ENG) contraceptive implant or the 52 mg levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS): cancer antigen (CA)-125, cluster of differentiation (CD) 23 and endometrial nerve fibre density. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Campinas Medical School, Brazil...
October 29, 2018: European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care
Ali Ayhan, Yusuf Aytac Tohma, Hanifi Sahin, Eda Kocaman, Mehmet Tunc, Asuman Nihan Haberal
The aim of this study is to present our clinical experience about fertility-sparing procedures in early stage cervical cancer and its obstetrical and oncological outcomes. Between the years 2006 and 2016, a total of 22 early stage cervical cancer patients who underwent a fertility-sparing radical abdominal trachelectomy in our clinic were retrospectively analysed. The median age was 33 (range: 28-39) years. The median follow-up was 47 (range: 22-125) months. Five patients (22.7%) had Stage IA1, three patients had (13...
October 27, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Günther Emons, Clemens Tempfer, Marco Johannes Battista, Alexander Mustea, Dirk Vordermark
The data on the adjuvant therapy of endometrial cancer (EC) are inconsistent. Recent studies of this topic such as PORTEC-3, GOG-258 and GOG-249 investigated the value of adjuvant radiotherapy, adjuvant chemotherapy and combined adjuvant chemoradiotherapy followed by chemotherapy in patients with endometrial cancer and an increased risk of recurrence. With this statement, the Uterus Committee of the Gynaecological Oncology Working Group (AGO) wishes therefore to interpret the new data and discuss them against the background of the new S3 guideline "Diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with endometrial cancer"...
October 2018: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde
Radosław Słopień
Premature ovarian insufficiency (POI) and related oestrogen deficiency is a cause of many psychological symptoms, including: depression, psychological tension, anxiety, mood lability, loss of libido, feelings of loss of femininity and attractiveness, and decreased self- and sexual esteem. Distress related to POI diagnosis may be even more confusing when POI is diagnosed in relation to serious health complications such as cancer, due to surgery or chemotherapy. Every case of POI requires coordinated medical advice with special attendance of a gynaecological endocrinologist, psychotherapist, and sometimes even a psychiatrist...
September 2018: Przeglad Menopauzalny, Menopause Review
Richa Vatsa, Lalit Kumar, Sunesh Kumar, Kallol Kumar Roy, Neeta Singh, Jyoti Meena
Background: Ovarian cancer is the second most common gynaecological malignancy in India. Despite relatively high response rates to first-line carboplatin and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy in epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC), the majority of patients experience multiple relapses and finally become resistant. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes progression of ovarian cancer. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody directed against VEGF-A is an anti-angiogenesis agent...
January 2018: National Medical Journal of India
Will Stott, Aleksandra Gentry-Maharaj, Andy Ryan, Nazar Amso, Mourad Seif, Chris Jones, Ian Jacobs, Max Parmar, Usha Menon, Stuart Campbell, Matthew Burnell
Background: We report on a unique audit of seven sonographers self-reporting high visualization rates of normal postmenopausal ovaries in the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS).   This audit was ordered by the trial's Ultrasound Management Subcommittee after an initiative taken in 2008 to improve the quality of scanning and the subsequent increase in the number of sonographers claiming very high ovary visualisation rates. Methods: Seven sonographers reporting high rates (>89%) of visualizing normal postmenopausal ovaries in examinations performed between 1 st January and 31 st December 2008 were identified...
2018: F1000Research
K M C Cornel, M Y Bongers, R P F M Kruitwagen, A Romano
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common malignancy of the female gynaecological tract and increased exposure to estrogens is a risk factor. EC cells are able to produce estrogens locally using precursors like, among others, adrenal steroids present in the serum. This is referred to as local estrogen metabolism (or intracrinology) and consists of a complex network of multiple enzymes. Particular relevant to the final generation of active estrogens in endometrial cells are: steroid sulfatase (STS), estrogen sulfotransferase (SULT1E1), aromatase (CYP19A1), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD17B) type 1 and type 2...
October 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Rebecca Ahlin, Fei Sjöberg, Cecilia Bull, Gunnar Steineck, Maria Hedelin
Preclinical studies indicate that an optimal diet during pelvic radiotherapy may be able to prevent radiation-induced survivorship diseases that diminish cancer survivors' intestinal health. We do not yet know what this optimal diet might be because scientific studies needed to determine what dietary advice might best be given to patients during treatment. Oncology clinics in Sweden were contacted to determine the nature of dietary advice given to gynaecological and prostate cancer patients at each clinic before, during and after radiotherapy...
October 9, 2018: Läkartidningen
Jo Morrison, Clemens Thoma, Richard J Goodall, Thomas J Lyons, Kezia Gaitskell, Alison J Wiggans, Andrew Bryant
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a previously published version of the review (Issue 10, 2011).Epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the seventh most common cause of cancer death among women worldwide. Treatment consists of a combination of surgical debulking and platinum-based chemotherapy. Between 55% and 75% of women who respond to first-line therapy experience relapse within two years. Second-line chemotherapy is palliative and aims to reduce symptoms and prolong survival. Improved understanding about the molecular basis of EOC has led to the development of novel agents, such as epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors and anti-EGFR antibodies...
October 16, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Suchitra Kumari
Epithelial ovarian cancer accounts for more than 90% of ovarian tumours and continues as a leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. It is often difficult to differentiate a benign ovarian mass from malignant ones. Invasive histopathological biopsy is used as the gold standard diagnostic tool to diagnose cancer in patients with ovarian mass. A wide spectrum of Biomarkers were tried in various studies to develop a non invasive diagnostic tool, out of which HE4 and CA 125 remain the only clinically useful biomarker...
October 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Aarifa Nazmeen, Smarajit Maiti
N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) is highly used in rodent models of tumerogenesis/carcinogenesis. Xenografting human-cancer tissues/cells with estradiol (E2) treatment is also used to generate rodent-models of gynaecological cancers. The altered metabolic-redox environment leading to establishment of pre-tumorigenesis condition and their mechanism are less studied. Here, female Wister rats were treated with these drugs at their pre-tumerogenic dosage (one group ENU single intra-peritoneal dose of 90 mg/kg b.w. and another group were implanted with human breast tumor (stage-IIIB) and fed with 2...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Chin-Mei Wang, Shih-Yu Lee, Keng-Fu Hsu, Cheng-Feng Lin, Mi-Chia Ma, Yu-Yun Hsu
The prevalence of lower limb lymphoedema and its impact in gynaecological cancer patients is underestimated. However, a valid and reliable scale to measure lower leg lymphoedema in Taiwan has not been available. The purpose of the study was to translate the English version of Lymphoedema Functioning, Disability and Health Questionnaire for Lower Limb Lymphoedema into a Chinese version (Lymph-ICF-LL-C), and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Lymph-ICF-LL-C in Taiwanese women with gynaecological cancer surgery...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Cancer Care
Néha Sihra, Magda Kujawa, Andrew Counsell, Richard Brough
Since its advent in 2001, robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy has become the gold standard treatment for the management of localised prostate cancer. Pelvic lymphocoele is most commonly found after gynaecological or renal transplant surgery or following extensive pelvic lymphadenectomy. Its formation following prostatectomy is not uncommon1 but it seldom causes major complications or morbidity.2 We present a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with left sided abdominal pain, a palpable infra-umbilical mass, and renal failure...
October 8, 2018: Urology
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