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income disparity

Neng Wan, Mohammad Siahpush, Raees A Shaikh, Molly McCarthy, Athena Ramos, Antonia Correa
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) marketing expenditure is skyrocketing in the United States. However, little is understood about the geographic and socio-demographic patterns of e-cigarette advertising. We examined the associations between point-of-sale (POS) e-cigarette advertising and neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics in the Omaha Metropolitan Area of Nebraska. In 2014, fieldworkers collected comprehensive POS e-cigarette advertising data from all stores that sell tobacco (n = 463) in the Omaha Metropolitan Area...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Primary Prevention
Emmanuel Gabriel, Kristopher Attwood, Eisar Al-Sukhni, Deborah Erwin, Patrick Boland, Steven Nurkin
Background: The purpose of this study was to identify differences in both demographic and pathologic factors associated with the age-related rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) and overall survival (OS). Methods: The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), 2004-2013, was queried for patients with CRC. Patients were stratified by age (≤50 vs. ≥60 years). Multivariable analysis was performed to identify factors associated with OS. Results: A total of 670,030 patients were included; 488,121 with colon, and 181,909 with rectal or rectosigmoid cancer...
February 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Hannah Gordon Leker, Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
Previous evidence has identified potential racial disparities in access to community water and sewer service in peri-urban areas adjacent to North Carolina municipalities. We performed the first quantitative, multi-county analysis of these disparities. Using publicly available data, we identified areas bordering municipalities and lacking community water and/or sewer service in 75 North Carolina counties. Logistic regression was performed to evaluate the relationship between race and access to service in peri-urban areas, controlling for population density, median home value, urban status, and percent white in the adjacent municipality...
2018: PloS One
Dayna A Johnson, Roland J Thorpe, John A McGrath, W Braxton Jackson, Chandra L Jackson
Housing environments can directly and indirectly affect sleep, and blacks are more likely than whites to live in suboptimal housing conditions, which may independently contribute to sleep disparities. However, few large-scale epidemiological studies consider the potential influence of housing type on sleep health. Using data from the 2004-2015 National Health Interview Survey, we investigated overall and Black-White differences in the association between housing type (house/apartment versus mobile home/trailer) and sleep duration as well as sleep difficulties among 226,208 adults in the U...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marina Del Rios, Josiah Han, Alejandra Cano, Victor Ramirez, Gabriel Morales, Teri L Campbell, Terry Vanden Hoek
Introduction: The implementation of creative new strategies to increase layperson cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and defibrillation may improve resuscitation in priority populations. As more communities implement laws requiring CPR training in high schools, there is potential for a multiplier effect and reach into priority communities with low bystander-CPR rates. Methods: We investigated the feasibility, knowledge acquisition, and dissemination of a high school-centered, CPR video self-instruction program with a "pay-it-forward" component in a low-income, urban, predominantly Black neighborhood in Chicago, Illinois with historically low bystander-CPR rates...
March 2018: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dafna Kanny, Timothy S Naimi, Yong Liu, Hua Lu, Robert D Brewer
INTRODUCTION: Binge drinking (four or more drinks for women, five or more drinks for men on an occasion) accounts for more than half of the 88,000 U.S. deaths resulting from excessive drinking annually. Adult binge drinkers do so frequently and at high intensity; however, there are known disparities in binge drinking that are not well characterized by any single binge-drinking measure. A new measure of total annual binge drinks was used to assess these disparities at the state and national levels...
April 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Julie A Lynch, Brygida Berse, Merry Rabb, Paul Mosquin, Rob Chew, Suzanne L West, Nicole Coomer, Daniel Becker, John Kautter
BACKGROUND: Tumor testing for mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene is indicated for all newly diagnosed, metastatic lung cancer patients, who may be candidates for first-line treatment with an EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor. Few studies have analyzed population-level testing. METHODS: We identified clinical, demographic, and regional predictors of EGFR & KRAS testing among Medicare beneficiaries with a new diagnosis of lung cancer in 2011-2013 claims...
March 20, 2018: BMC Cancer
Todd R Vogel, Robin L Kruse, Ryan J Kim, Viktor Y Dombrovskiy
BACKGROUND: Race has been associated with inferior outcomes after multiple procedures, but the association of socioeconomic status with procedures for cerebrovascular disease is not well established. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Elective carotid artery stenting (CAS) and carotid endarterectomy (CEA) procedures were identified in the National Inpatient Sample, 2012 to 2014. Median household income was estimated from patient ZIP codes. Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analysis evaluated outcomes, accounting for age, race, gender, comorbidities, procedure, income, insurance, and hospital characteristics...
January 1, 2018: Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Lisa Carter-Harris, James E Slaven, Patrick O Monahan, Rivienne Shedd-Steele, Nasser Hanna, Susan M Rawl
Lung cancer screening is a relatively new screening option. Inequalities related to screening behavior have been documented in other types of cancer screening. Because stage at presentation drives mortality in lung cancer, it is critical to understand factors that influence screening behavior in lung cancer screening in order to intervene. However, we must first understand where disparities exist in lung cancer screening participation in order to effectively guide intervention efforts. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the association of sociodemographic (including key disparity-related variables) and knowledge with lung cancer screening behavior...
June 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Deniz Gokengin, Cristiana Oprea, Josip Begovac, Andrzej Horban, Arzu Nazlı Zeka, Dalibor Sedlacek, Bayjanov Allabergan, Esmira A Almamedova, Tatevik Balayan, Denes Banhegyi, Pavlina Bukovinova, Nikoloz Chkhartishvili, Alymbaeva Damira, Edona Deva, Ivaylo Elenkov, Luljeta Gashi, Dafina Gexha-Bunjaku, Vesna Hadciosmanovic, Arjan Harxhi, Tiberiu Holban, Djorje Jevtovic, David Jilich, Justyna Kowalska, Djhamal Kuvatova, Natalya Ladnaia, Adkhamjon Mamatkulov, Aleksandra Marjanovic, Maria Nikolova, Mario Poljak, Kristi Rüütel, Azzaden Shunnar, Milena Stevanovic, Zhanna Trumova, Oleg Yurin
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this survey was to describe the current status of HIV care in Central and Eastern European countries and to look at how close the region is to achieve the UNAIDS 2020 target of 90-90-90. METHODS: In 2014 data were collected from 24 Central and Eastern European countries by a 38-item questionnaire. RESULTS: All countries reported mandatory screening of blood and organ donors for HIV. Other groups who were subjected to targeted screening were people who inject drugs (PWID) (15/24; 62...
March 14, 2018: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
Wendy Si Hassen, Katia Castetbon, Sandrine Péneau, Christine Tichit, Anouar Nechba, Aurélie Lampuré, France Bellisle, Serge Hercberg, Caroline Méjean
BACKGROUND: Few studies have specifically focused on demographic and socio-economic characteristics associated with snacking in adults, whereas their identification could be useful for defining effective public health measures. The aim of our study was to assess the associations of these factors with daily snacking behavior and its dietary quality. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 84,692 women and 23,491 men from the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Occurrence of snacking, energy intake from snacks, snack nutrient, and energy densities were assessed using 24-h dietary records of weekdays at baseline...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Christina Krudy, Kavita Shah Arora
The United States, along with other resource-rich countries, leads global health care by advancing medical care through randomized controlled trials (RCTs). While most medical research is conducted in these resource-rich areas, RCTs, including replications of previous trials, are additionally carried out in low- and middle-income countries. On the basis of positive findings from several RCTs conducted in high-income countries, the Antenatal Corticosteroids Trial (ACT) evaluated the effectiveness of antenatal corticosteroids in reducing neonatal mortality in low- and middle-income countries...
March 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Molly P Jarman, Elliott R Haut, Frank C Curriero, Renan C Castillo
BACKGROUND: Many rural, low income, and historically underrepresented minority communities lack access to trauma center services, including surgical care and injury prevention efforts. Along with features of the built and social environment at injury incident locations, geographic barriers to trauma center services may contribute to injury disparities. This study sought to classify injury event locations based on features of the built and social environment at the injury scene, and to examine patterns in individual patient demographics, injury characteristics, and mortality by location class...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
John Michael Varlotto, Richard Voland, Kerrie McKie, John C Flickinger, Malcolm M DeCamp, Debra Maddox, Paul Rava, Thomas J Fitzgerald, Geoffrey Graeber, Negar Rassaei, Paulo Oliveira, Suhail Ali, Chandra Belani, Jonathan Glanzman, Heather A Wakelee, Manali Patel, Jennifer Baima, Jianying Zhang, William Walsh
To investigate the interrelation between economic, marital, and known histopathologic/therapeutic prognostic factors in presentation and survival of patients with lung cancer in nine different ethnic groups. A retrospective review of the SEER database was conducted through the years 2007-2012. Population differences were assessed via chi-square testing. Multivariable analyses (MVA) were used to detect overall survival (OS) differences in the total population (TP, N = 153,027) and for those patients presenting with Stage IV (N = 70,968)...
March 13, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Yuka Minagawa, Yasuhiko Saito
Compared to the large volume of research focused on mortality differentials within Japan, relatively little is known about regional variations in health expectancy, particularly among older people. This article has two interrelated objectives. The first objective is to estimate prefecture-specific disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) at 65 years of age in 2010. DFLE at 65 by gender and prefecture was computed using the Sullivan method, which was applied to prefecture-specific life tables and prevalence of disability from Kokumin Seikatsu Kiso Chosa (Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions) of 2010...
March 2018: European Journal of Ageing
Gregory E Miller, Edith Chen, Madeleine U Shalowitz, Rachel E Story, Adam K K Leigh, Paula Ham, Jesusa M G Arevalo, Steve W Cole
AIM: There are marked socioeconomic disparities in pediatric asthma control, but the molecular origins of these disparities are not well understood. To fill this gap, we performed genome-wide expression profiling of monocytes and T-helper cells from pediatric asthma patients of lower and higher socioeconomic status (SES). METHOD: Ninety-nine children with asthma participated in a cross-sectional assessment. Out of which 87% were atopic, and most had disease of mild (54%) or moderate (29%) severity...
March 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
Daniel Lin, Heather T Gold, David Schreiber, Lawrence P Leichman, Scott E Sherman, Daniel J Becker
BACKGROUND: Although outcomes for patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the anus (SCCA) have improved, the gains in benefit may not be shared uniformly among patients of disparate socioeconomic status. In the current study, the authors investigated whether area-based median household income (MHI) is predictive of survival among patients with SCCA. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with SCCA from 2004 through 2013 in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry were included...
March 12, 2018: Cancer
Isabel M Leal, Lillian S Kao, Burzeen Karanjawala, Richard J Escamilla, Tien C Ko, Stefanos G Millas
BACKGROUND: Greater understanding of barriers to screening of colorectal cancer among lower socioeconomic, particularly Hispanic, patients is needed to improve disparities in care. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore patients' perceptions and experiences of care seeking for colorectal cancer to identify barriers to early diagnosis and treatment. DESIGN: This explorative qualitative study was conducted as a focused ethnography of patients diagnosed with advanced-stage colorectal cancer...
April 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Elizabeth Fam, Jeanne M Ferrante
To help understand and mitigate health disparities, it is important to conduct research with underserved and underrepresented minority populations under real world settings. There is a gap in the literature detailing real-time research staff experience, particularly in their own words, while conducting in-person patient recruitment in urban community health centers. This paper describes challenges faced at the clinic, staff, and patient levels, our lessons learned, and strategies implemented by research staff while recruiting predominantly low-income African-American women for an interviewer-administered survey study in four urban Federally Qualified Health Centers in New Jersey...
February 2018: Journal of the National Medical Association
Niodita Gupta, Marko Vujicic, Cassandra Yarbrough, Brittany Harrison
BACKGROUND: The Affordable Care Act of 2010 increased dental coverage for children in the United States, (U.S.) but not for adults. Few studies in current scholarship make use of up-to-date, nationally representative data to examine oral health disparities in the U.S. POPULATION: The purpose of this study is to use nationally representative data to determine the prevalence of untreated caries among children and adults of different socioeconomic and racial/ethnic groups and to examine the factors associated with untreated caries among children and adults...
March 6, 2018: BMC Oral Health
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