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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349529/esophageal-cancer-surgery-spontaneous-centralization-in-the-us-contributed-to-reduce-mortality-without-causing-health-disparities
#1
Francisco Schlottmann, Paula D Strassle, Anthony G Charles, Marco G Patti
BACKGROUND: Improvement in mortality has been shown for esophagectomies performed at high-volume centers. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine if centralization of esophageal cancer surgery occurred in the US, and to establish its impact on postoperative mortality. In addition, we aimed to analyze the relationship between regionalization of cancer care and health disparities. METHODS: A retrospective population-based analysis was performed using the National Inpatient Sample for the period 2000-2014...
January 18, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349270/breaking-down-the-monolith-understanding-flu-vaccine-uptake-among-african-americans
#2
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Amelia Jamison, Ji An, Vicki S Freimuth, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa
Black adults are significantly less likely to be immunized for seasonal influenza when compared to Whites. This persistent disparity contributes to increased influenza-related morbidity and mortality in the African American population. Most scholarship on vaccine disparities has compared Whites and Blacks. Employing Public Health Critical Race Praxis, this study seeks to shift the focus to explore differences within the Black population. Utilizing a nationally-representative 2015 survey of US Black adults (n = 806), we explore differences by gender, age, income, and education across vaccine-related measures (e...
April 2018: SSM—Population Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347840/barriers-and-enablers-to-the-implementation-of-school-wellness-policies-an-economic-perspective
#3
Brittany R Schuler, Brit I Saksvig, Joy Nduka, Susannah Beckerman, Lea Jaspers, Maureen M Black, Erin R Hager
BACKGROUND: Local wellness policies (LWPs) are mandated among school systems to enhance nutrition/physical activity opportunities in schools. Prior research notes disparities in LWP implementation. This study uses mixed methods to examine barriers/enablers to LWP implementation, comparing responses by student body income. METHOD: Schools ( n = 744, 24 systems) completed an LWP implementation barriers/enablers survey. Semistructured interviews ( n = 20 random subsample) described barriers/enablers...
January 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343247/consumption-of-sugar-sweetened-beverages-and-artificially-sweetened-beverages-from-childhood-to-adulthood-in-relation-to-socioeconomic-status-15%C3%A2-years-follow-up-in-norway
#4
Kathrine Bolt-Evensen, Frøydis N Vik, Tonje Holte Stea, Knut-Inge Klepp, Elling Bere
BACKGROUND: In Norway, social inequalities in health and health-related behaviors have been reported despite the well-developed welfare state. The objective of the present study was to analyze; (i) the development in frequency of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and artificially sweetened beverages (ASB) from childhood to adulthood; (ii) socioeconomic inequalities in the consumption of SSB and ASB using different indicators of socioeconomic status (SES); (iii) time trends in potential disparities in SSB and ASB consumption among different socioeconomic groups to assess the development in socioeconomic inequality from childhood to adulthood...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341110/eurogin-roadmap-2017-triage-strategies-for-the-management-of-hpv-positive-women-in-cervical-screening-programmes
#5
REVIEW
K Cuschieri, G Ronco, A Lorincz, L Smith, G Ogilvie, L Mirabello, F Carozzi, H Cubie, N Wentzensen, P Snijders, M Arbyn, J Monsonego J, S Franceschi
Cervical cancer screening will rely, increasingly, on HPV testing as a primary screen. The requirement for triage tests which can delineate clinically significant infection is thus prescient. In this EUROGIN 2017 roadmap, justification behind the most evidenced triages is outlined, as are challenges for implementation. Cytology is the triage with the most follow-up data; the existence of an HR-HPV positive, cytology negative group presents a challenge and re-testing intervals for this group (and choice of re-test) require careful consideration...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340636/changes-in-socioeconomic-differences-in-hospital-days-with-age-cumulative-disadvantage-age-as-leveler-or-both
#6
Yaoyue Hu, Taina Leinonen, Mikko Myrskylä, Pekka Martikainen
Objectives: Length of hospital stay is inversely associated with socioeconomic status (SES). It is less clear whether socioeconomic disparities in numbers of hospital days diverge or converge with age. Method: Longitudinal linked Finnish registry data (1988-2007) from 137,653 men and women aged 50-79 years at the end of 1987 were used. Trajectories of annual total hospital days by education, household income, and occupational class were estimated using negative binomial models...
January 11, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338913/discrepancies-in-staging-treatment-and-delays-to-treatment-may-explain-disparities-in-bladder-cancer-outcomes-an-update-from-the-national-cancer-data-base-2004-2013
#7
Adam B Weiner, Mary-Kate Keeter, Adarsh Manjunath, Joshua J Meeks
INTRODUCTION: We sought to characterize national disparities in the diagnosis of advanced stage bladder cancer. Among patients with advanced disease, we explored disparities in overall survival, treatment, and time to treatment. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We queried the National Cancer Data Base for patients diagnosed with bladder urothelial carcinoma. We used multivariable logistic regression to assess the association between covariates and diagnosis of advanced disease (AJCC stage III-IV)...
January 12, 2018: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333764/education-is-the-strongest-socioeconomic-predictor-of-smoking-in-pregnancy
#8
Juho Härkönen, Matti Lindberg, Linnea Karlsson, Hasse Karlsson, Noora M Scheinin
AIMS: To investigate socioeconomic disparities in smoking in pregnancy (SIP) by the mother's education, occupational class, and current economic conditions. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis with linked survey and register data. SETTING: South-Western Finland. PARTICIPANTS: 2,667 pregnant women (70% of the original sample (N=3,808)) from FinnBrain, a prospective pregnancy cohort study. MEASUREMENTS: The outcome was smoking during the first pregnancy trimester, measured from the Finnish Medical Birth Register...
January 14, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333200/perceptions-of-mindfulness-in-a-low-income-primarily-african-american-treatment-seeking-sample
#9
Claire Adams Spears, Sean C Houchins, Wendy P Bamatter, Sandra Barrueco, Diana Stewart Hoover, Rokas Perskaudas
Individuals with low socioeconomic status (SES) and members of racial/ethnic minority groups often experience profound disparities in mental health and physical well-being. Mindfulness-based interventions show promise for improving mood and health behaviors in higher-SES and non-Latino White populations. However, research is needed to explore what types of adaptations, if any, are needed to best support underserved populations. This study used qualitative methods to gain information about a) perceptions of mindfulness, b) experiences with meditation, c) barriers to practicing mindfulness, and d) recommendations for tailoring mindfulness-based interventions in a low-income, primarily African American treatment-seeking sample...
December 2017: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330260/race-and-socioeconomic-status-independently-affect-risk-of-major-amputation-in-peripheral-artery-disease
#10
Shipra Arya, Zachary Binney, Anjali Khakharia, Luke P Brewster, Phil Goodney, Rachel Patzer, Jason Hockenberry, Peter W F Wilson
BACKGROUND: Black race has been shown to be a risk factor for amputation in peripheral artery disease (PAD); however, race has been argued to be a marker for socioeconomic status (SES) rather than true disparity. The aim of this study is to study the impact of race and SES on amputation risk in PAD patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Patients with incident PAD in the national Veterans Affairs Corporate Data Warehouse were identified from 2003 to 2014 (N=155 647). The exposures were race and SES (measured by median income in residential ZIP codes)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329191/income-disparities-in-the-prevalence-severity-and-costs-of-co-occurring-chronic-and-behavioral-health-conditions
#11
Peter J Cunningham, Tiffany L Green, Robert T Braun
BACKGROUND: Behavioral health problems usually co-occur along with physical health problems, resulting in higher health care costs. These co-occurring conditions are likely to be more prevalent and serious among low income patients, affecting both the quality and costs of care. OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence, severity, and health care costs of co-occurring chronic and behavioral health conditions among low income people compared with higher income people. METHODS: Analysis of the 2011-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey...
February 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320943/management-training-in-global-health-education-a-health-innovation-fellowship-training-program-to-bring-healthcare-to-low-income-communities-in-central-america
#12
Andrea M Prado, Andy A Pearson, Nathan S Bertelsen
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional education is increasingly recognized as essential for health education worldwide. Although effective management, innovation, and entrepreneurship are necessary to improve health systems, business schools have been underrepresented in global health education. Central America needs more health professionals trained in health management and innovation to respond to health disparities, especially in rural communities. OBJECTIVE:   This paper explores the impact of the Health Innovation Fellowship (HIF), a new training program for practicing health professionals offered jointly by the Central American Healthcare Initiative and INCAE Business School, Costa Rica...
2018: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320477/a-global-map-of-travel-time-to-cities-to-assess-inequalities-in-accessibility-in-2015
#13
D J Weiss, A Nelson, H S Gibson, W Temperley, S Peedell, A Lieber, M Hancher, E Poyart, S Belchior, N Fullman, B Mappin, U Dalrymple, J Rozier, T C D Lucas, R E Howes, L S Tusting, S Y Kang, E Cameron, D Bisanzio, K E Battle, S Bhatt, P W Gething
The economic and man-made resources that sustain human wellbeing are not distributed evenly across the world, but are instead heavily concentrated in cities. Poor access to opportunities and services offered by urban centres (a function of distance, transport infrastructure, and the spatial distribution of cities) is a major barrier to improved livelihoods and overall development. Advancing accessibility worldwide underpins the equity agenda of 'leaving no one behind' established by the Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations...
January 10, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320345/an-examination-of-changes-in-social-disparities-in-health-behaviors-in-the-us-2003-2015
#14
Sasha A Fleary, Claudio R Nigg, Karen M Freund
OBJECTIVES: Due to growing health disparities, federal and philanthropic agencies have empha-sized reducing health disparities in their preventive health efforts. This study determined the status of disparities in health behaviors in the last 13 years in the United States. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Systems in odd years (2003-2015). Health behaviors were dichotomized to reflect met fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption and physical activity (PA) recommendations, non-cigarette smoking, non-heavy drinking, and non-binge drinking...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320336/knowledge-gaps-of-the-health-benefits-of-beans-among-low-income-women
#15
Shelly Palmer, Donna M Winham, Christine Hradek
OBJECTIVES: We determined knowledge of the health benefits of consuming beans, and assessed if awareness varied by acculturation status among Hispanic and non-Hispanic low-income women. METHODS: We used a self-administered survey with Iowa women aged 18-65 years who were eligible to receive income-based services through 2 healthcare clinics, a WIC clinic, and Extension Outreach. Chi-square and ANOVA were used to compare bean health benefit knowledge, demographics, health-risk factors, nutrition information seeking, and self-efficacy by acculturation categories...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318743/associations-between-lifestyle-factors-and-smoking-status-during-pregnancy-in-a-group-of-romanian-women
#16
S Voidazan, M Tarcea, Z Abram, M Georgescu, C Marginean, O Grama, F Buicu, F Ruţa
BACKGROUND: There is an estimated birth rate of 9.27 births/1,000 population in Romania each year, with approximately 8.4% born with low birth weight (LBW). Our purpose was to evaluate the relationships between maternal smoking and LBW and preterm birth in Mureș County, Romania. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,278 mothers who had given birth in Mureș County obstetrical wards in 2015, based on a lifestyle questionnaire of 109 items and personal and laboratory data from hospitals records...
January 10, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317176/race-disparities-in-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-within-socioeconomic-status-strata
#17
Caryn N Bell, Roland J Thorpe, Janice V Bowie, Thomas A LaVeist
PURPOSE: Racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES) explain some, but not all, of racial disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. To address this, race disparities among higher SES individuals need to be assessed. The purpose of this study was to assess whether racial disparities in CVD risk factors differ by SES levels. METHODS: Data from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2007-2014 were used to calculate racial differences in hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, and obesity...
December 22, 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316992/child-nutritional-status-in-egypt-a-comprehensive-analysis-of-socioeconomic-determinants-using-a-quantile-regression-approach
#18
Mesbah Fathy Sharaf, Elhussien Ibrahim Mansour, Ahmed Shoukry Rashad
This study examined the underlying demographic and socioeconomic determinants of child nutritional status in Egypt using data from the most recent round of the Demographic and Health Survey. The height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) was used as a measure of child growth. A quantile regression approach was used to allow for a heterogeneous effect of each determinant along different percentiles of the conditional distribution of the HAZ. A nationally representative sample of 13,682 children aged 0-4 years was drawn from the 2014 Egypt DHS...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315227/the-benefits-of-higher-income-in-protecting-against-chronic-medical-conditions-are-smaller-for-african-americans-than-whites
#19
Shervin Assari
Background: Blacks' diminished return is defined as smaller protective effects of socioeconomic status (SES) on health of African Americans compared to Whites. AIM: Using a nationally representative sample, the current study aimed to examine if the protective effect of income on chronic medical conditions (CMC) differs for African Americans compared to Whites. Methods: With a cross-sectional design, the National Survey of American Life (NSAL), 2003, included 3570 non-Hispanic African Americans and 891 non-Hispanic Whites...
January 9, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313249/a-two-decade-examination-of-historical-race-ethnicity-disparities-in-academic-achievement-by-poverty-status
#20
Katherine W Paschall, Elizabeth T Gershoff, Megan Kuhfeld
Research on achievement gaps by race/ethnicity and poverty status typically focuses on each gap separately, and recent syntheses suggest the poverty gap is growing while racial/ethnic gaps are narrowing. In this study, we used time-varying effect modeling to examine the interaction of race/ethnicity and poverty gaps in math and reading achievement from 1986-2005 for poor and non-poor White, Black, and Hispanic students in three age groups (5-6, 9-10, and 13-14). We found that across this twenty-year period, the gaps between poor White students and their poor Black and Hispanic peers grew, while the gap between non-poor Whites and Hispanics narrowed...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
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