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income inequality

Courtney Boen
Research links Black-White health disparities to racial differences in socioeconomic status (SES), but understanding of the role of SES in racial health gaps has been restricted by reliance on static measures of health and socioeconomic well-being that mask the dynamic quality of these processes and ignore the racialized nature of the SES-health connection. Utilizing twenty-three years of longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (1984-2007), this study uses multilevel growth curve models to examine how multiple dimensions of socioeconomic well-being-including long-term economic history and differential returns to SES-contribute to the life course patterning of Black-White health disparities across two critical markers of well-being: body mass index (N = 9057) and self-rated health (N = 11,329)...
October 11, 2016: Social Science & Medicine
Leidy Johanna Ocampo Arroyave, María Clara Restrepo-Méndez, Bernardo Lessa Horta, Ana Maria Baptista Menezes, Denise Petrucci Gigante, Helen Gonçalves
This study focuses on trends and inequalities in health risk behaviors among adolescents. A cross-sectional study compared two birth cohorts in the city of Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The sample included 1,281 adolescents from the 1982 cohort and 4,106 from the 1993 cohort, followed in 2001 and 2011, respectively. The study recorded alcohol intake, illegal drug use, smoking, sexual initiation < 16 years, lack of condom use, and multiple sex partners. Total prevalence rates were calculated for each cohort, stratified by gender and per capita income, besides absolute and relative measures of inequality...
October 10, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Laura Wells, Magnus Nermo, Viveca Östberg
As physical inactivity may track from adolescence to adulthood, it is important to identify social determinants of physical inactivity in early life. However, most studies have measured socioeconomic position as one dimension. We examine whether multiple dimensions of socioeconomic position, in addition to other dimensions of inequality (i.e., gender, immigrant background), associate with physical inactivity at two time points in youth. Longitudinal data were drawn from the Swedish Level of Living Survey (N = 765) and analysed by gender-stratified logistic regression...
October 5, 2016: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
Emma Aarnio, Janne Martikainen, Aaron N Winn, Risto Huupponen, Jussi Vahtera, Maarit J Korhonen
BACKGROUND: Previous research shows that low socioeconomic position (SEP; especially low income) is associated with statin nonadherence. We investigated the relationship between SEP and statin adherence in a country with universal coverage using group-based trajectory modeling in addition to the proportion of days covered. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using data from Finnish healthcare registers, we identified 116 846 individuals, aged 45 to 75 years, who initiated statin therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease...
October 18, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes
Emma Stait, Michael Calnan
BACKGROUND: During the last two decades, differential consumption patterns in health-related behaviours have increasingly been highlighted as playing an important role in explaining persistent and widening health inequalities. This period has also seen government public health policies in England place a greater emphasis on changing 'lifestyle' behaviours, in an attempt to tackle social inequalities in health. The aim of this study was to empirically examine the variation in health-related behaviour in relation to socio-economic position, in the English adult population, to determine the nature of this relationship and whether it has changed over time...
October 18, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are major causes of death and illness worldwide. In recent decades an increased prevalence of CVD mortality has been reported in low-medium income countries, which has been associated with changes in life styles, deficiencies in health systems and the persistence of social inequities.The metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, with insulin resistance and increased adiposity as its central features. Identifying individuals with metabolic syndrome is important due to its association with an increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Timo-Kolja Pförtner, Irene Moor
Background: The relationship between socioeconomic status and health is explained by the unequal distribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors. The aim of this study is to analyze the relative contribution of these factors for the association between income and different indicators of health and diseases. Method: Analyses were based on data from the "German Socioeconomic Panel (GSOEP)" in 2011. We estimated the relative contribution of material, psychosocial and behavioral factors in income-related inequalities in health by logistic mediator analyses focusing on following outcomes: self-rated health, diabetes, cardiac disease, sleep disorder, joint diseases, depression and chronical back trouble...
October 17, 2016: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastian, Anneli Ivarsson, Lars Weinehall, Per E Gustafsson
BACKGROUND: Early life is thought of as a foundation for health inequalities in adulthood. However, research directly examining the contribution of childhood circumstances to the integrated phenomenon of adult social inequalities in health is absent. The present study aimed to examine whether, and to what degree, social conditions during childhood explain income inequalities in metabolic syndrome in mid-adulthood. METHODS: The sample (N = 12 481) comprised all 40- and 50-year-old participants in the Västerbotten Intervention Program in Northern Sweden 2008, 2009 and 2010...
October 15, 2016: European Journal of Public Health
Ethel M Brinda, Anto P Rajkumar, Jǿrn Attermann, Ulf G Gerdtham, Ulrika Enemark, Kuruthukulangara S Jacob
OBJECTIVE: Although depression among older people is an important public health problem worldwide, systematic studies evaluating its prevalence and determinants in low and middle income countries (LMICs) are sparse. The biopsychosocial model of depression and prevailing socioeconomic hardships for older people in LMICs have provided the impetus to determine the prevalence of geriatric depression; to study its associations with health, social, and economic variables; and to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in depression prevalence in LMICs...
July 25, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Akosua Sarpong Boakye-Ansah, Giuliana Ferrero, Maria Rusca, Pieter van der Zaag
Over past decades strategies for improving access to drinking water in cities of the Global South have mainly focused on increasing coverage, while water quality has often been overlooked. This paper focuses on drinking water quality in the centralized water supply network of Lilongwe, the capital of Malawi. It shows how microbial contamination of drinking water is unequally distributed to consumers in low-income (unplanned areas) and higher-income neighbourhoods (planned areas). Microbial contamination and residual disinfectant concentration were measured in 170 water samples collected from in-house taps in high-income areas and from kiosks and water storage facilities in low-income areas between November 2014 and January 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Water and Health
Richard J Silverwood, Lee Williamson, Emily M Grundy, Bianca L De Stavola
Socioeconomically disadvantaged children are more likely to be of shorter stature and overweight, leading to greater risk of obesity in adulthood. Disentangling the mediatory pathways between socioeconomic disadvantage and childhood size may help in the development of appropriate policies aimed at reducing these health inequalities. We aimed to elucidate the putative mediatory role of birth weight using a representative sample of the Scottish population born 1991-2001 (n = 16,628). Estimated height and overweight/obesity at age 4...
2016: PloS One
Raj Chetty, David Cutler, Michael Stepner
Earlier this year, the three of us, along with several colleagues, published new research on the relationship between income and life expectancy in the United States, drawing on population-level data drawn from tax and Social Security records.(1) As part of that research, we created new, publicly available data sets with estimates of (1) life expectancy at age 40 years by gender, area (county and commuting zone), income level, and year (2001-2014); and (2) estimates of mortality rates by age (≥ 40 years), gender, area, income level, and year...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Bernadet Garcia-Silva, Eric Handler, Julia Wolfe
Food insecurity is a global issue that arises owing to systemic socioeconomic inequities and environmental constraints. To highlight the existence and the extent of food insecurity and food waste, the Orange County Health Department in Orange County, California, created a coalition called "Waste Not Orange County." Orange County is the sixth most populous county in California and has the highest median income, yet 11.4% of those residing in Orange County are food insecure, and 24.0% live in poverty. The overall vision of the coalition is to mitigate hunger in Orange County by educating the community about food donations, identifying food-insecure individuals, and connecting those individuals to sources of food...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Public Health
Benjamin Steinweg, Fred W Mast
Multisensory stimulus combinations trigger shorter reaction times (RTs) than individual single-modality stimuli. It has been suggested that this inter-sensory facilitation effect is found exclusively for semantically congruent stimuli, because incongruity would prevent multisensory integration. Here we provide evidence that the effect of incongruity is due to a change in response caution rather than prevention of stimulus integration. In two experiments, participants performed two-alternative forced-choice decision tasks in which they categorized auditory stimuli, visual stimuli or audio-visual stimulus pairs...
October 12, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Dong-Hun Han, Young-Ho Khang
AIM: The aim of this study was to assess the association between lifecourse socioeconomic position (SEP) indicators and tooth loss in a large representative sample of the Korean adult population. METHODS: Data from the Fourth and Fifth Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey on 17,549 Korean adults aged 50 years or older were analyzed. The study design was cross-sectional. Tooth loss was defined as either edentulism (0 teeth) or severe tooth loss (<20 teeth)...
October 10, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Ian Bates, Christopher John, Andreia Bruno, Pamela Fu, Shirin Aliabadi
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there is a global healthcare workforce shortage of 7.2 million, which is predicted to grow to 12.9 million by 2035. Globally, people are living longer with multiple co-morbidities and require increased access and use of medicines. Pharmacists are a key component of the healthcare workforce, and in many countries, pharmacists are the most accessible healthcare profession. This paper identifies key issues and current trends affecting the global pharmacy workforce, in particular workforce distribution, country economic status, capacity, and workforce gender balance...
October 10, 2016: Human Resources for Health
Jennifer Karas Montez, Anna Zajacova, Mark D Hayward
Inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states are large and growing. It is unknown whether they reflect differences between states in their population characteristics, contextual characteristics, or both. This study systematically examines the large inequalities in women's mortality between U.S. states using a multilevel approach. It focuses on "fundamental" social determinants of mortality at the individual and state levels as potential explanations. We analyze data from the 2013 public-use National Longitudinal Mortality Study on women aged 45-89 years and estimate multilevel logistic regression models...
December 2016: SSM—Population Health
Robert B Noland, Yuhan Zhou
An analysis of state-level data from 1984 to 2014 provides evidence on the relationship between economic recessions and US traffic fatalities. While there are large reductions associated with decreases in household median income, other policy variables tend to have additional and in some cases, larger effects. An increase in the inequality of the income distribution, measured by the Gini index, has reduced traffic fatalities. Graduated licensing policies, cell phone laws, and motorcycle helmet requirements are all associated with reductions in fatalities...
October 5, 2016: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Adam Fusheini, John Eyles
BACKGROUND: Universal Health Coverage (UHC) has emerged as a major goal for health care delivery in the post-2015 development agenda. It is viewed as a solution to health care needs in low and middle countries with growing enthusiasm at both national and global levels. Throughout the world, however, the paths of countries to UHC have differed. South Africa is currently reforming its health system with UHC through developing a national health insurance (NHI) program. This will be practically achieved through a decentralized approach, the district health system, the main vehicle for delivering services since democracy...
October 7, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
Nandita Bhan, Krishna Dipankar Rao, Shivani Kachwaha
BACKGROUND: Research on health inequalities can be instrumental in drawing attention to the health of socioeconomically vulnerable groups in India in the context of rapid economic growth. It can shape the dialogue for public health action, emphasizing the need for greater investments in health, and monitor effectiveness of health programs. Our objective was to examine trends in studies on health inequalities in the last 25 years. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review of studies on health inequalities published from 1990...
October 6, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
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