Read by QxMD icon Read

income inequality

Anton N Isaacs, Joanne Enticott, Graham Meadows, Brett Inder
Background: Australia is a high-income country with increasing income inequality. It is unclear whether Australia's well-developed mental healthcare system is making a difference to population mental health and the Federal Government has targeted outcomes accountability in service funding strategies. In high-income countries, evidence generally suggests that income inequalities increase mental disorders among the poor. This study examined psychological-distress rates-a marker of mental ill- health-as varying by income among Australians living within and outside of capital cities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Sara Grineski, Heather Daniels, Timothy Collins, Danielle X Morales, Angela Frederick, Marilyn Garcia
Research on the science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) student development pipeline has largely ignored social class and instead examined inequalities based on gender and race. We investigate the role of social class in undergraduate student research publications. Data come from a sample of 213 undergraduate research participants majoring in STEM at a Hispanic-majority institution. Based on generalized estimating equations that adjust for student demographics, research confidence, mentoring experiences, duration/number of research experiences, and clustering by major, we find that higher income students and continuing-generation students (vs...
March 2018: Science Education
Alison Swartz, Christopher Colvin, Abigail Harrison
In South Africa, early fertility and teenage pregnancy have become a central focus of both political and public health concern. In this article, we explore the ways that young men and women have used their fertility and performance of parenthood to navigate the transition from childhood to adulthood. For these young people, the persistent inequities related to income poverty, inadequate education, lack of employment opportunities and a high burden of disease remain significant barriers to achieving this transition...
November 9, 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
Beth Stickney, Danielle M Campbell, Andrew J Milat, Sarah Thackway
OBJECTIVES: The Prevention Research Support Program (PRSP) is a New South Wales (NSW) Ministry of Health funding scheme. The scheme aims to build capability, and strengthen prevention and early intervention research that is important to the NSW public health system (NSW Health) and that leads to improved health and reduced health inequities for the people of NSW. This paper describes how PRSP funding has supported recipients to produce high-quality, policy-relevant research, and increase the impact of research on policy and practice...
September 27, 2018: Public Health Research & Practice
Resham Bahadur Khatri, Rajendra Karkee
Nepal has one of the highest maternal and neonatal mortality rates among low- and middle-income countries. Nepal's health system focuses on life-saving interventions provided during the antenatal to postpartum period. However, the inequality in the uptake of maternity services is of major concern. This study aimed to synthesise evidence from the literature regarding the social determinants of health on the use of maternity services in Nepal. We conducted a structured narrative review of studies published from 1994 to 2016...
November 7, 2018: Reproductive Health Matters
Maria Michela Gianino, Jacopo Lenzi, Marco Bonaudo, Maria Pia Fantini, Roberta Siliquini, Walter Ricciardi, Gianfranco Damiani
BACKGROUND: The aim was to analyse participation trajectories in organised breast and cervical cancer screening programmes and the association between socioeconomic variables and participation. METHODS: A pooled, cross-sectional, time series analysis was used to evaluate secondary data from 17 European countries in 2004-2014. RESULTS: The results show that the mammographic screening trend decreases after an initial increase (coefficient for the linear term = 0...
November 6, 2018: BMC Public Health
James C Hudspeth, Tracy L Rabin, Bradley A Dreifuss, Mylo Schaaf, Michael S Lipnick, Christiana M Russ, Amy Meg Autry, Michael B Pitt, Virginia Rowthorn
Large numbers of U.S. physicians and medical trainees engage in hands-on clinical global health experiences abroad, where they gain skills working across cultures with limited resources. Increasingly, these experiences are becoming bidirectional, with providers from low- and middle-income countries traveling to experience health care in the United States, yet the same hands-on experiences afforded stateside physicians are rarely available for foreign medical graduates or postgraduate trainees when they arrive...
November 5, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Sandy Picken, Juliet Hannington, Lara Fairall, Tanya Doherty, Eric Bateman, Mark Richards, Camilla Wattrus, Ruth Cornick
Pioneering strategies like WHO's Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) have resulted in substantial progress in addressing infant and child mortality. However, large inequalities exist in access to and the quality of care provided in different regions of the world. In many low-income and middle-income countries, childhood mortality remains a major concern, and the needs of children present a large burden upon primary care services. The capacity of services and quality of care offered require greater support to address these needs and extend integrated curative and preventive care, specifically, for the well child, the child with a long-term health need and the child older than 5 years, not currently included in IMCI...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Thierry Gagné, Joseph G L Lee, Madeleine Steinmetz-Wood, Katherine L Frohlich
OBJECTIVE: Socioeconomic circumstances are critically important to addressing smoking. In young adulthood (ages 18-25), dynamic transitions in education, employment, family and housing complicate the measurement of socioeconomic circumstances. To better understand approaches to capturing these circumstances, this methodological systematic review examined how socioeconomic characteristics used to identify social inequalities in smoking among young adults are measured. DATA SOURCES: We searched PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, ERIC and Sociological Abstracts, and used three prior reviews...
November 5, 2018: Tobacco Control
Khai-Tuan Andrew Bui, Sandra Wahby, Nathalie Jetté, Alain Bouthillier, Walter J Hader, Mark R Keezer
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy surgery is likely underutilised. Our goal was to study the utilisation of epilepsy surgery in the general population, using Canada as a model of a high-income country with universal medical coverage. METHODS: We systematically identified all epilepsy surgery centres in Canada that were active in 2015. A standardised questionnaire was completed by every centre. Descriptive statistics are reported. Comparisons were made to a 2003 survey of paediatric epilepsy surgery...
October 21, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Clare R Evans, Natasha Erickson
Depression in adolescents and young adults remains a pressing public health concern and there is increasing interest in evaluating population-level inequalities in depression intersectionally. A recent advancement in quantitative methods-multilevel analysis of individual heterogeneity and discriminatory accuracy (MAIHDA)-has many practical and theoretical advantages over conventional models of intercategorical intersectionality, including the ability to more easily evaluate numerous points of intersection between axes of marginalization...
October 26, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
Daniel J Corsi, Helen Hsu, Deborah Weiss, Deshayne B Fell, Mark Walker
OBJECTIVE: Forthcoming legislative changes will legalize and make cannabis widely available in Canada. We conducted an analysis of Ontario's birth registry to determine recent trends and correlates of cannabis use in pregnancy. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study assembled from the Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN) Ontario database, covering live births and stillbirths in Ontario between April 2012 and December 2017. Trends in self-reported cannabis use in pregnancy were analyzed according to maternal age and area-level socio-economic status (SES) using log binomial regression analysis...
November 1, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Ulrik Deding, Anna Sharon Henig, Christian Torp-Pedersen, Henrik Bøggild
PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of sending out reminders for colorectal cancer screening on socioeconomic and demographic inequalities in screening uptake. METHODS: All citizens aged 50-74 in Denmark are invited every 2 years for colorectal cancer screening. Non-participants receive an electronically distributed reminder. Data for these analyses were derived from national registers. Socioeconomic status was measured by income and educational level. Demographic variables included age, gender and marital status, and the analyses were stratified by immigration status...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
Joseph F Cabrera, Roy Kwon
Mass shootings are becoming a more common occurrence in the United States. Data show that mass shootings increased steadily over the past nearly 50 years. Crucial is that the wide-ranging adverse effects of mass shootings generate negative mental health outcomes on millions of Americans, including fear, anxiety, and ailments related to such afflictions. This study extends previous research that finds a strong positive relationship between income inequality and mass shootings by examining the effect of household income as well as the interaction between inequality and income...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Siddharth Pandey, Deepanshu Sharma, Bhupender Pal Singh, Apul Goel
We report a case of a 22-year-old man with adult exstrophy. The patient made a self-made urine collection device, which helped him to lead a normal life, carrying out his routine as well as occupational activities smoothly. This patient is a prime example of inequalities in healthcare distribution in low-income and middle-income countries. He was never taken to a proper medical centre to correct his condition nor was his mother ever given proper antenatal healthcare access. His background of being a poor person from rural India highlights the problems of inequalities in healthcare access...
October 31, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Maureen I Heaman, Patricia J Martens, Marni D Brownell, Mariette J Chartier, Kellie R Thiessen, Shelley A Derksen, Michael E Helewa
BACKGROUND: Ensuring high quality and equitable maternity services is important to promote positive pregnancy outcomes. Despite a universal health care system, previous research shows neighborhood-level inequities in utilization of prenatal care in Manitoba, Canada. The purpose of this population-based retrospective cohort study was to describe prenatal care utilization among women giving birth in Manitoba, and to determine individual-level factors associated with inadequate prenatal care...
November 1, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
David J Blok, Frank J van Lenthe, Sake J de Vlas
BACKGROUND: Income inequalities in sports participation are shaped by a system in which individuals and the environment interact. We developed an agent-based model (ABM) that could represent this system and used it to provide a proof-of-concept of its potential to explore the impact of individual and environmental interventions on reducing inequalities in sports participation. METHODS: Our ABM simulates sports participation of individuals in the Dutch city of Eindhoven...
November 1, 2018: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
Michaela Curran, Matthew C Mahutga
Cross-national empirical research about the link between income inequality and population health produces conflicting conclusions. We address these mixed findings by examining the degree to which the income inequality and health relationship varies with economic development. We estimate fixed-effects models with different measures of income inequality and population health. Results suggest that development moderates the association between inequality and two measures of population health. Our findings produce two generalizations...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Health and Social Behavior
Lynne Gaffikin, Sono Aibe
Recent studies recommend FP initiatives in rural sub-Saharan Africa operate in more context-specific ways to reduce inequities. In 2011 such a project, HoPE-LVB, was implemented by Pathfinder International and local partners among Ugandan Lake Victoria fishing communities using a Population, Health and Environment approach. Among other objectives, the project aimed to increase support for FP and women's involvement in decision-making by linking FP benefits to community needs including income generation from nature-based livelihoods...
September 2018: African Journal of Reproductive Health
Rhona J McInnes, Nicola Gillespie, Nicola Crossland, Victoria Hall Moran, Pat Hoddinott
Improving breastfeeding outcomes is a global priority, however, in the UK continuation of breastfeeding remains low. Growing empirical evidence suggests a free breast pump service might be an acceptable and feasible incentive intervention to improve breastfeeding outcomes and reduce heath inequalities. To inform intervention development we conducted an on-line survey with women recruited via social media using snowball sampling. Data were analysed descriptively (closed questions) with qualitative thematic analysis (free text)...
October 31, 2018: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"