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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909785/socioeconomic-inequality-in-clinical-outcome-among-hip-fracture-patients-a-nationwide-cohort-study
#1
P K Kristensen, T M Thillemann, A B Pedersen, K Søballe, S P Johnsen
: The evidence is limited regarding the association between socioeconomic status and the clinical outcome among patients with hip fracture. In this nationwide, population-based cohort study, higher education and higher family income were associated with a substantially lower 30-day mortality and risk of unplanned readmission after hip fracture. INTRODUCTION: We examined the association between socioeconomic status and 30-day mortality, acute readmission, quality of in-hospital care, time to surgery and length of hospital stay among patients with hip fracture...
December 1, 2016: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908610/economics-human-biology-and-inequality-a-review-of-puzzles-and-recent-contributions-from-a-deatonian-perspective
#2
Joerg Baten
The Nobel laureate Angus Deaton concentrated his work on puzzling developments and phenomena in economics. Puzzles are exciting elements in economics, because readers feel challenged by the question of how they can be solved. Among the puzzles analyzed by Deaton are: (1) Mortality increase of white, U.S. non-Hispanic men (2000 to today); (2) Why are height and income sometimes closely correlated, but not always?; (3) Height inequality among males and females; and (4) The Indian puzzle of declining consumption of calories during overall expenditure growth...
November 18, 2016: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905954/measuring-and-tracking-obesity-inequality-in-the-united-states-evidence-from-nhanes-1971-2014
#3
Tae-Young Pak, Susana Ferreira, Gregory Colson
BACKGROUND: Because people care about their weight relative to peers and society, obesity inequality plays a role in explaining obesity incidence and the impacts of being obese on subjective well-being. While the increase in obesity prevalence and mean body mass index (BMI) is well documented, the measurement of distributional changes and corresponding obesity inequality is yet to be fully explored. METHODS: The present study analyzed BMI data for adults aged 20 to 74 from the National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (NHANES) I (1971-1974), II (1976-1980), III (1988-1994), and continuous NHANES (1999-2014)...
April 4, 2016: Population Health Metrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905918/decomposing-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-depressive-symptoms-among-the-elderly-in-china
#4
Yongjian Xu, Jinjuan Yang, Jianmin Gao, Zhongliang Zhou, Tao Zhang, Jianping Ren, Yanli Li, Yuyan Qian, Sha Lai, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated population ageing brings about unprecedented challenges to the health system in China. This study aimed to measure the prevalence and the income-related inequality of depressive symptoms, and also identify the determinants of depressive symptom inequality among the elderly in China. METHODS: Data were drawn from the second wave of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). Depressive symptoms were assessed with a 10-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), which was preselected in CHARLS...
December 1, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903052/assessing-spatial-inequalities-in-accessing-community-pharmacies-a-mixed-geographically-weighted-approach
#5
Alexander Domnich, Lucia Arata, Daniela Amicizia, Alessio Signori, Roberto Gasparini, Donatella Panatto
Geographical accessibility is an important determinant for the utilisation of community pharmacies. The present study explored patterns of spatial accessibility with respect to pharmacies in Liguria, Italy, a region with particular geographical and demographic features. Municipal density of pharmacies was proxied as the number of pharmacies per capita and per km2, and spatial autocorrelation analysis was performed to identify spatial clusters. Both non-spatial and spatial models were constructed to predict the study outcome...
November 16, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896692/teaching-structure-a-qualitative-evaluation-of-a-structural-competency-training-for-resident-physicians
#6
Joshua Neff, Kelly R Knight, Shannon Satterwhite, Nick Nelson, Jenifer Matthews, Seth M Holmes
BACKGROUND: The influence of societal inequities on health has long been established, but such content has been incorporated unevenly into medical education and clinical training. Structural competency calls for medical education to highlight the important influence of social, political, and economic factors on health outcomes. AIM: This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a structural competency training for medical residents. SETTING: A California family medicine residency program serving a patient population predominantly (88 %) with income below 200 % of the federal poverty level...
November 28, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895486/factors-associated-with-vitamin-d-status-of-low-income-hospitalized-psychiatric-patients-results-of-a-retrospective-study
#7
Alessandra N Bazzano, Lisa Littrell, Stephen Lambert, Cody Roi
BACKGROUND: Recent evidence has indicated a potential role of vitamin D3 in a range of neuropsychiatric outcomes, as well as on cognitive function, but conflicting data have left that role uncertain. Understanding potential associations of vitamin D status with psychiatric illness will allow clinicians to better assess therapeutic options. Few studies have examined vitamin D status among a racially diverse group of psychiatric patients who have been hospitalized, and none has done so in the southern US where socioeconomic inequality is high...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894838/direct-and-indirect-costs-for-adverse-drug-events-identified-in-medical-records-across-care-levels-and-their-distribution-among-payers
#8
Jennie Natanaelsson, Katja M Hakkarainen, Staffan Hägg, Karolina Andersson Sundell, Max Petzold, Clas Rehnberg, Anna K Jönsson, Hanna Gyllensten
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug events (ADEs) cause considerable costs in hospitals. However, little is known about costs caused by ADEs outside hospitals, effects on productivity, and how the costs are distributed among payers. OBJECTIVE: To describe the direct and indirect costs caused by ADEs, and their distribution among payers. Furthermore, to describe the distribution of patient out-of-pocket costs and lost productivity caused by ADEs according to socio-economic characteristics...
November 19, 2016: Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy: RSAP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893258/the-rich-get-richer-and-the-poor-get-poorer-country-and-state-level-income-inequality-moderates-the-job-insecurity-burnout-relationship
#9
Lixin Jiang, Tahira M Probst
Despite the prevalence of income inequality in today's society, research on the implications of income inequality for organizational research is scant. This study takes the first step to explore the contextual role of national- and state- level income inequality as a moderator in the relationship between individual-level job insecurity (JI) and burnout. Drawing from conservation of resource (COR) theory, we argue that income inequality at the country-level and state-level threatens one's obtainment of object (i...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887750/chronic-kidney-disease
#10
REVIEW
Angela C Webster, Evi V Nagler, Rachael L Morton, Philip Masson
The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m(2), or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence...
November 22, 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887668/meddling-with-middle-modalities-a-decomposition-approach-to-mental-health-inequalities-between-intersectional-gender-and-economic-middle-groups-in-northern-sweden
#11
Per E Gustafsson, Miguel San Sebastián, Paola A Mosquera
BACKGROUND: Intersectionality has received increased interest within population health research in recent years, as a concept and framework to understand entangled dimensions of health inequalities, such as gender and socioeconomic inequalities in health. However, little attention has been paid to the intersectional middle groups, referring to those occupying positions of mixed advantage and disadvantage. OBJECTIVE: This article aimed to 1) examine mental health inequalities between intersectional groups reflecting structural positions of gender and economic affluence and 2) decompose any observed health inequalities, among middle groups, into contributions from experiences and conditions representing processes of privilege and oppression...
2016: Global Health Action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886098/is-green-exercise-for-all-a-descriptive-study-of-green-exercise-habits-and-promoting-factors-in-adult-norwegians
#12
Giovanna Calogiuri, Grete G Patil, Geir Aamodt
Background: Physical activity (PA) in natural environments, known as green exercise (GE), can provide health benefits above and beyond PA in other environments, but little is known about the extent to which GE is an accessible form of weekly PA across different social groups. This study aims to examine the "GE phenomenon" in Norway, and evaluate possible differences in GE habits and perceived factors that promote GE across sub-groups of this population. Methods: 2168 adults from all over Norway reported weekly GE and other forms of PA, specific forms of GE, and perceived factors that promote GE...
November 23, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885169/children-s-exposure-to-secondhand-smoke-at-home-before-and-after-smoke-free-legislation-in-taiwan
#13
Ying-Ting Wang, Yi-Wen Tsai, Tzu-I Tsai, Po-Yin Chang
INTRODUCTION: In January 2009, Taiwan broadened smoke-free legislation, requiring mass transportation systems, indoor public areas and indoor workplaces with 3 or more people, to become smoke-free. We investigated the secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure at home for children aged 3-11 years in Taiwan before and after the implantation of the legislation. METHODS: We studied 7911 children from the 2005, 2009 and 2013 National Health Interview Surveys (cross-sectional, nationally representative household surveys)...
November 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885168/educational-and-wealth-inequalities-in-tobacco-use-among-men-and-women-in-54-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#14
Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy, Sam Harper, Linda Ernstsen
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic differentials of tobacco smoking in high-income countries are well described. However, studies to support health policies and place monitoring systems to tackle socioeconomic inequalities in smoking and smokeless tobacco use common in low-and-middle-income countries (LMICs) are seldom reported. We aimed to describe, sex-wise, educational and wealth-related inequalities in tobacco use in LMICs. METHODS: We analysed Demographic and Health Survey data on tobacco use collected from large nationally representative samples of men and women in 54 LMICs...
November 24, 2016: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881892/income-inequality-income-and-internet-searches-for-status-goods-a-cross-national-study-of-the-association-between-inequality-and-well-being
#15
Lukasz Walasek, Gordon D A Brown
Is there a positive association between a nation's income inequality and concerns with status competition within that nation? Here we use Google Correlate and Google Trends to examine frequency of internet search terms and find that people in countries in which income inequality is high search relatively more frequently for positional brand names such as Prada, Louis Vuitton, or Chanel. This tendency is stronger among well-developed countries. We find no evidence that income alone is associated with searches for positional goods...
2016: Social Indicators Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878713/exit-from-catastrophic-health-payments-a-method-and-an-application-to-malawi
#16
Richard Mussa
This paper proposes three measures of average exit time from catastrophic health payments; the first measure is non-normative in that the weights placed on catastrophic payments incurred by poor and nonpoor households are the same. It ignores the fact that the opportunity cost of health spending is different between poor and nonpoor households. The other two measures allow for distribution sensitivity but differ in their conceptualization of inequality; one is based on socioeconomic inequalities in catastrophic health payments, and the other uses pure inequalities in catastrophic health payments...
June 2016: Int J Health Econ Manag
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870306/health-disparities-by-income-in-spain-before-and-after-the-economic-crisis
#17
Max Coveney, Pilar García-Gómez, Eddy Van Doorslaer, Tom Van Ourti
Little is known about how health disparities by income change during times of economic crisis. We apply a decomposition method to unravel the contributions of income growth, income inequality and differential income mobility across socio-demographic groups to changes in health disparities by income in Spain using longitudinal data from the Survey of Income and Living Conditions for the period 2004-2012. We find a modest rise in health inequality by income in Spain in the 5 years of economic growth prior to the start of the crisis in 2008, but a sharp fall after 2008...
November 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870297/household-financial-distress-and-initial-endowments-evidence-from-the-2008-financial-crisis
#18
Arna Olafsson
This paper studies in utero exposure to the 2008 financial crisis. Exploiting the sudden and unexpected collapse of the Icelandic economy, I find that first-trimester exposure to the crisis led to a sizable and significant reduction in birth weight, increased the probability of a low birth weight ( < 2500 g), and decreased the probability of a high birth weight ( > 4000 g). I also find evidence that the collapse reduced the sex ratio, indicating selection in utero due to maternal prenatal stress exposure...
November 2016: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863929/global-trends-in-adolescent-fertility-1990-2012-in-relation-to-national-wealth-income-inequalities-and-educational-expenditures
#19
John S Santelli, Xiaoyu Song, Samantha Garbers, Vinit Sharma, Russell M Viner
PURPOSE: National wealth, income inequalities, and expenditures on education can profoundly influence the health of a nation's women, children, and adolescents. We explored the association of trends in national socioeconomic status (SES) indicators with trends in adolescent birth rates (ABRs), by nation and region. METHODS: An ecologic research design was employed using national-level data from the World Bank on birth rates per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years, national wealth (per capita gross domestic product or GDP), income inequality (Gini index), and expenditures on education as a percentage of GDP (EduExp)...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863508/the-effects-of-mch-insurance-cards-on-improving-equity-in-access-and-use-of-maternal-and-child-health-care-services-in-tanzania-a-mixed-methods-analysis
#20
August Kuwawenaruwa, Gemini Mtei, Jitihada Baraka, Kassimu Tani
BACKGROUND: Inequity in access and use of child and maternal health services is impeding progress towards reduction of maternal mortality in low-income countries. To address low usage of maternal and newborn health care services as well as financial protection of families, some countries have adopted demand-side financing. In 2010, Tanzania introduced free health insurance cards to pregnant women and their families to influence access, use, and provision of health services. However, little is known about whether the use of the maternal and child health cards improved equity in access and use of maternal and child health care services...
November 18, 2016: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
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