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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738213/determinants-of-the-magnitude-of-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-mortality-a-study-of-17-european-countries
#1
Johan P Mackenbach, Matthias Bopp, Patrick Deboosere, Katalin Kovacs, Mall Leinsalu, Pekka Martikainen, Gwenn Menvielle, Enrique Regidor, Rianne de Gelder
The magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in mortality differs importantly between countries, but these variations have not been satisfactorily explained. We explored the role of behavioral and structural determinants of these variations, by using a dataset covering 17 European countries in the period 1970-2010, and by conducting multilevel multivariate regression analyses. Our results suggest that between-country variations in inequalities in current mortality can partly be understood from variations in inequalities in smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and poverty...
July 21, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736609/shifting-livelihood-strategies-in-northern-nigeria-extensified-production-and-livelihood-diversification-amongst-fulani-pastoralists
#2
Ayodele O Majekodunmi, Charles Dongkum, Tok Langs, Alexandra P M Shaw, Susan C Welburn
This paper presents an in-depth investigation of the livelihood strategies of Fulani pastoralists in north central Nigeria. Results show a diversified crop-livestock system aimed at spreading risk and reducing cattle offtake, adapted to natural resource competition and insecurity by extensification, with further diversification into off-farm activities to spread risk, increase livelihood security and capture opportunities. However, significant costs were associated with extensification, and integration of crop and livestock enterprises was limited...
2017: Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735455/examining-the-role-of-income-inequality-and-neighborhood-walkability-on-obesity-and-physical-activity-among-low-income-hispanic-adults
#3
Samuel D Towne, Michael L Lopez, Yajuan Li, Matthew Lee Smith, Judith L Warren, Alexandra E Evans, Marcia G Ory
Obesity is a major public health issue affecting rising medical costs and contributing to morbidity and premature mortality. We aimed to identify factors that may play a role in obesity and physical activity at the individual and environmental/neighborhood levels. We analyzed data from an adult sample who were parents of students enrolled in a school-based health and wellness program. The sample was restricted to those who were Hispanic and whose children were on free/reduced lunch (n = 377). Dependent variables: body mass index (BMI); neighborhood walkability...
July 22, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734013/cervical-cancer-in-africa-latin-america-and-the-caribbean-and-asia-regional-inequalities-and-changing-trends
#4
S Vaccarella, M Laversanne, J Ferlay, F Bray
The vast majority (86% or 453,000 cases) of the global burden of cervical cancer occurs in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Asia, where one in nine new cancer cases are of the cervix. Although the disease has become rare in high-resource settings (e.g. in North America, parts of Europe, Japan) that have historically invested in effective screening programmes, the patterns and trends are variable elsewhere. While favourable incidence trends have been recorded in many populations in Asia and Latin America and the Caribbean in the past decades, rising rates have been observed in sub-Saharan African countries, where high quality incidence series are available...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729310/socioeconomic-inequalities-in-caries-experience-care-level-and-dental-attendance-in-primary-school-children-in-belgium-a-cross-sectional-survey
#5
Martijn J Lambert, Jacques S N Vanobbergen, Luc C Martens, Luc M J De Visschere
OBJECTIVES: Oral health inequality in children is a widespread and well-documented problem in oral healthcare. However, objective and reliable methods to determine these inequalities in all oral health aspects, including both dental attendance and oral health, are rather scarce. AIMS: To explore oral health inequalities and to assess the impact of socioeconomic factors on oral health, oral health behaviour and dental compliance of primary school children. METHODS: Data collection was executed in 2014 within a sample of 2216 children in 105 primary schools in Flanders, by means of an oral examination and a validated questionnaire...
July 20, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728550/exploring-status-and-determinants-of-prenatal-and-postnatal-visits-in-western-china-in-the-background-of-the-new-health-system-reform
#6
Xiaojing Fan, Zhongliang Zhou, Shaonong Dang, Yongjian Xu, Jianmin Gao, Zhiying Zhou, Min Su, Dan Wang, Gang Chen
BACKGROUND: Prenatal and postnatal visits are two effective interventions for protection and promotion of maternal health by reducing maternal mortality and improving the quality of birth. There is limited nationally representative data regarding the changes of prenatal and postnatal visits since the latest health system reform initiated in 2009 in Shaanxi, China. The aim of this study was to explore the current status and determinants of prenatal and postnatal visits in the background of new health system reform...
July 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728347/pros-and-cons-of-health-transformation-program-in-iran-evidence-from-financial-outcomes-at-household-level
#7
Enayatollah Homaie Rad, Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi, Shahrokh Yousefzadeh-Chabok, Abolhasan Afkar, Ahmad Naghibzadeh Tahami
Purpose: Health transformation program (HTP) is one of the recent reforms in health system of Iran implemented in early 2014. Improving the equity of payments and reducing out of pocket (OOP) and catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) were some of the program's important goals. In this study these goals were evaluated using a before-after analysis. Methods: Household income and expenditures data of Guilan province were gathered for years 2013-2015. OOP payments for outpatient, inpatient and drug services were calculated and the results were compared using propensity score matching technique after adjustment of confounding variables...
July 18, 2017: Epidemiology and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724460/health-and-well-being-promotion-strategies-for-hard-to-reach-older-people-in-england-a-mapping-exercise
#8
Steve Iliffe, Kate Walters, Jill Manthorpe, Claire Goodman, Kalpa Kharicha
BACKGROUND: Older people from deprived areas, the oldest old and those from ethnic minorities engage less in health promotion interventions and related research, potentially generating inequities. Aim To explore and map the extent to which such 'hard to reach' groups of older people, are the focus of local health and well-being strategies in England. METHODS: Document analysis of current health and well-being promotion strategies in a purposive sample of 10 localities in England with high proportions of some or all of the three hard to reach groups...
July 20, 2017: Primary Health Care Research & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724451/why-do-societies-with-higher-average-cognitive-ability-have-lower-income-inequality-the-role-of-redistributive-policies
#9
Raufhon Salahodjaev, Satoshi Kanazawa
Past studies suggest that, across nations, the average cognitive ability of a population is negatively associated with income inequality; societies with higher average cognitive ability tend to have lower levels of income inequality. However, it is not clear why. This paper proposes that social transfers from the wealthy to the poor may be a major mechanism by which some societies achieve lower income inequality than others, because more intelligent individuals may be more likely to have a preference for such transfers...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724046/breast-cancer-screening-in-brazil-barriers-related-to-the-health-system
#10
René Aloisio da Costa Vieira, Alessandro Formenton, Silvia Regina Bertolini
Objective: Identify factors related to the health system that lead to a late diagnosis of breast cancer in Brazil. Method: We performed a systematic review in the PubMed and LILACS databases using as keywords "Breast cancer," "system of health" and "Brazil or Brasil." We evaluated the content of the articles using the PRISMA methodology based on PICTOS. The final date was 12/16/2015. We were able to identify 94 publications in PubMed and 43 publications in LILACS...
May 2017: Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721099/sociodemographic-characteristics-of-nonparticipants-in-the-danish-colorectal-cancer-screening-program-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#11
Mette Bach Larsen, Ellen M Mikkelsen, Morten Rasmussen, Lennart Friis-Hansen, Anders U Ovesen, Hans Bjarke Rahr, Berit Andersen
INTRODUCTION: Fecal occult blood tests are recommended for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in Europe. Recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT) has come into use. Sociodemographic differences between participants and nonparticipants may be less pronounced when using FIT as there are no preceding dietary restrictions and only one specimen is required. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and nonparticipation for both genders, with special emphasis on those who actively unsubscribe from the program...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720105/decomposing-the-causes-of-socioeconomic-related-health-inequality-among-urban-and-rural-populations-in-china-a-new-decomposition-approach
#12
Jiaoli Cai, Peter C Coyte, Hongzhong Zhao
BACKGROUND: In recent decades, China has experienced tremendous economic growth and also witnessed growing socioeconomic-related health inequality. The study aims to explore the potential causes of socioeconomic-related health inequality in urban and rural areas of China over the past two decades. METHODS: This study used six waves of the China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) from 1991 to 2006. The recentered influence function (RIF) regression decomposition method was employed to decompose socioeconomic-related health inequality in China...
July 18, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717769/end-of-life-care-in-latin-america
#13
REVIEW
Enrique Soto-Perez-de-Celis, Yanin Chavarri-Guerra, Tania Pastrana, Rossana Ruiz-Mendoza, Alexandra Bukowski, Paul E Goss
Cancer has become a global pandemic with disproportionately higher mortality rates in low- and middle- income countries, where a large fraction of patients present in advanced stages and in need of end-of-life care. Globally, the number of adults needing end-of-life care is greater than 19 million, and up to 78% of these patients are living in low- and middle- income countries. In the Americas alone, more than one million people are in need of end-of-life care, placing an enormous burden on local health systems, which are often unprepared to meet the challenge presented by this complex patient population...
June 2017: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717715/compulsory-licenses-for-cancer-drugs-does-circumventing-patent-rights-improve-access-to-oncology-medications
#14
REVIEW
Cinthia Leite Frizzera Borges Bognar, Brittany L Bychkovsky, Gilberto de Lima Lopes
Worldwide, there are enormous inequities in cancer control that cause poor outcomes among patients with cancer who live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). One of the biggest challenges that oncology faces today is how to increase patient access to expensive, but life-saving, therapies in LMICs. Access to cancer medications in LMICs is a major problem, especially in recent years, as the costs of these therapies continue to rise exponentially. One mechanism available to LMICs to improve access to cancer medications allows a country to pursue a compulsory license for a given drug...
October 2016: Journal of Global Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707564/time-trends-in-absolute-and-relative-socioeconomic-inequalities-in-leisure-time-physical-inactivity-in-northern-sweden
#15
Máté Szilcz, Paola A Mosquera, Miguel San Sebastián, Per E Gustafsson
AIMS: The aim was to investigate the time trends in educational, occupational, and income-related inequalities in leisure time physical inactivity in 2006, 2010, and 2014 in northern Swedish women and men. METHODS: This study was based on data obtained from the repeated cross-sectional Health on Equal Terms survey of 2006, 2010, and 2014. The analytical sample consisted of 20,667 (2006), 31,787 (2010), and 21,613 (2014) individuals, aged 16-84. Logistic regressions were used to model the probability of physical inactivity given a set of explanatory variables...
July 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706036/driving-improvements-in-emerging-disease-surveillance-through-locally-relevant-capacity-strengthening
#16
REVIEW
Jo E B Halliday, Katie Hampson, Nick Hanley, Tiziana Lembo, Joanne P Sharp, Daniel T Haydon, Sarah Cleaveland
Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) threaten the health of people, animals, and crops globally, but our ability to predict their occurrence is limited. Current public health capacity and ability to detect and respond to EIDs is typically weakest in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Many known drivers of EID emergence also converge in LMICs. Strengthening capacity for surveillance of diseases of relevance to local populations can provide a mechanism for building the cross-cutting and flexible capacities needed to tackle both the burden of existing diseases and EID threats...
July 14, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705364/political-democracy-economic-liberalization-and-macro-sociological-models-of-intergenerational-mobility
#17
Alexi Gugushvili
Building on the previously investigated macro-sociological models which analyze the consequences of economic development, income inequality, and international migration on social mobility, this article studies the specific contextual covariates of intergenerational reproduction of occupational status in post-communist societies. It is theorized that social mobility is higher in societies with democratic political regimes and less liberalized economies. The outlined hypotheses are tested by using micro- and macro-level datasets for 21 post-communist societies which are fitted into multilevel mixed-effects linear regressions...
August 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701208/expanding-co-payment-for-methadone-maintenance-services-in-vietnam-the-importance-of-addressing-health-and-socioeconomic-inequalities
#18
Bach Xuan Tran, Quyen Le Nguyen, Long Hoang Nguyen, Huong Thu Thi Phan, Huong Thi Le, Tho Dinh Tran, Thuc Thi Minh Vu, Carl A Latkin
BACKGROUND: Ensuring high enrollment while mobilizing resources through co-payment services is critical to the success of the methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) program in Vietnam. This study assessed the willingness of patients to pay (WTP) for different MMT services delivery models and determined its associated factors. METHODS: A facility based survey was conducted among 1016 MMT patients (98.7% male, 42% aged 35 or less, and 67% living with spouse) in five MMT clinics in Hanoi and Nam Dinh province in 2013...
July 12, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701151/mother-s-education-and-the-risk-of-several-neonatal-outcomes-an-evidence-from-an-italian-population-based-study
#19
Anna Cantarutti, Matteo Franchi, Matteo Monzio Compagnoni, Luca Merlino, Giovanni Corrao
BACKGROUND: Maternal socioeconomic disparities strongly affect child health, particularly in low and middle income countries. We assessed whether neonatal outcomes varied by maternal education in a setting where healthcare system provides universal coverage of health services to all women, irrespective of their socioeconomic status. METHODS: A population-based study was performed on 383,103 singleton live births occurring from 2005 to 2010 in Lombardy, an Italian region with approximately 10 million inhabitants...
July 12, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695631/extending-decomposition-analysis-to-account-for-unobserved-heterogeneity-and-persistence-in-health-behavior-income-related-smoking-inequality-among-swedish-women
#20
Gustav Kjellsson
This article suggests an enrichment of the standard method for decomposition of the concentration index to account for unobserved heterogeneity and persistence in health behavior. As the underlying regression model in the decomposition, this approach uses a dynamic random-effect probit that both consider individual heterogeneity, using a Mundlak type of specification, and applies a simple solution to account for smoking persistence. I illustrate the suggested approach using a panel of Swedish women in Statistics Sweden's Survey of Living Conditions for one vital health-related behavior, smoking...
July 10, 2017: Health Economics
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