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income inequality

Thomas M Drake, Stephen R Knight, Ewen M Harrison, Kjetil Søreide
Precision medicine based upon molecular testing is heralded as a revolution in how cancer is prevented, diagnosed, and treated. Large efforts across the world aim to conduct comprehensive molecular profiling of disease to inform preclinical models, translational research studies and clinical trials. However, most studies have only been performed in patients from high-income countries. As the burden on non-communicable diseases increases, cancer will become a pressing burden across the world, disproportionately affecting low-middle income settings...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Eduardo Cazap
In the next few decades, breast cancer will become a leading global public health problem as it increases disproportionately in low- and middle-income countries. Disparities are clear when comparisons are made with rates in Europe and the United States, but they also exist between the countries of the region or even within the same country in Latin America. Large cities or urban areas have better access and resource availability than small towns or remote zones. This article presents the status of the disease across 12 years with data obtained through three studies performed in 2006, 2010, and 2013 and based on surveys, reviews of literature, patient organizations, and public databases...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Mouctar Sow, Myriam De Spiegelaere, Marie-France Raynault
INTRODUCTION: Assessing the effects of social policies on social health inequalities (SHIs) is a complex issue. Variations in social policy between countries or regions provide natural experiments in policy implementation to perform comparative research. Comparisons are most enlightening when: the object of the evaluation is well defined (types of policies, population groups); the context of policy is analysed (history, implementation); the impact of policy on household poverty is outlined in detail; the influence of various factors (other than poverty) on SHI is taken into consideration...
September 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Nathan C Nickel, Janelle Boram Lee, Joanne Chateau, Michael Paillé
In 2017, the Commonwealth Fund released a report evaluating 11 countries' healthcare systems on a variety of domains; one of these domains was health equity. Canada's score on health equity placed it among the bottom three countries. This article applies a conceptual framework for health equity developed by the World Health Organization's Commission on the Social Determinants of Health to reflect upon and discuss mechanisms that may help to explain Canada's low score. We discuss the role that two societal-level constructs-income inequality and structural racism-play in shaping population health and health equity...
September 17, 2018: Healthcare Management Forum
Yu Hu, Hui Liang, Ying Wang, Yaping Chen
Objective : The objectives of this study were to determine the degree and risk factors of the inequity in the childhood coverage of full primary immunization (FPI) in Zhejiang province. Method : We used data from two rounds of vaccination coverage surveys among children aged 24⁻35 months conducted in 2014 and 2017, respectively. The household income per month was used as an index of socioeconomic status for the inequality analysis. The concentration index (CI) was used to quantify the degree of inequality, and the decomposition approach was applied to quantify the contributions from demographic factors to inequality in the coverage of FPI...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Elsa Jacquet, Sarah Robert, Pierre Chauvin, Gwenn Menvielle, Maria Melchior, Gladys Ibanez
The present study aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in general and mental health, depression and substance use disorders (daily tobacco use, hazardous alcohol use). Data from the 2010 SIRS (French acronym for Health, Inequalities, and Social Ruptures) study, which is deemed to be representative of the French-speaking adult population living in the Paris Metropolitan Area, were analysed. Different socioeconomic position indicators were selected: education, income and perceived financial status. Absolute measures (the slope index of inequality (SII)) and relative measures (the odds ratio (OR) and relative index of inequality (RII)) of health inequalities were used...
2018: PloS One
Gary Ka-Ki Chung, Roger Yat-Nork Chung, Dicken Cheong-Chun Chan, Francisco Tsz-Tsun Lai, Hung Wong, Maggie Ka-Wai Lau, Samuel Yeung-Shan Wong, Eng-Kiong Yeoh
Background: Individual-level deprivation takes into account the non-monetary aspects of poverty that neither income poverty nor socio-economic factors could fully capture; however, it has rarely been considered in existing studies on social inequality in obesity. Therefore, we examined the associations of deprivation, beyond income poverty, with both general and abdominal obesity. Methods: A territory-wide two-stage stratified random sample of 2282 community-dwelling Hong Kong adults was surveyed via face-to-face household interviews between 2014 and 2015...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Susan Andersen, Morten Hulvej Rod, Teresa Holmberg, Liselotte Ingholt, Annette Kjær Ersbøll, Janne Schurmann Tolstrup
BACKGROUND: Lack of formal education is an important social determinant of health inequality and represents a public health problem. School dropout is particularly common in vocational education; however few prevention programs targeting dropout in the vocational school setting have been evaluated. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect on school dropout of a settings-based intervention program (named Shaping the Social) that targeted the school organization in order to create social and supportive learning environments...
September 12, 2018: BMC Psychology
Hosung Shin, Eunsuk Ahn
The aim of the present study was to assess the regional deprivation and individual factors that influence how far a person will travel to access dental care. Using data from the Korea Health Panel (2008 to 2011), we selected a group of 4,256 subjects and geocoded their homes and dental hospitals/clinics. Using the road network analysis, we calculated the distance traveled by the subjects for dental care. We used the generalized estimating equation (GEE) for repeated data analysis and included an interaction term between regional deprivation and individual income to determine the effects of the two factors on the choice of a dental hospital/clinic...
2018: PloS One
Kerith J Conron, Shoshana K Goldberg, Carolyn T Halpern
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is a fundamental contributor to health; however, limited research has examined sexual orientation differences in SES. METHODS: 2008-2009 data from 14 051 participants (ages 24-32 years) in the US-based, representative, National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health were analysed using multivariable regressions that adjusted for age, race-ethnicity, childhood SES, urbanicity and Census region, separately for females and males...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
N M Ja, J S Tiffany
The benefits of positive parent-adolescent relationships and effective communication on sexual risk have been demonstrated among minority parents and teenagers. However, there is need for illuminating how structural inequalities, such as economic disadvantage and being an ethnic/racial minority, shape parents' approaches to adolescent sexuality. Schalet's cultural framework describes White middle-income Dutch parents' 'normalization' (i.e. support for self-regulated sexuality, healthy relationships and normalization of teenage sexuality) versus White middle-income American parents' 'dramatization' (i...
October 1, 2018: Health Education Research
Eun Young Lee, Yoon Young Lee, Mina Suh, Eunji Choi, Tran Thi Xuan Mai, Hyunsoon Cho, Boyoung Park, Jae Kwan Jun, Yeol Kim, Jin Kyung Oh, Moran Ki, Kui Son Choi
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate socioeconomic inequalities in stomach cancer screening in Korea and trends therein across income and education groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data from the Korean National Cancer Screening Survey, a nationwide cross-sectional survey, were utilized. A total of 28913 men and women aged 40 to 74 years were included for analysis. Prior experience with stomach cancer screening was defined as having undergone either an endoscopy or gastrointestinal series within the past two years...
October 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Yunhwan Kim, Curt Hagquist
Increasing inequality in many societies highlights the importance of paying attention to differences in mental health between the economically disadvantaged adolescents and the non-disadvantaged adolescents. Also important is to understand how changing inequality in society over time influences adolescents' mental health at the population- and individual-level. The current study examined to what extent increased societal-level income inequality over time, individual-level experiences of economic disadvantage and the cross-level interaction between the two explained Swedish adolescents' mental health problems from 1995 to 2011...
December 2018: SSM—Population Health
Joseph L Ward, Russell M Viner
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if socioeconomic gradients in health reduce during adolescence (the equalisation hypothesis) in four low-income and middle-income countries (LMIC). SETTING: Analysis of the Young Lives Study cohorts in Ethiopia, Peru, Vietnam and India. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 3395 participants (across the four cohorts) aged 6-10 years at enrolment and followed up for 11 years. OUTCOMES MEASURED: Change in income-related health inequalities from mid-childhood to late adolescence...
September 5, 2018: BMJ Open
Ruo Zhang, Shanshan Li, Chao Li, Doudou Zhao, Leqian Guo, Pengfei Qu, Danmeng Liu, Shaonong Dang, Hong Yan
Prenatal health care interventions are effective ways to improve maternal and neonatal health. There have been few large investigations conducted on the inequalities in maternal health services utilization in Shaanxi Province of west China since the health care reform in 2009. This study examined the inequalities and determinants of maternal health services utilization in Shaanxi Province. A household survey was conducted from August to November in 2013. By using a multistage sampling method, local women aged 15-49 who had given birth in the preceding three years were recruited...
2018: PloS One
P Zilla, R M Bolman, M H Yacoub, F Beyersdorf, K Sliwa, L Zühlke, R S D Higgins, B Mayosi, A Carpentier, D Williams
Twelve years after cardiologists and cardiac surgeons from all over the world issued the 'Drakensberg Declaration on the Control of Rheumatic Fever and Rheumatic Heart Disease in Africa', calling on the world community to address the prevention and treatment of rheumatic heart disease (RHD) through improving living conditions, to develop pilot programmes at selected sites for control of rheumatic fever and RHD, and to periodically review progress made and challenges that remain, RHD still accounts for a major proportion of cardiovascular diseases in children and young adults in low- and middle-income countries, where more than 80% of the world population live...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Raaj Kishore Biswas, Enamul Kabir, Hafiz T A Khan
RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Bangladesh is an underdeveloped country that has recently joined the ranks of low-middle-income countries. This study aims to investigate how socioeconomic and developmental factors have influenced women towards a shift in their body mass index (BMI). METHODS: The trend was analysed using data on ever-married women from 6 nationwide surveys covering the years 1996 to 2014, conducted by the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS)...
September 4, 2018: Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice
Mariam Otmani Del Barrio, Frédéric Simard, Andrea Caprara
BACKGROUND: More than half of the world's population currently lives in urban settlements that grow both in size and number. By 2050, approximately 70% of the global population will be living in urban conglomerations, mainly in low- and middle-income countries. Mobility, poverty, different layers of inequalities as well as climate variability and change are some of the social and environmental factors that influence the exposure of human populations in urban settings to vector-borne diseases, which pose eminent public health threats...
September 3, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Hemant Deepak Shewade, Vivek Gupta, Srinath Satyanarayana, Atul Kharate, K N Sahai, Lakshmi Murali, Sanjeev Kamble, Madhav Deshpande, Naresh Kumar, Sunil Kumar, Prabhat Pandey, U N Bajpai, Jaya Prasad Tripathy, Soundappan Kathirvel, Sripriya Pandurangan, Subrat Mohanty, Vaibhav Haribhau Ghule, Karuna D Sagili, Banuru Muralidhara Prasad, Sudhi Nath, Priyanka Singh, Kamlesh Singh, Ramesh Singh, Gurukartick Jayaraman, P Rajeswaran, Binod Kumar Srivastava, Moumita Biswas, Gayadhar Mallick, Om Prakash Bera, A James Jeyakumar Jaisingh, Ali Jafar Naqvi, Prafulla Verma, Mohammed Salauddin Ansari, Prafulla C Mishra, G Sumesh, Sanjeeb Barik, Vijesh Mathew, Manas Ranjan Singh Lohar, Chandrashekhar S Gaurkhede, Ganesh Parate, Sharifa Yasin Bale, Ishwar Koli, Ashwin Kumar Bharadwaj, G Venkatraman, K Sathiyanarayanan, Jinesh Lal, Ashwini Kumar Sharma, Raghuram Rao, Ajay M V Kumar, Sarabjit Singh Chadha
BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence on whether active case finding (ACF) among marginalised and vulnerable populations mitigates the financial burden during tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of ACF among marginalised and vulnerable populations on prevalence and inequity of catastrophic costs due to TB diagnosis among TB-affected households when compared with passive case finding (PCF). METHODS: In 18 randomly sampled ACF districts in India, during March 2016 to February 2017, we enrolled all new sputum-smear-positive TB patients detected through ACF and an equal number of randomly selected patients detected through PCF...
2018: Global Health Action
Martha Jane Paynter, Lisa Goldberg
OBJECTIVE: Driven by a growing body of research demonstrating the health benefits of human milk over substitute feeding preparations, the demand for human milk donations in North America is rapidly increasing. In the context of an increasingly institutionalized and commercialized human milk market, informal peer-to-peer milk sharing networks are commonplace. Race, class, gender and sexual orientation are intersecting aspects of identity and power that influence participation in breastfeeding and the domain of milk exchange...
August 22, 2018: Midwifery
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