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Metal plant biotic stress

Bharat Singh, Pooran M Sahu, Ram A Sharma
The flavonoids are the largest group of phenolic compounds isolated from a wide range of higher plants. These compounds work as antimicrobials, anti-insect agents and protect plants from other types of biotic and abiotic stresses. Various researchers have suggested that flavonoids possessed antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities. The main objective of this study was to test dichloromethane fraction of resinous exudate of Heliotropium subulatum for their antioxidant, antineoplastic and cytotoxic activities, as well as to search new antioxidant and antineoplastic agents for pharmaceutical formulations...
November 30, 2016: Cytotechnology
Bedabrata Saha, Gennadii Borovskii, Sanjib Kumar Panda
Alternative oxidase (AOX) is one of the terminal oxidases of the plant mitochondrial electron transport chain. AOX acts as a means to relax the highly coupled and tensed electron transport process in mitochondria thus providing and maintaining the much needed metabolic homeostasis by directly reducing oxygen to water. In the process AOX also act as facilitator for signalling molecules conveying the metabolic status of mitochondria to the nucleus and thus able to influence nuclear gene expression. Since AOX indirectly, is able to control the synthesis of important signalling molecules like hydrogen peroxide, superoxide, nitric oxide, thus it is also helping in stress signalling...
November 10, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Chandrashekhar Patil, Rahul Suryawanshi, Sunil Koli, Satish Patil
Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase (ACCD) producing microorganisms support plant growth under a variety of biotic and abiotic stress conditions such as drought, soil salinity, flooding, heavy metal pollution and phyto-pathogen attack. Available screening methods for ACCD give idea only about its primary microbial ACCD activity than the actual potential. In the present investigation, we have simply improved screening method by incorporating pH indicator dyes (phenol red and bromothymol blue) in ACC containing medium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Berta Gallego, Soledad Martos, Catalina Cabot, Juan Barceló, Charlotte Poschenrieder
The hypothesis of metal defense as a substitute for a defective biotic stress signaling system in metal hyperaccumulators was tested using the pathosystem Alternaria brassicicola - Noccaea caerulescens under low (2 μM), medium (12 μM), and high (102 μM) Zn supply. Regardless the Zn supply, N. caerulescens responded to fungal attack with the activation of both HMA4 coding for a Zn transporter, and biotic stress signaling pathways. Salicylate, jasmonate, abscisic acid, and indoleacetic acid concentrations, as well as biotic stress marker genes (PDF1...
October 13, 2016: Physiologia Plantarum
Muhammad Imtiaz, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Muhammad Adnan Mushtaq, Muhammad Ashraf, Sher Muhammad Shahzad, Balal Yousaf, Dawood Anser Saeed, Muhammad Rizwan, Muhammad Azher Nawaz, Sajid Mehmood, Shuxin Tu
Recently, heavy metals pollution due to industrialization and urbanization, use of untreated wastewater and unreasonable use of pesticides and fertilizers is increasing rapidly, resulting in major threat to the environment and contaminate soils. Silicon (Si) is the second most abundant element in the earth crust after oxygen. Although it's higher accumulation in plants, yet Si has not been listed as essential nutrient however, considered as beneficial element for growth of plants particularly in stressed environment...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Mei Zhang, Hui Mo, Wen Sun, Yan Guo, Jing Li
Heavy metal pollution is a major limiting factor that severely affects plant growth worldwide, and the accumulation of heavy metal in the plant may be hazardous to human health. To identify the processes involved in cadmium detoxification, we constructed a cDNA library of tobacco roots acclimated to cadmium (Cd) stress. According to the results of functional screening cDNA library with a yeast Cd-sensitive mutant, ycf1Δ, we obtained a series of candidate genes that were involved in Cd response. Sequence analysis and yeast functional complementation of 24 positive cDNA clones revealed that, in addition to antioxidant genes, genes implicated in abiotic and biotic stress defenses, cellular metabolism, and signal transduction showed Cd detoxification effects in yeast...
2016: PloS One
Manuel González-Guerrero, Viviana Escudero, Ángela Saéz, Manuel Tejada-Jiménez
Transition metals such as iron, copper, zinc, or molybdenum are essential nutrients for plants. These elements are involved in almost every biological process, including photosynthesis, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stress, or symbiotic nitrogen fixation. However, plants often grow in soils with limiting metallic oligonutrient bioavailability. Consequently, to ensure the proper metal levels, plants have developed a complex metal uptake and distribution system, that not only involves the plant itself, but also its associated microorganisms...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
N Mishra, S S Khan, S Krishna Sundari
Species of Trichoderma are widely recognized for their biocontrol abilities, but seldom studied collectively, for their plant growth promotion, abiotic stress tolerance and bioremediation properties. Our study is a concentrated effort to establish the potential of native isolate Trichoderma harzianum KSNM (T103) to tolerate biotic (root pathogens) and abiotic stresses [high salt (100-1000 mM); heavy metal (chromium, nickel and zinc: 1-10 mM); pesticides: malathion (100-600 ppm), carbofuran (100-600 ppb)], along with its ability to support plant growth...
August 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Nita Lakra, Pushpa C Tomar, S N Mishra
Plants, in general, are put to various kinds of stress, biotic and abiotic, both natural and manmade. Infestation by insect pests and diseases, and extreme conditions such as salinity, temperature, etc., as well as heavy metal contamination affect their growth performance. Here, we studied the impact of salinity and heavy metal pollution on the growth performance of Indian Mustard Brassica juncea L. and its amelioration by the diamine, putrescine, a known media supplement. We evaluated the putrescine (Put) modulation potential on multiple stress effect in 7-day old Indian mustard...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Laxminath Tumburu, Christian P Andersen, Paul T Rygiewicz, Jay R Reichman
Changes in tissue transcriptomes and productivity of Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated during exposure of plants to two widely used engineered metal oxide nanoparticles, titanium dioxide (nano-titanium) and cerium dioxide (nano-cerium). Microarray analyses confirmed that exposure to either nanoparticle altered the transcriptomes of rosette leaves and roots, with comparatively larger numbers of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) found under nano-titania exposure. Nano-titania induced more DEGs in rosette leaves, whereas roots had more DEGs under nano-ceria exposure...
May 22, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Khabat Vahabi, Sedigheh Karimi Dorcheh, Shamci Monajembashi, Martin Westermann, Michael Reichelt, Daniela Falkenberg, Peter Hemmerich, Irena Sherameti, Ralf Oelmüller
The endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica colonizes Arabidopsis thaliana roots and promotes plant performance, growth and resistance/tolerance against abiotic and biotic stress. Here we demonstrate that the benefits for the plant increase when the two partners are co-cultivated under stress (limited access to nutrient, exposure to heavy metals and salt, light and osmotic stress, pathogen infection). Moreover, physical contact between P. indica and Arabidopsis roots is necessary for optimal growth promotion, and chemical communication cannot replace the physical contact...
May 3, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Gea Guerriero, Jean-Francois Hausman, Sylvain Legay
Silicon (Si) is one of the most abundant elements on earth. Although not considered essential for the growth and development of higher plants, it is nonetheless known to increase vigor and to play protective roles. Its protective effects include for instance alleviation of (a)biotic stress damages and heavy metal toxicity. Si was shown to interact with several components of the plant cell walls in the form of silica (SiO2). In plants SiO2 promotes strengthening of the cell walls and provides increased mechanical support to the aerial parts...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hala M Abdelmigid
With the extent of contamination in water and soil today, possibility of presence of toxic heavy metals in plants in everyday life can not be ruled out. In this context, understanding the influence of exogenenous factors on such plants gains importance. Here, we investigated expression of metallothioneins genes MT1 and MT2 in Rape Brassica napus L. as representatives of MT gene type 1, type 2 (BnMT1 and BnMT2), respectively to explore such influence, if there any. Seedlings of 7-day-old were exposed to various exogenous factors including plant hormones, heavy metals, abiotic and biotic stresses...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Experimental Biology
Chandana Pandey, Ehasanullah Khan, Medha Panthri, Rudra Deo Tripathi, Meetu Gupta
Arsenic (As) is an emerging pollutant causing inhibition in growth and development of plants resulting into phytotoxicity. On the other hand, silicon (Si) has been suggested as a modulator in abiotic and biotic stresses that, enhances plant's physiological adaptations in response to several stresses including heavy metal stress. In this study, we used roots of hydroponically grown 14 day old seedlings of Brassica juncea var. Varuna treated with 150 μM As, 1.5 mM Si and both in combination for 96 h duration...
July 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jun-ling Wang, Tao Li, Gao-yuan Liu, Joshua M Smith, Zhi-wei Zhao
A growing body of evidence suggests that plant root-associated fungi such as dark septate endophytes (DSE) can help plants overcome many biotic and abiotic stresses, of great interest is DSE-plant metal tolerance and alleviation capabilities on contaminated soils. However, the tolerance and alleviation mechanisms involved have not yet been elucidated. In the current study, the regulation and physiological response of Zea mays to its root-associated DSE, Exophiala pisciphila was analyzed under increased soil Cd stress (0, 10, 50, 100 mg kg(-1))...
2016: Scientific Reports
Vivek Kumar Gupta, Shweta Singh, Anju Agrawal, Nikhat Jamal Siddiqi, Bechan Sharma
Almost all the environmental components including both the abiotic and biotic factors have been consistently threatened by excessive contamination of heavy metals continuously released from various sources. Different heavy metals have been reported to generate adverse effects in many ways. Heavy metals induced neurotoxicity and impairment in signalling cascade leading to cell death (apoptosis) has been indicated by several workers. On one hand, these metals are required by the cellular systems to regulate various biological functions of normal cells, while on the other their biomagnification in the cellular systems produces adverse effects...
2015: Biochemistry Research International
Amardeep S Virdi, Supreet Singh, Prabhjeet Singh
Intracellular changes in calcium ions (Ca(2+)) in response to different biotic and abiotic stimuli are detected by various sensor proteins in the plant cell. Calmodulin (CaM) is one of the most extensively studied Ca(2+)-sensing proteins and has been shown to be involved in transduction of Ca(2+) signals. After interacting with Ca(2+), CaM undergoes conformational change and influences the activities of a diverse range of CaM-binding proteins. A number of CaM-binding proteins have also been implicated in stress responses in plants, highlighting the central role played by CaM in adaptation to adverse environmental conditions...
2015: Frontiers in Plant Science
Mansuck Kim, Huan Zhang, Charles Woloshuk, Won-Bo Shim, Byung-Jun Yoon
BACKGROUND: Maize, a crop of global significance, is vulnerable to a variety of biotic stresses resulting in economic losses. Fusarium verticillioides (teleomorph Gibberella moniliformis) is one of the key fungal pathogens of maize, causing ear rots and stalk rots. To better understand the genetic mechanisms involved in maize defense as well as F. verticillioides virulence, a systematic investigation of the host-pathogen interaction is needed. The aim of this study was to computationally identify potential maize subnetwork modules associated with its defense response against F...
2015: BMC Bioinformatics
Xiaobo Wang, Haowei Zhang, Yali Gao, Wenming Zhang
BACKGROUND: Superoxide dismutase (SOD) plays an important role in antioxidant defense in nearly all cells, and is speculated to be closely related to plant resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought, salt, heavy metal and pathogen attack. However, little is known about the effects of SOD activity and its isoenzymes on low nitrogen stress tolerance and its effects on adaptability of plants to nitrogen limitation. RESULTS: Ten SOD isoenzymes were identified in soybean root, stem, leaf and mature seed, and were classified into three families (α...
June 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Marek Vaculík, Andrej Pavlovič, Alexander Lux
Silicon was shown to alleviate the negative effects of various biotic and abiotic stresses on plant growth. Although the positive role of Si on toxic and heavy metal Cd has been already described, the mechanisms have been explained only partially and still remain unclear. In the present study we investigated the effect of Si on photosynthetic-related processes in maize exposed to two different levels of Cd via measurements of net photosynthetic rate (AN), chlorophyll a fluorescence and pigment analysis, as well as studies of leaf tissue anatomy and cell ultrastructure using bright-field and transmission electron microscopy...
October 2015: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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