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Metal plant defense

Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
March 3, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Siddhi K Jalmi, Prakash K Bhagat, Deepanjali Verma, Stanzin Noryang, Sumaira Tayyeba, Kirti Singh, Deepika Sharma, Alok K Sinha
Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ewa Muszyńska, Ewa Hanus-Fajerska, Krystyna Ciarkowska
The approach based on metallophytes during reclamation of grounds contaminated with heavy metals is still sparse. Thus, we investigated the response of D. carthusianorum calamine ecotype to Pb and Cd stress. We focused on in vitro selection of tolerant plant material appropriated to direct use on chemically degraded areas. Shoot cultures were treated with various concentration of Pb or Cd ions. Plantlets status was estimated on the basis of micropropagation efficiency, growth tolerance index (GTI) and physiological analysis...
February 16, 2018: Plant Biology
Essa Ali, Nazim Hussain, Imran Haider Shamsi, Zahra Jabeen, Muzammil Hussain Siddiqui, Li-Xi Jiang
The well-known detrimental effects of cadmium (Cd) on plants are chloroplast destruction, photosynthetic pigment inhibition, imbalance of essential plant nutrients, and membrane damage. Jasmonic acid (JA) is an alleviator against different stresses such as salinity and drought. However, the functional attributes of JA in plants such as the interactive effects of JA application and Cd on rapeseed in response to heavy metal stress remain unclear. JA at 50 µmol/L was observed in literature to have senescence effects in plants...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Maria De Benedictis, Cecilia Brunetti, Elizabeth K Brauer, Andrea Andreucci, Sorina C Popescu, Mauro Commisso, Flavia Guzzo, Adriano Sofo, Monica Ruffini Castiglione, Olena K Vatamaniuk, Luigi Sanità di Toppi
The enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS) has long been studied with regard to its role in metal(loid) detoxification in several organisms, i.e., plants, yeasts, and nematodes. It is in fact widely recognized that PCS detoxifies a number of heavy metals by catalyzing the formation of thiol-rich oligomers, namely phytochelatins, from glutathione and related peptides. However, recent investigations have highlighted other possible roles played by the PCS enzyme in the plant cell, e.g., the control of pathogen-triggered callose deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hugo Aragunde, Xevi Biarnés, Antoni Planas
Carbohydrate esterases family 4 (CE4 enzymes) includes chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases, acetylxylan esterases, and poly-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases that act on structural polysaccharides, altering their physicochemical properties, and participating in diverse biological functions. Chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases are not only involved in cell wall morphogenesis and remodeling in fungi and bacteria, but they are also used by pathogenic microorganisms to evade host defense mechanisms. Likewise, biofilm formation in bacteria requires partial deacetylation of extracellular polysaccharides mediated by poly-N-acetylglucosamine deacetylases...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roberta Ruotolo, Elena Maestri, Luca Pagano, Marta Marmiroli, Jason C White, Nelson Marmiroli
The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raises questions over their environmental impact. Improving the level of understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the response to ENM exposure in biota is necessary to accurately assess true risk to sensitive receptors. The aim of this review is to compare the plant response to several metal-based ENMs widely used, such as quantum dots, metal oxides and silver nanoparticles (NPs), integrating available 'omics' data (transcriptomics, miRNAs and proteomics)...
January 29, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Meysam Rezaie, Saeed Aminzadeh, Farid Heidari, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Ali Asghar Karkhane
Background: Typically, non-cellulytic glucanase, including fungi and yeast cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes, are release by some symbiotic fungi and plants during the mycoparasitic fungi attack on plants. These enzymes are known as the defense mechanisms of plants. This study intends to investigate the biochemical properties of β-1,6-glucanase (bg16M) from native thermophilic bacteria, Cohnella A01. Methods: bg16M gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 13, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Abith Vattekkatte, Stefan Garms, Wolfgang Brandt, Wilhelm Boland
The enormous diversity of terpenes found in nature is generated by enzymes known as terpene synthases, or cyclases. Some are also known for their ability to convert a single substrate into multiple products. This review comprises monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases that are multiproduct in nature along with the regulation factors that can alter the product specificity of multiproduct terpene synthases without genetic mutations. Variations in specific assay conditions with focus on shifts in product specificity based on change in metal cofactors, assay pH and substrate geometry are described...
January 3, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Fareen Sami, Mohammad Faizan, Ahmad Faraz, Husna Siddiqui, Mohammad Yusuf, Shamsul Hayat
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major signaling biomolecule associated with signal transduction in plants. The beneficial role of NO in plants, exposed to several abiotic stresses shifted our understanding as it being not only free radical, released from the toxic byproducts of oxidative metabolism but also helps in plant sustenance. An explosion of research in plant NO biology during the last two decades has revealed that NO is a key signal associated with plant growth, germination, photosynthesis, leaf senescence, pollen growth and reorientation...
December 21, 2017: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Marouane Ben Massoud, Lamia Sakouhi, Inès Karmous, Yao Zhu, Ezzedine El Ferjani, David Sheehan, Abdelilah Chaoui
The present work aims to provide insight on the role of phytohormone application in developing efficient practical defense strategies to improve plants tolerance under heavy metal contamination. For this purpose, pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds were germinated in an aqueous solution of 200μM CuCl2 up to the 3rd day and then continued to germinate in the presence of distilled water (stress cessation) or were subjected to following combinations: Cu+1μM IAA and Cu+1μM GA3 for 3 additional days. The results showed that copper excess induced oxidative stress in germinating seeds, which resulted in changes of the redox state of glutathione and cysteine, and proteomics revealed Cu-induced modifications of thiols (SH) and carbonyls (CO) (indicators of protein oxidation)...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Ying-Ying Feng, Xian-Juan Dong, Xiao Liu, Ya-Ru Yan, Jin-Ling Wang, She-Po Shi, Xiao-Hui Wang, Peng-Fei Tu
The MYB gene family comprises one of the richest groups of transcription factors in plants. The full length of two MYB genes were isolated through heterologous screening of Aquilaria sinensis calli transcriptome data, and the reverse transcription PCR was performed to obstain the corrected MYB clones, named AsMYB1, AsMYB2. The MYB transmembrane domain and phylogenetic analysis were predicted by different software to analyze the bioinformatics of MYB proteins. The transcript level of AsMYB1, AsMYB2 was performed by real-time quantitative RT-PCR in different tissues and in responds to abiotic stresses including salt, cold, metal and drought stress, and hormone treatments including abscisic acid (ABA), salicylic acid (SA), gibberellins (GA3) and methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment...
September 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Amal Smaili, Lalla Aicha Rifai, Siham Esserti, Tayeb Koussa, Fouad Bentiss, Salaheddine Guesmi, Abdelhakim Laachir, Mohamed Faize
The metallic complexes μ-chloro-μ-[2,5-bis (2-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole] aqua chlorocopper (II) dichlorocopper (II) (abbreviated 2PTH-Cu2 -Cl4 ); aquabis [2,5-bis (2-pyridyl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-κ2 N2 ,N3 ] (trifluoromethane-sulfonato-κO) copper(II) trifluoro metrhanesulfonate (2PTH-Cu-tF) and bis[(2,5-bis(pyridine-2-yl)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-di-azido copper(II)] (2PTH-Cu-Az) were compared for their antimicrobial activities in vitro, and their aptitude to control Verticillium wilt and crown gall diseases development of tomato in the greenhouse...
November 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Dilfuza Egamberdieva, Stephan J Wirth, Abdulaziz A Alqarawi, Elsayed F Abd Allah, Abeer Hashem
Plants are subjected to various abiotic stresses, such as drought, extreme temperature, salinity, and heavy metals. Abiotic stresses have negative impact on the physiology and morphology of plants through defects in the genetic regulation of cellular pathways. Plants employ several tolerance mechanisms and pathways to avert the effects of stresses that are triggered whenever alterations in metabolism are encountered. Phytohormones are among the most important growth regulators; they are known for having a prominent impact on plant metabolism, and additionally, they play a vital role in the stimulation of plant defense response mechanisms against stresses...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Mohammad Issawi, Damien Guillaumot, Vincent Sol, Catherine Riou
Antimicrobial Photodynamic Treatment based on the use of a photosensitizer to produce reactive oxygen species that induce cell death could be envisaged to fight against plant pathogens. For setting this strategy, we want to study how plants themselves respond to photodynamic treatment. In a previous work we showed that tomato plantlets were able to resist to photoactivated tetra (N-methylpyridyl) porphyrin (CP) or Zinc metalated form (CP-Zn). To enlarge our plant expertise related to exogenous porphyrins treatment and to further defend this approach, we studied how an adventice like Arabidopsis thaliana responded to exogenous supply of anionic and cationic porphyrins...
November 7, 2017: Physiologia Plantarum
Ritu Chaturvedi, Paulo Favas, João Pratas, Mayank Varun, Manoj S Paul
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) aids in plant establishment at heavy metal(loid) (HM) contaminated soils, strengthening plant defense system along with promoting growth. A pot experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of AMF on eggplants grown under HM stress. Further, the potential health risks of HM exposure to the humans via dietary intake of eggplant were also estimated. Results showed that AMF application improved growth, biomass and antioxidative defense response of plants against HM stress...
October 27, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Shimin Fu, Jonathan Shao, Cristina Paul, Changyong Zhou, John S Hartung
BACKGROUND: Citrus worldwide is threatened by huanglongbing (HLB) and tristeza diseases caused by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CaLas) and Citrus tristeza virus (CTV). Although the pathogens are members of the α-proteobacteria and Closteroviridae, respectively, both are restricted to phloem cells in infected citrus and are transmitted by insect vectors. The response of sweet orange to single infection by either of these two pathogens has been characterized previously by global gene expression analysis...
October 31, 2017: BMC Genomics
Hermann Bothe, Aneta Słomka
Among heavy metal plants (the metallophytes), facultative species can live both in soils contaminated by an excess of heavy metals and in non-affected sites. In contrast, obligate metallophytes are restricted to polluted areas. Metallophytes offer a fascinating biology, due to the fact that species have developed different strategies to cope with the adverse conditions of heavy metal soils. The literature distinguishes between hyperaccumulating, accumulating, tolerant and excluding metallophytes, but the borderline between these categories is blurred...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
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