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Metal plant defense

Kira C M Neller, Alexander Klenov, Juan C Guzman, Katalin A Hudak
The American pokeweed plant, Phytolacca americana , displays broad-spectrum resistance to plant viruses and is a heavy metal hyperaccumulator. However, little is known about the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in this non-model plant. To investigate the control of miRNAs in gene expression, we sequenced the small RNA transcriptome of pokeweed treated with jasmonic acid (JA), a hormone that mediates pathogen defense and stress tolerance. We predicted 145 miRNAs responsive to JA, most of which were unique to pokeweed...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Saad M Howladar, Sami A Al-Robai, Fatima S Al-Zahrani, Majed M Howladar, Amal Y Aldhebiani
Identification of the optimum application method of exogenous supports for crop plants to improve their growth under environmental stresses such as heavy metals represents key priorities for researchers worldwide. Influences of different application methods of silicon (Si; 3 mM); soil treatment, foliar spray and seed soaking on growth, chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic gas exchange, cell membrane injury, osmoprotectants contents, antioxidative defense system activity, and polyamines contents and their gene expression in wheat plants grown under normal and 2 mM cadmium (Cd) stress conditions were investigated in 3-repeated pot experiment...
May 4, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Muhammad Rizwan, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Zia Ur Rehman, Jörg Rinklebe, Daniel C W Tsang, Arooj Bashir, Arosha Maqbool, F M G Tack, Yong Sik Ok
Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic metal released into the environment through anthropogenic activities. Phytoremediation is a green technology used for the stabilization or remediation of Cd-contaminated soils. Brassica crop species can produce high biomass under a range of climatic and growing conditions, allowing for considerable uptake and accumulation of Cd, depending on species. These crop species can tolerate Cd stress via different mechanisms, including the stimulation of the antioxidant defense system, chelation, compartmentation of Cd into metabolically inactive parts, and accumulation of total amino-acids and osmoprotectants...
August 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Anjing Geng, Xu Wang, Lishu Wu, Fuhua Wang, Zhichao Wu, Hui Yang, Yan Chen, Dian Wen, Xiangxiang Liu
Organoarsenic arsanilic acid (ASA) contamination of paddy soil is a serious but less concerned hazard to agriculture and health of people consuming rice as staple food, for rice is one major pathway of arsenic (As) exposure to human food. To date little research has studied the effect of ASA on biochemical process of rice. Silicon (Si) application is able to reduce the toxicities of heavy metals in numerous plants, but little information about ASA. This work investigated whether and how Si influenced alleviation of ASA toxicity in rice at biochemical level to have a better understanding of defense mechanism by Si against ASA stress...
April 28, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Debabrata Panda, Dibyajyoti Panda, Bandana Padhan, Meghali Biswas
Revegetation with metal tolerant plants for management of fly ash deposits is an important environmental perspective nowadays. Growth performance, photosynthesis, and antioxidant defense of lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C.) Stapf.) were evaluated under various combination of fly ash amended with garden soil in order to assess its fly ash tolerance potential. Under low level of fly ash (25%) amended soil, the plant growth parameters such as shoot, root, and total plant biomass as well as metal tolerance index were increased compared to the control plants grown on garden soil, followed by decline under higher concentration of fly ash (50%, 75% and 100%)...
May 12, 2018: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Mariolina Gullì, Laura Marchi, Rosaria Fragni, Annamaria Buschini, Giovanna Visioli
The Ni hyperaccumulator Noccaea caerulescens has adapted to live in a naturally stressed environment, evolving a complex pattern of traits to cope with adverse conditions. Evidence is accumulating regarding the important role of epigenetic modifications in regulating plant responses to stress. In this study, we present data from the natural "open-field" adaptation of the Ni hyperaccumulator N. caerulescens to serpentine soil and provide the first evidence of the involvement of epigenetic changes in response to the high Ni content present in plant leaves...
April 15, 2018: Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis
Jaya Mary Jacob, Chinnannan Karthik, Rijuta Ganesh Saratale, Smita S Kumar, Desika Prabakar, K Kadirvelu, Arivalagan Pugazhendhi
Pollution by heavy metals has been identified as a global threat since the inception of industrial revolution. Heavy metal contamination induces serious health and environmental hazards due to its toxic nature. Remediation of heavy metals by conventional methods is uneconomical and generates a large quantity of secondary wastes. On the other hand, biological agents such as plants, microorganisms etc. offer easy and eco-friendly ways for metal removal; hence, considered as efficient and alternative tools for metal removal...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Sukhmeen Kaur Kohli, Neha Handa, Anket Sharma, Vandana Gautam, Saroj Arora, Renu Bhardwaj, Leonard Wijaya, Mohammed Nasser Alyemeni, Parvaiz Ahmad
Lead (Pb) is considered one the most hazardous pollutant, and its accumulation in soil and plants is of prime concern. To understand the role of plant hormones in combating heavy metal stress, the present study was planned to assess the interactive effects of 24-epibrassinolide (EBL) (10-7  M) and salicylic acid (SA) (1 mM) in regulating growth, pigment contents, antioxidative defense response, and gene expression in Brassica juncea L. seedlings exposed to different concentrations of Pb metal (0.25, 0.50, and 0...
March 20, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ceyda Ozfidan-Konakci, Evren Yildiztugay, Mustafa Bahtiyar, Mustafa Kucukoduk
The using of bio-stimulant in plants grown under stress conditions for enhancing nutrition efficiency and crop quality traits is an effective approach. One of the bio-stimulants, humus material, is defined as humic acid (HA). HA application as a promotion of plant growth to plants grown in the heavy metals-contaminated soils has promised hope in terms of effects on plants but the its limiting effect is the application dose. Therefore, the wheat seedlings were grown in hydroponic culture for 21 d and the various concentrations of humic acid (HA; 750 or 1500 mg L-1 ) were treated alone or in combination with cadmium (Cd) stress (100 or 200 μM) for 7 d...
July 15, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Siddhi K Jalmi, Prakash K Bhagat, Deepanjali Verma, Stanzin Noryang, Sumaira Tayyeba, Kirti Singh, Deepika Sharma, Alok K Sinha
Plants confront multifarious environmental stresses widely divided into abiotic and biotic stresses, of which heavy metal stress represents one of the most damaging abiotic stresses. Heavy metals cause toxicity by targeting crucial molecules and vital processes in the plant cell. One of the approaches by which heavy metals act in plants is by over production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) either directly or indirectly. Plants act against such overdose of metal in the environment by boosting the defense responses like metal chelation, sequestration into vacuole, regulation of metal intake by transporters, and intensification of antioxidative mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
E Muszyńska, E Hanus-Fajerska, K Ciarkowska
Information on metallophytes during reclamation of land contaminated with heavy metals is sparse. We investigated the response of D. carthusianorum calamine ecotype to Pb and Cd stress. We focused on in vitro selection of tolerant plant material for direct use in chemically degraded areas. Shoot cultures were treated with various concentrations of Pb or Cd ions. Plantlet status was estimated as micropropagation efficiency, growth tolerance index (GTI) and through physiological analysis. Moreover, determination of plant Pb, Cd and other elements was performed...
May 2018: Plant Biology
Essa Ali, Nazim Hussain, Imran Haider Shamsi, Zahra Jabeen, Muzammil Hussain Siddiqui, Li-Xi Jiang
The well-known detrimental effects of cadmium (Cd) on plants are chloroplast destruction, photosynthetic pigment inhibition, imbalance of essential plant nutrients, and membrane damage. Jasmonic acid (JA) is an alleviator against different stresses such as salinity and drought. However, the functional attributes of JA in plants such as the interactive effects of JA application and Cd on rapeseed in response to heavy metal stress remain unclear. JA at 50 µmol/L was observed in literature to have senescence effects in plants...
2018: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Maria De Benedictis, Cecilia Brunetti, Elizabeth K Brauer, Andrea Andreucci, Sorina C Popescu, Mauro Commisso, Flavia Guzzo, Adriano Sofo, Monica Ruffini Castiglione, Olena K Vatamaniuk, Luigi Sanità di Toppi
The enzyme phytochelatin synthase (PCS) has long been studied with regard to its role in metal(loid) detoxification in several organisms, i.e., plants, yeasts, and nematodes. It is in fact widely recognized that PCS detoxifies a number of heavy metals by catalyzing the formation of thiol-rich oligomers, namely phytochelatins, from glutathione and related peptides. However, recent investigations have highlighted other possible roles played by the PCS enzyme in the plant cell, e.g., the control of pathogen-triggered callose deposition...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Hugo Aragunde, Xevi Biarnés, Antoni Planas
Carbohydrate esterases family 4 (CE4 enzymes) includes chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases, acetylxylan esterases, and poly- N -acetylglucosamine deacetylases that act on structural polysaccharides, altering their physicochemical properties, and participating in diverse biological functions. Chitin and peptidoglycan deacetylases are not only involved in cell wall morphogenesis and remodeling in fungi and bacteria, but they are also used by pathogenic microorganisms to evade host defense mechanisms. Likewise, biofilm formation in bacteria requires partial deacetylation of extracellular polysaccharides mediated by poly- N -acetylglucosamine deacetylases...
January 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Roberta Ruotolo, Elena Maestri, Luca Pagano, Marta Marmiroli, Jason C White, Nelson Marmiroli
The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) raises questions regarding their environmental impact. Improving the level of understanding of the genetic and molecular basis of the response to ENM exposure in biota is necessary to accurately assess the true risk to sensitive receptors. The aim of this Review is to compare the plant response to several metal-based ENMs widely used, such as quantum dots, metal oxides, and silver nanoparticles (NPs), integrating available "omics" data (transcriptomics, miRNAs, and proteomics)...
March 6, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Meysam Rezaie, Saeed Aminzadeh, Farid Heidari, Masoud Mashhadi Akbar Boojar, Ali Asghar Karkhane
Background: Typically, non-cellulytic glucanase, including fungi and yeast cell wall hydrolyzing enzymes, are release by some symbiotic fungi and plants during the mycoparasitic fungi attack on plants. These enzymes are known as the defense mechanisms of plants. This study intends to investigate the biochemical properties of β-1,6-glucanase (bg16M) from native thermophilic bacteria, Cohnella A01. Methods: bg16M gene was cloned and expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3)...
January 13, 2018: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Abith Vattekkatte, Stefan Garms, Wolfgang Brandt, Wilhelm Boland
The enormous diversity of terpenes found in nature is generated by enzymes known as terpene synthases, or cyclases. Some are also known for their ability to convert a single substrate into multiple products. This review comprises monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases that are multiproduct in nature along with the regulation factors that can alter the product specificity of multiproduct terpene synthases without genetic mutations. Variations in specific assay conditions with focus on shifts in product specificity based on change in metal cofactors, assay pH and substrate geometry are described...
January 17, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Fareen Sami, Mohammad Faizan, Ahmad Faraz, Husna Siddiqui, Mohammad Yusuf, Shamsul Hayat
Nitric oxide (NO) is a major signaling biomolecule associated with signal transduction in plants. The beneficial role of NO in plants, exposed to several abiotic stresses shifted our understanding as it being not only free radical, released from the toxic byproducts of oxidative metabolism but also helps in plant sustenance. An explosion of research in plant NO biology during the last two decades has revealed that NO is a key signal associated with plant growth, germination, photosynthesis, leaf senescence, pollen growth and reorientation...
February 28, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
Marouane Ben Massoud, Lamia Sakouhi, Inès Karmous, Yao Zhu, Ezzedine El Ferjani, David Sheehan, Abdelilah Chaoui
The present work aims to provide insight on the role of phytohormone application in developing efficient practical defense strategies to improve plants tolerance under heavy metal contamination. For this purpose, pea (Pisum sativum L.) seeds were germinated in an aqueous solution of 200μM CuCl2 up to the 3rd day and then continued to germinate in the presence of distilled water (stress cessation) or were subjected to following combinations: Cu+1μM IAA and Cu+1μM GA3 for 3 additional days. The results showed that copper excess induced oxidative stress in germinating seeds, which resulted in changes of the redox state of glutathione and cysteine, and proteomics revealed Cu-induced modifications of thiols (SH) and carbonyls (CO) (indicators of protein oxidation)...
February 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Małgorzata Jeżowska-Bojczuk, Kamila Stokowa-Sołtys
Peptide antibiotics are produced by bacterial, mammalian, insect or plant organisms in defense against invasive microbial pathogens. Therefore, they are gaining importance as anti-infective agents. There are a number of antibiotics that require metal ions to function properly. Metal ions play a key role in their action and are involved in specific interactions with proteins, nucleic acids and other biomolecules. On the other hand, it is well known that some antimicrobial agents possess functional groups that enable them interacting with metal ions present in physiological fluids...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
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