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High frequency stimulation

Hyungwoo Choi, Andrea M Armani
Resonant cavity-enhanced Kerr frequency combs have been demonstrated using a range of cavity materials. Regardless of cavity type, one fundamental challenge is achieving low or flat dispersion while maintaining high-efficiency four-wave mixing (FWM). Here we demonstrate a Raman-Kerr frequency comb using a Zr-doped silica hybrid toroidal microcavity. The Zr-doped layer both flattens the dispersion and increases the stimulated Raman scattering efficiency. This enhancement enables the generation of FWM around both the Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering emissions...
June 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Eric Salter, Julia Sunstrum, Sara Matovic, Wataru Inoue
KEY POINTS: Glutamatergic synaptic inputs to corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) secreting neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) are required for stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. These synapses also undergo stress-induced plasticity thereby influencing HPA axis stress adaptation. By using patch clamp electrophysiology, we show that, in adult non-stressed mice, action potentials at these glutamatergic afferents elicit multiquantal transmission to the postsynaptic PVN-CRH neurons (i...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Min-Chul Shin, Kiku Nonaka, Toshitaka Yamaga, Masahito Wakita, Hironari Akaike, Norio Akaike
The current electrophysiological study investigated the functional roles of high- and low-voltage-activated calcium (Ca2+ ) channel subtypes on glutamatergic small mossy fiber nerve terminals (SMFTs) that synapse onto rat hippocampal CA3 neurons. Experiments combining both the 'synapse bouton' preparation and single-pulse focal stimulation technique were performed using the conventional whole-cell patch configuration under voltage-clamp conditions. Nifedipine, at a high concentration, and BAY-K8644 (BAY-K) inhibited and facilitated the glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (eEPSCs) that were evoked by 0...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Sonia Dollfus, Nemat Jaafari, Olivier Guillin, Benoit Trojak, Marion Plaze, Ghassen Saba, Cécilia Nauczyciel, Aurélie Montagne Larmurier, Nathalie Chastan, Vincent Meille, Marie-Odile Krebs, Samar S Ayache, Jean Pascal Lefaucheur, Annick Razafimandimby, Elise Leroux, Rémy Morello, Jean Marie Batail, Perrine Brazo, Nicolas Lafay, Issa Wassouf, Ghina Harika-Germaneau, Remy Guillevin, Carole Guillevin, Emmanuel Gerardin, Maud Rotharmel, Benoit Crépon, Raphael Gaillard, Christophe Delmas, Gael Fouldrin, Guillaume Laurent, Clément Nathou, Olivier Etard
INTRODUCTION: Despite extensive testing, the efficacy of low-frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of temporo-parietal targets for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) in patients with schizophrenia is still controversial, but promising results have been reported with both high-frequency and neuronavigated rTMS. Here, we report a double-blind sham-controlled study to assess the efficacy of high-frequency (20 Hz) rTMS applied over a precise anatomical site in the left temporal region using neuronavigation...
April 6, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Enrico Premi, Alberto Benussi, Antonio La Gatta, Stefano Visconti, Angelo Costa, Nicola Gilberti, Valentina Cantoni, Alessandro Padovani, Barbara Borroni, Mauro Magoni
BACKGROUND: Non-depolarizing magnetic fields, like low frequency-pulsed electromagnetic fields (LF-PEMFs) have shown the ability to modulate living structures, principally by influencing synaptic activity and ion channels on cellular membranes. Recently, the CTU Mega 20 device was presented as a molecular accelerator, using energy up to 200 J and providing high-power (2 Tesla) pulsating fields with a water-repulsive (diamagnetic) action and tissue biostimulation. We tested the hypothesis that LF-PEMFs could modulate long-term corticospinal excitability in healthy brains by applying CTU Mega 20® ...
June 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Guosheng Yi, Warren M Grill
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) generates action potentials (APs) in presynaptic axons and fibers of passage. The APs may be antidromically propagated to invade the cell body and / or orthodromically transmitted to downstream structures, thereby affecting widespread targets distant from the electrode. Activation of presynaptic terminals also causes trans-synaptic effects, which in turn alter the excitability of the post-synaptic neurons. Our aim was to determine how synaptic inputs affect the antidromic invasion of the cell body...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
David Demory, Charlotte Combe, Philipp Hartmann, Amélie Talec, Eric Pruvost, Raouf Hamouda, Fabien Souillé, Pierre-Olivier Lamare, Marie-Odile Bristeau, Jacques Sainte-Marie, Sophie Rabouille, Francis Mairet, Antoine Sciandra, Olivier Bernard
Hydrodynamics in a high-rate production reactor for microalgae cultivation affects the light history perceived by cells. The interplay between cell movement and medium turbidity leads to a complex light pattern, whose forcing effects on photosynthesis and photoacclimation dynamics are non-trivial. Hydrodynamics of high density algal ponds mixed by a paddle wheel has been studied recently, although the focus has never been on describing its impact on photosynthetic growth efficiency. In this multidisciplinary downscaling study, we first reconstructed single cell trajectories in an open raceway using an original hydrodynamical model offering a powerful discretization of the Navier-Stokes equations tailored to systems with free surfaces...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Estate M Sokhadze, Eva V Lamina, Emily L Casanova, Desmond P Kelly, Ioan Opris, Allan Tasman, Manuel F Casanova
There is no accepted pathology to autism spectrum disorders (ASD) but research suggests the presence of an altered excitatory/inhibitory (E/I) bias in the cerebral cortex. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) offers a non-invasive means of modulating the E/I cortical bias with little in terms of side effects. In this study, 124 high functioning ASD children (IQ > 80, <18 years of age) were recruited and assigned using randomization to either a waitlist group or one of three different number of weekly rTMS sessions (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Faheem Shehjar, Dil Afroze, Raiz A Misgar, Sajad A Malik, Bashir A Laway
Graves' disease is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder of the thyroid gland, with some extra-thyroidal complications like eye and skin abnormalities in some patients. GD is more prevalent in women than men and is the leading cause of hyperthyroidism worldwide. A complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors is the proposed cause which triggers immune system to produce autoantibodies stimulating the TSH receptor, leading to clinical manifestations such as hyperthyroidism, diffuse thyroid enlargement (goiter) and often ophthalmopathy in affected individuals...
June 8, 2018: Gene
Ian S Curthoys, J Wally Grant, Ann M Burgess, Chris J Pastras, Daniel J Brown, Leonardo Manzari
Air-conducted sound and bone-conduced vibration activate otolithic receptors and afferent neurons in both the utricular and saccular maculae, and trigger small electromyographic (EMG) responses [called vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs)] in various muscle groups throughout the body. The use of these VEMPs for clinical assessment of human otolithic function is built on the following logical steps: (1) that high-frequency sound and vibration at clinically effective stimulus levels activate otolithic receptors and afferents, rather than semicircular canal afferents, (2) that there is differential anatomical projection of otolith afferents to eye muscles and neck muscles, and (3) that isolated stimulation of the utricular macula induces short latency responses in eye muscles, and that isolated stimulation of the saccular macula induces short latency responses in neck motoneurons...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Neil P M Todd, Sendhil Govender, James G Colebatch
The electrocerebellogram (ECeG), a manifestation of cerebellar cortical local field potentials (LFPs), is characterised by a predominance of high frequency components at the gamma range (30 - 80 Hz) and beyond up to several hundred Hz, in contrast to the electroencephalogram (EEG) which is composed predominantly of lower frequencies at or below the gamma range. Although the potential clinical role of the ECeG has been suggested, the prospect of a non-invasive method for routine recording in humans has remained elusive...
June 7, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Karim A Alkadhi
Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is a progressive dementia hallmarked by the presence in the brain of extracellular beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and intraneuronal fibrillary tangles. Chronic stress is associated with heightened Aβ buildup and acceleration of development of AD, however, stress alone has no significant effect on synaptic plasticity in the dentate gyrus (DG) area. Previously, we have reported that the combination of stress and AD causes more severe inhibition of synaptic plasticity of hippocampal area CA1 than chronic stress or AD alone, and that chronic nicotine treatment prevents this impairment...
June 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Mohammad-Javad Ahmadizadeh, Mehdi Rezaei
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a potential non-invasive treatment for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the treatment parameters of rTMS required to optimize therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral right rTMS and compare the efficacy of bilateral rTMS and unilateral rTMS on PTSD symptoms. METHODS: Sixty-five veterans with current combat-related PTSD symptoms were randomly selected to receive bilateral rTMS (1200 pulses at 20 Hz followed by 1200 pulses per session), unilateral right rTMS (2400 pulses at 20 Hz) or sham rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
June 5, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Nicholas Gilbert, Rachel A Bernier, Vincent D Calhoun, Einat Brenner, Emily Grossner, Sarah M Rajtmajer, Frank G Hillary
Over the past decade there has been increasing enthusiasm in the cognitive neurosciences around using network science to understand the system-level changes associated with brain disorders. A growing literature has used whole-brain fMRI analysis to examine changes in the brain's subnetworks following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Much of network modeling in this literature has focused on static network mapping, which provides a window into gross inter-nodal relationships, but is insensitive to more subtle fluctuations in network dynamics, which may be an important predictor of neural network plasticity...
2018: PloS One
Yann Pelloux, Mickaël Degoulet, Alix Tiran-Cappello, Candie Cohen, Sylvie Lardeux, Olivier George, George F Koob, Serge H Ahmed, Christelle Baunez
One of the key features of addiction is the escalated drug intake. The neural mechanisms involved in the transition to addiction remain to be elucidated. Since abnormal neuronal activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN) stands as potential general neuromarker common to impulse control spectrum deficits, as observed in obsessive-compulsive disorders, the present study recorded and manipulated STN neuronal activity during the initial transition to addiction (i.e., escalation) and post-abstinence relapse (i...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Jens Hammann, Davide Bassetti, Robin White, Heiko J Luhmann, Sergei Kirischuk
Oligodendrocytes in the CNS myelinate neuronal axons, facilitating rapid propagation of action potentials. Myelin basic protein (MBP) is an essential component of myelin and its absence results in severe hypomyelination. In oligodendrocyte lineage cell (OLC) monocultures MBP synthesis starts at DIV4. Ouabain (10 nM), a Na+ ,K+ -ATPase (NKA) blocker, stimulates MBP synthesis. As OLCs express the α2 isoform of NKA (α2-NKA) that has a high affinity for ouabain, we hypothesized that α2-NKA mediates this effect...
July 2018: Cell Calcium
Nadia Pariani, Mark Willis, Ilaria Muller, Sarah Healy, Taha Nasser, Anne McGowan, Greta Lyons, Joanne Jones, Krishna Chatterjee, Colin Dayan, Neil Robertson, Alasdair Coles, Carla Moran
Context: Alemtuzumab, a highly effective treatment for multiple sclerosis (MS), predisposes to Graves' disease (GD) with a reportedly indolent course. Objective: To determine the type, frequency and course of thyroid dysfunction (TD) in a cohort of alemtuzumab-treated MS patients in the UK. Design: Case records of alemtuzumab-treated patients who developed TD were reviewed. Results: 41.1% (102/248; 80F, 22M) of patients developed TD, principally GD (71...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Luka Milosevic, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Milos R Popovic, William D Hutchison
Ventral intermediate thalamic deep brain stimulation is a standard therapy for the treatment of medically refractory essential tremor and tremor-dominant Parkinson's disease. Despite the therapeutic benefits, the mechanisms of action are varied and complex, and the pathophysiology and genesis of tremor remain unsubstantiated. This intraoperative study investigated the effects of high frequency microstimulation on both neuronal firing and tremor suppression simultaneously. In each of nine essential tremor and two Parkinson's disease patients who underwent stereotactic neurosurgery, two closely spaced (600 µm) microelectrodes were advanced into the ventral intermediate nucleus...
June 5, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Pilar Cristancho, Nicholas T Trapp, Shan H Siddiqi, David Dixon, J Philip Miller, Eric J Lenze
Clinical trials using left-sided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) report remission rates of 14% to 32.6%. A large percentage of patients would not achieve remission with standard rTMS treatment. The question of what clinicians should do when a patient is not responding to standard high-frequency (HF) left-sided rTMS remains unanswered. This prospective case series examines whether crossover to bilateral stimulation enhances antidepressant outcomes in patients not responding to unilateral rTMS...
June 5, 2018: Journal of ECT
Daniela Paes de Almeida Ferreira Braga, Rose Marie Massaro Melamed, Amanda Souza Setti, Bianca Ferrarini Zanetti, Rita de Cássia Sávio Figueira, Assumpto Iaconelli, Edson Borges
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the patient's faith, religion, and spirituality on the outcomes of intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight hundred and seventy-seven patients received a questionnaire containing information on faith, religiosity, and spirituality and the results of the questionnaires were correlated with ICSI outcomes. Patients stated to be Catholic (n = 476), spiritists (n = 93), Evangelical (n = 118), and other religion (n = 32), and 78 did not identify with any religious group...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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