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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915026/effects-of-model-definitions-and-parameter-values-in-finite-element-modeling-of-human-middle-ear-mechanics
#1
Daniel De Greef, Felipe Pires, Joris J J Dirckx
BACKGROUND: Despite continuing advances in finite element software, the realistic simulation of middle ear response under acoustic stimulation continues to be challenging. One reason for this is the wide range of possible choices that can be made during the definition of a model. Therefore, an explorative study of the relative influences of some of these choices is potentially very helpful. METHOD: Three finite element models of the human middle ear were constructed, based on high-resolution micro-computed tomography scans from three different human temporal bones...
November 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913092/evaluation-of-phonatory-behavior-and-voice-quality-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis-treated-with-deep-brain-stimulation
#2
Manfred Pützer, Wolfgang Wokurek, Jean Richard Moringlane
OBJECTIVES: The effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) on phonatory behavior and voice quality in eight patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) was examined instrumentally and perceptually. The acoustic signals of vowel productions obtained from patients (produced with and without stimulation) and from a group of 16 healthy control speakers were analyzed to prove statistically the changes of phonatory behavior and voice quality. STUDY DESIGN: This is a randomized study...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911756/activation-of-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-promotes-ltp-induction-at-schaffer-collateral-ca1-pyramidal-cell-synapses-by-priming-nmda-receptors
#3
Nadia Rosenberg, Urs Gerber, Jeanne Ster
: It is well established that selective activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors induces LTD of synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses. In contrast, application of 1S,3R-ACPD, a mixed agonist at group I and group II mGlu receptors, induces LTP. Using whole-cell recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells and field recordings in the hippocampal CA1 region, we investigated the specific contribution of group II mGlu receptors to synaptic plasticity at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in acute slices of adult mice...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909453/the-effect-of-high-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-occupational-stress-among-health-care-workers-a-pilot-study
#4
Young In Kim, Sun Mi Kim, Hyungjin Kim, Doug Hyun Han
OBJECTIVE: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration to alleviate symptoms of treatment-resistant depression. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of rTMS treatment on alleviating occupational stress by evaluating clinical symptoms and quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG). METHODS: Twenty-four health care workers were randomized to receive 12 sessions of active or sham rTMS delivered to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
November 2016: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909227/castration-alters-protein-balance-following-high-frequency-muscle-contraction
#5
Jennifer L Steiner, David H Fukuda, Michael L Rossetti, Jay R Hoffman, Bradley S Gordon
Resistance exercise increases muscle mass by shifting protein balance in favor of protein accretion. Androgens independently alter protein balance, but it is unknown whether androgens alter this measure following resistance exercise. To answer this, male mice were subjected to sham or castration surgery 7-8 weeks prior to undergoing a bout of unilateral, high frequency, electrically induced muscle contractions in the fasted or refed state. Puromycin was injected 30 min prior to sacrifice to measure protein synthesis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908418/lead-pb-exposure-promotes-diabetes-in-obese-rodents
#6
Jannifer B Tyrrell, Samar Hafida, Paul Stemmer, Angie Adhami, Todd Leff
BACKGROUND: Pb (lead) exposure occurs at elevated frequency in urban inner city populations that also have high rates of obesity and diabetes. OBJECTIVES: To determine if Pb can promote the development of diabetes in a setting of obesity, we examined the effect of Pb exposure on glucose metabolism in a rodent model of obesity. METHODS: Adult female ZDF rats were exposed to Pb in drinking water for 24 weeks. Fasting blood glucose, insulin, and glucose tolerance were measured at regular intervals...
January 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908167/computer-aided-prognosis-for-cell-death-categorization-and-prediction-in-vivo-using-quantitative-ultrasound-and-machine-learning-techniques
#7
M J Gangeh, A Hashim, A Giles, L Sannachi, G J Czarnota
PURPOSE: At present, a one-size-fits-all approach is typically used for cancer therapy in patients. This is mainly because there is no current imaging-based clinical standard for the early assessment and monitoring of cancer treatment response. Here, the authors have developed, for the first time, a complete computer-aided-prognosis (CAP) system based on multiparametric quantitative ultrasound (QUS) spectroscopy methods in association with texture descriptors and advanced machine learning techniques...
December 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908030/influences-of-noise-interruption-and-information-bearing-acoustic-changes-on-understanding-simulated-electric-acoustic-speech
#8
Christian Stilp, Gail Donaldson, Soohee Oh, Ying-Yee Kong
In simulations of electrical-acoustic stimulation (EAS), vocoded speech intelligibility is aided by preservation of low-frequency acoustic cues. However, the speech signal is often interrupted in everyday listening conditions, and effects of interruption on hybrid speech intelligibility are poorly understood. Additionally, listeners rely on information-bearing acoustic changes to understand full-spectrum speech (as measured by cochlea-scaled entropy [CSE]) and vocoded speech (CSECI), but how listeners utilize these informational changes to understand EAS speech is unclear...
November 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906298/high-resolution-brillouin-optical-correlation-domain-analysis-with-no-spectral-scanning
#9
Eyal Preter, Dexin Ba, Yosef London, Orel Shlomi, Yair Antman, Avi Zadok
Distributed Brillouin fiber sensors typically rely on the reconstruction of the steady-state Brillouin gain spectrum (BGS), through spectral scanning of the frequency offset between the pump and signal waves. In this work, we propose and demonstrate an alternative approach, in which the local Brillouin frequency shift (BFS) is extracted from temporal transient analysis of the step response of the amplified signal wave. Measurements are taken at only two arbitrary frequency offsets between pump and signal. No spectral scanning and no prior knowledge of a reference BGS are necessary...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904488/effects-of-different-frequencies-of-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-the-recovery-of-upper-limb-motor-dysfunction-in-patients-with-subacute-cerebral-infarction
#10
Jiang Li, Xiang-Min Meng, Ru-Yi Li, Ru Zhang, Zheng Zhang, Yi-Feng Du
Studies have confirmed that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can decrease the activity of cortical neurons, and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation can increase the excitability of cortical neurons. However, there are few studies concerning the use of different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the recovery of upper-limb motor function after cerebral infarction. We hypothesized that different frequencies of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in patients with cerebral infarction would produce different effects on the recovery of upper-limb motor function...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904120/high-frequency-rtms-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-a-case-series
#11
Wataru Kakuda, Ryo Momosaki, Naoki Yamada, Masahiro Abo
Structural and functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex seem to correlate with fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We consecutively applied facilitatory high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of seven CFS patients over three days. Five patients completed the 3-day protocol without any adverse events. For the other two patients, we had to reduce the stimulation intensity in response to mild adverse reactions...
2016: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902718/metal-sounds-stiffer-than-drums-for-ears-but-not-always-for-hands-low-level-auditory-features-affect-multisensory-stiffness-perception-more-than-high-level-categorical-information
#12
Juan Liu, Hiroshi Ando
Most real-world events stimulate multiple sensory modalities simultaneously. Usually, the stiffness of an object is perceived haptically. However, auditory signals also contain stiffness-related information, and people can form impressions of stiffness from the different impact sounds of metal, wood, or glass. To understand whether there is any interaction between auditory and haptic stiffness perception, and if so, whether the inferred material category is the most relevant auditory information, we conducted experiments using a force-feedback device and the modal synthesis method to present haptic stimuli and impact sound in accordance with participants' actions, and to modulate low-level acoustic parameters, i...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896810/multiple-pathways-for-elevating-extracellular-adenosine-in-the-rat-hippocampal-ca1-region-characterized-by-adenosine-sensor-cells
#13
Kunihiko Yamashiro, Yuki Fujii, Shohei Maekawa, Mitsuhiro Morita
Extracellular adenosine in the brain, which modulates various physiological and pathological processes, fluctuates in a complicated manner that reflects the circadian cycle, neuronal activity, metabolism, and disease states. The dynamics of extracellular adenosine in the brain are not fully understood, largely because of the lack of simple and reliable methods of measuring time-dependent changes in tissue adenosine distribution. This study describes the development of a biosensor, designated an adenosine sensor cell, expressing adenosine A1 receptor, and a genetically modified G protein...
November 5, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896430/myosin-light-chain-phosphorylation-is-required-for-peak-power-output-of-mouse-fast-skeletal-muscle-in-vitro
#14
Joshua Bowslaugh, William Gittings, Rene Vandenboom
The skeletal myosin light chain kinase (skMLCK) catalyzed phosphorylation of the myosin regulatory light chain (RLC) is associated with potentiation of force, work, and power in rodent fast twitch muscle. The purpose of this study was to compare concentric responses of EDL from wild-type (WT) and skMLCK devoid (skMLCK(-/-)) muscles at a range of shortening speeds (0.05 to 0.70 V max) around that expected to produce maximal power (in vitro, 25 °C) both before (unpotentiated) and after (potentiated) a potentiating stimulus (PS)...
November 28, 2016: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895475/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-improves-the-qt-variability-index-and-autonomic-cardiac-control-in-healthy-subjects-older-than-60-years
#15
Gianfranco Piccirillo, Cristina Ottaviani, Claudia Fiorucci, Nicola Petrocchi, Federica Moscucci, Claudia Di Iorio, Fabiola Mastropietri, Ilaria Parrotta, Matteo Pascucci, Damiano Magrì
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive brain stimulation technique is an interesting tool to investigate the causal relation between cortical functioning and autonomic nervous system (ANS) responses. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this report is to evaluate whether anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the temporal cortex influences short-period temporal ventricular repolarization dispersion and cardiovascular ANS control in elderly subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In 50 healthy subjects (29 subjects younger than 60 years and 21 subjects older than 60 years) matched for gender, short-period RR and systolic blood pressure spectral variability, QT variability index (QTVI), and noninvasive hemodynamic data were obtained during anodal tDCS or sham stimulation...
2016: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894837/cd4-virtual-memory-antigen-inexperienced-t-cells-reside-in-the-na%C3%A3-ve-regulatory-and-memory-t-cell-compartments-at-similar-frequencies-implications-for-autoimmunity
#16
Alina I Marusina, Yoko Ono, Alexander A Merleev, Michiko Shimoda, Hiromi Ogawa, Elizabeth A Wang, Kayo Kondo, Laura Olney, Guillaume Luxardi, Yoshinori Miyamura, Tilahun D Yilma, Itzel Bustos Villalobos, Jennifer W Bergstrom, Daniel G Kronenberg, Athena M Soulika, Iannis E Adamopoulos, Emanual Maverakis
It is widely accepted that central and effector memory CD4(+) T cells originate from naïve T cells after they have encountered their cognate antigen in the setting of appropriate co-stimulation. However, if this were true the diversity of T cell receptor (TCR) sequences within the naïve T cell compartment should be far greater than that of the memory T cell compartment, which is not supported by TCR sequencing data. Here we demonstrate that aged mice with far fewer naïve T cells, respond to the model antigen, hen eggwhite lysozyme (HEL), by utilizing the same TCR sequence as their younger counterparts...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893766/the-effect-of-binaural-beats-on-visuospatial-working-memory-and-cortical-connectivity
#17
Christine Beauchene, Nicole Abaid, Rosalyn Moran, Rachel A Diana, Alexander Leonessa
Binaural beats utilize a phenomenon that occurs within the cortex when two different frequencies are presented separately to each ear. This procedure produces a third phantom binaural beat, whose frequency is equal to the difference of the two presented tones and which can be manipulated for non-invasive brain stimulation. The effects of binaural beats on working memory, the system in control of temporary retention and online organization of thoughts for successful goal directed behavior, have not been well studied...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891705/spinal-cord-stimulation-in-experimental-chronic-painful-diabetic-polyneuropathy-delayed-effect-of-high-frequency-stimulation
#18
M van Beek, M van Kleef, B Linderoth, S M J van Kuijk, W M Honig, E A Joosten
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) has been shown to provide pain relief in painful diabetic polyneuropathy (PDPN). As the vasculature system plays a great role in the pathophysiology of PDPN, a potential beneficial side-effect of SCS is peripheral vasodilation, with high frequency (HF) SCS in particular. We hypothesize that HF-SCS (500 Hz), compared with conventional (CON) or low frequency (LF)-SCS will result in increased alleviation of mechanical hypersensitivity in chronic experimental PDPN...
November 28, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891684/changes-in-visibility-as-a-function-of-spatial-frequency-and-microsaccade-occurrence
#19
Francisco M Costela, Michael B McCamy, Mary Coffelt, Jorge Otero-Millan, Stephen Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde
Fixational eye movements (FEM), including microsaccades, drift, and tremor, shift our eye position during ocular fixation, producing retinal motion that is thought to help visibility by counteracting neural adaptation to unchanging stimulation. Yet, how each FEM type influences this process is still debated. Recent studies found little to no relationship between microsaccades and visual perception of spatial frequencies (SF), and concluded that any effects microsaccades may have on vision do not extend to the SF domain...
November 27, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891079/contribution-of-tms-and-rtms-in-the-understanding-of-the-pathophysiology-and-in-the-treatment-of-dystonia
#20
REVIEW
Pierre Lozeron, Aurélia Poujois, Alexandra Richard, Sana Masmoudi, Elodie Meppiel, France Woimant, Nathalie Kubis
Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug's side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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